Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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Current List - November 2020

A life‐course theory exploration of opioid‐related maternal mortality in the United States

Previous traumatic experiences may play an important role in opioid use and overdose in US women.

Link to Abstract

A mixed‐methods analysis of patient safety incidents involving opioid substitution treatment with methadone or buprenorphine in community‐based care in England and Wales

Risks of harm in delivering OST in England and Wales seem to be linked to failures in prescribing, supervised dispensing, non‐supervised dispensing, and monitoring and communication.

Link to Abstract

Acute alcohol withdrawal and recovery in men lead to profound changes in DNA methylation profiles: a longitudinal clinical study

Acute alcohol withdrawal in severely dependent male patients appears to be associated with extensive changes in epigenome‐wide methylation patterns.

Link to Abstract

Associations between solitary drinking and increased alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and drinking to cope motives in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review and meta‐analysis

Solitary drinking among adolescents and young adults appears to be associated with psychosocial and alcohol problems and drinking-to-cope motives.

Link to Abstract

Behaviour change techniques associated with smoking cessation in intervention and comparator groups of randomized controlled trials: a systematic review and meta‐regression

Among person‐delivered behavioural smoking cessation interventions, specific behaviour change techniques and clusters of techniques are associated with higher success rates.

Link to Abstract

Cost‐effectiveness of a specialist smoking cessation package compared with standard smoking cessation services for people with severe mental illness in England: a trial‐based economic evaluation from the SCIMITAR+ study

A bespoke smoking cessation package for people with severe mental illness is likely to be cost‐effective over 12 months compared with usual care provided by the UK's NHS and personal social services.

Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of nicotine gum in preventing lapses in the face of temptation to smoke among non‐daily smokers: a secondary analysis

When used in response to temptation to smoke, 2 mg nicotine gum can help to prevent lapses among non‐daily smokers trying to stop.

Link to Abstract

Evaluating the causal impact of individual alcohol licensing decisions on local health and crime using natural experiments with synthetic controls

The impact of local alcohol policy, even at the level of individual premises, can be evaluated using a causal inference framework.

Link to Abstract

Factors associated with receipt of the 5As model of brief intervention for smoking cessation among hospitalized patients

In the Barcelona province of Spain, 2014–2015, it appears that fewer than half of hospitalized patients who smoke are advised to quit and few receive the full ‘five As’ brief intervention for smoking cessation.

Link to Abstract

Incidence of assault in Sydney, Australia, throughout 5 years of alcohol trading hour restrictions: controlled before‐and‐after study

The 2014 alcohol supply restrictions for pubs and bars in Kings Cross and the central business district of Sydney, Australia were followed by reduced incidence of assault in those areas.

Link to Abstract

Opioid use disorder incidence and treatment among incarcerated pregnant women in the United States: results from a national surveillance study

Pregnant incarcerated women with opioid use disorder in the United States frequently appear to be denied essential medications and receive substandard medical care.

Link to Abstract

Personality traits in substance use disorders and obesity when compared to healthy controls

Compared with healthy controls, people with substance use disorders appear to show higher negative emotionality. Similar findings were not found among people with obesity.

Link to Abstract

Predicting alcohol dependence treatment outcomes: a prospective comparative study of clinical psychologists versus ‘trained’ machine learning models

Machine learning models and logistic regression appear to be more accurate than psychologists at predicting treatment outcomes in an abstinence programme for alcohol dependence, but sensitivity is low.

Link to Abstract

The association between parental supply of alcohol and supply from other sources to young people: a prospective cohort

Parental supply of alcohol appears to increase the risk of subsequent supply of alcohol from other sources in certain contexts.

Link to Abstract

Trends in marijuana use in two Latin American countries: an age, period and cohort study

Cannabis use increased substantially in Chile and Uruguay between 2001 and 2018 across all age groups.

Link to Abstract