Key Findings

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. Each key finding is below the article title, with a link to the abstract. 


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Current List - February 2021

A randomized clinical trial of a group cognitive–behavioural therapy to reduce alcohol use among human immunodeficiency virus‐infected outpatients in western Kenya

A group cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention was more effective than providing education on healthy lifestyles in reducing alcohol use among HIV‐infected Kenyan outpatient drinkers.

Link to Abstract

Alcohol use and cognitive functioning in young adults: improving causal inference

Binge drinking in adolescence and early adulthood may not be causally related to deficiencies in working memory, response inhibition or emotion recognition.

Link to Abstract

Bidirectional effects between loneliness, smoking and alcohol use: evidence from a Mendelian randomization study

There appears to be tentative evidence for causal, bidirectional, positive influences between loneliness and cigarette smoking, especially for smoking initiation increasing loneliness.

Link to Abstract

Characteristics and circumstances of death related to the self‐administration of ketamine

The typical case of self‐administered ketamine‐related death in Australia from 2000–19 was a mid-30s male who had used multiple drugs, with the fatal incident most commonly occurring in a private setting. Accidental drug toxicity was most common but suicide was highly prevalent.

Link to Abstract

Comparison between success rates for smokers re‐treated by a smokers’ clinic and success rates for smokers treated for the first time

In Prague, Czech Republic, smokers re‐attending stop‐smoking treatment more than 2 years after their previous quit attempt appear to have similar success rates to those being treated for the first time.

Link to Abstract

Developmental patterns of tobacco product and cannabis use initiation in high school

Older age, peer cannabis use and delinquent behaviour appear to be risk factors for the initiation of tobacco/cannabis product use among high school students in the Los Angeles, California metropolitan region.

Link to Abstract

Estimated televised alcohol advertising exposure in the past year and associations with past 30‐day drinking behaviour among American adults: results from a secondary analysis of large‐scale advertising and survey data

There appears to be a small but consistent positive association between alcohol advertising exposure and drinking behaviour among American adults.

Link to Abstract

Fetal safety of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy: systematic review and meta‐analysis

Available evidence does not currently provide clear evidence as to whether maternal use of nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy is harmful to the fetus.

Link to Abstract

Methadone‐related deaths among youth and young adults in Sweden 2006–15

Prescription opioid‐ and methadone‐related deaths increased in the group aged 15–29 years in Sweden between 2006 and 2015. Exposure to non‐prescribed methadone and prescribed benzodiazepines, antidepressants and opioids for pain appears to be common.

Link to Abstract

Perceived safety of smoking a few cigarettes during pregnancy and provider advice in a sample of pregnant smokers from Romania

More than one‐third of pregnant Romanian women appear to believe that smoking ‘a few’ cigarettes during pregnancy is safe for them and their fetuses.

Link to Abstract

Prevalence and correlates of receipt by smokers of general practitioner advice on smoking cessation in England: a cross‐sectional survey of adults

In England, a minority of smokers receive support from their GP to stop smoking, and they are likely to be older, non‐white and more addicted to cigarettes. Offer of support is associated with increased odds of making a quit attempt.

Link to Abstract

Prevalence and correlates of receptive syringe‐sharing among people who inject drugs in rural Appalachia

Prevalence of re-use of syringes that have been used by others in rural US appears to be higher among injection drug users who are unemployed and who inject in public and lower in users who use a needle exchange programme.

Link to Abstract

The effectiveness of an indicated prevention programme for substance use in individuals with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning: results of a quasi‐experimental study

A prevention programme for substance users with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning helped participants decrease substance use frequency and binge drinking.

Link to Abstract