Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor's Notes

The EMCDDA (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction) are recruiting two Scientific Analysts and a Scientific Writer - the vacancies are open to citizens of the EU and Norway, working in English with a working knowledge of a second EU language. Full details can be found at https://e-recruitment.emcdda.europa.eu/e-recruitment/jobvacancies

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A message from Robert West, Editor-in-Chief

News & Meetings

We welcome suggestions and contributions from our readers. Send your material to John Witton, News and Notes Editor, Addiction, National Addiction Centre PO48, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8AF. Fax +44 (0)20 7848 5966;
e-mail john.witton@kcl.ac.uk

UN World Drug Report: Need for Better Treatment Access

Posted 02-Jul-15

The 2015 World Drug Report of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reports that drug use prevalence continues to be stable around the world. Opiate use has remained stable at the global level and cocaine use has declined while the use of cannabis and the non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids have continued to rise. UNODC Executive Director Yury Fedotov commented that only one out of six problem drug users has access to treatment.  “Women in particular appear to face barriers to treatment – while one out of three drug users globally is a woman, only one out of five drug users in treatment is a woman.” The report also notes the growing importance of Africa as a transit area for Afghan heroin being trafficked to Europe.

Sources:

http://www.unodc.org/wdr2015

http://www.unodc.org/documents/wdr2015/WDR15_Press_Release.pdf

Government Bans Anti-drug Prohibitionist Ads in Sao Paulo

Posted 02-Jul-15

Open Society Foundations reports that the Center for Studies on Public Security and Citizenship (CESeC) in Rio de Janeiro launched an anti-drug prohibition ad campaign, Da Proibição Nasce o Tráfico (“Trafficking Is Born of Prohibition”), in April. Five comic book-style public service announcements were placed on 40 city buses for 30 days. Two days after the campaign was also launched in São Paulo, the state government ordered the ads pulled from the city’s buses. “All we know is that the owner of the marketing company that sold us the ad space on the buses received a phone call ordering him to remove the cartoons on the grounds that they constitute ‘an apologia for drugs,’” said Julita Lemgruber, CESeC’s director. “Apparently, not just drugs, but even talking about drugs is illegal in São Paulo.” Pedro Abramovay, regional director for Latin America and the Caribbean for the Open Society Foundations, based in Brazil, said “The campaign got attention in Rio, but nothing compared to what we’re seeing now in São Paulo in terms of media coverage and public debate. Everyone in the city is talking about these cartoons.” The government ban coincided with the launch of the Brazilian Platform for Drug Policy in São Paulo, which has the aim of raising public awareness of the harmful impacts of current drug policies and proposing alternate approaches.

Source:

http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/voices/anti-drug-war-ad-campaign-mysteriously-vanishes-brazil

The Salis Collection: A Digital ATOD Archive

Posted 02-Jul-15

Andrea Mitchell writes: The Substance Abuse Librarians and Information Specialists, known as SALIS, has announced a digital archive of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs (ATOD) books and documents which they are building in partnership with the Internet Archive.  Books are donated by SALIS members, and most recently by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  The SALIS Collection: Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs was recently unveiled at the SALIS 37th Annual conference in San Diego.  Materials from the collection are available for borrowing or viewing by anyone with an Internet connection.  Seed money for this project was provided by the Joel and Maria Fort Foundation and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. An editorial entitled "Collective amnesia: Reversing the global epidemic of addiction library closures," published in this journal in 2012, described the loss of ATOD libraries and information centres and made recommendations for digital repositories.  Since then the SALIS Advocacy committee has been working to develop this digital archive and is calling for more book donations and funding.  Contact the SALIS Home office, salis@salis.org, if you have funds, books or documents you wish to donate.     

Third Party Academic Publishing Services

Posted 02-Jul-15

Marcus Munafo writes: Third-party services are proliferating in the academic publishing arena, and these go well beyond the raft of new Open Access journals that now exist. They include services to support networking and manuscript sharing (e.g., ResearchGate), data sharing (e.g., figshare), unique author identifiers (e.g., ORCID), recognition of peer review (e.g., Publons), and post-publication peer review (e.g., PubPeer, PubMed Commons). These are a mix of for-profit (e.g., ReseachGate) and non-profit (e.g., ORCID) services, and which one is which may not always be clear. What is clear is that the academic publishing ecosystem is evolving rapidly, and these services are part of that evolution. Some will be useful and survive, others will not. For example, some grant-awarding bodies now require applicants to have an ORCID identifier. For now: caveat emptor – some of these services.

European Drug Report 2015: Heroin Use in Decline but NPS Growing Problem

Posted 02-Jul-15

Problems relating to heroin still account for a large share of the drug-related health and social costs in Europe according to the latest European Drug Report, but the report notes an ‘overall stagnation in demand for this drug.’  23,000 people entered specialist drug treatment for the first time for heroin problems in 2013 compared to 59,000 in 2007. The report also says that technical innovation and market competition have led to an increase in the potency of cannabis, the purity of cocaine and the MDMA-content in ecstasy tablets. Speaking at a launch of the report EMCDDA head Wolfgang Gotz said: "In Europe I do not know any government, or parliamentary majority backing a government, that is currently seriously discussing cannabis legalization or regulation in a different way. I don't see a discussion coming up of the level as it is in the Americas." The report also observes that online “grey marketplaces” selling new psychoactive substances (NPS) and greater use of social media are emerging as alternativesto the high street “head shops” and public websites likely to be shut down by laws enforcing a blanket ban on the trade. The NPS market in Europe is growing rapidly, with two new substances being identified every week, but is also becoming increasingly difficult to control, with different parts of the trade based in different countries beyond the reach of any one state.

Sources:

http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/edr2015

http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2015/4/new-dynamics-of-europes-drugs-problem

http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/04/us-drugs-europe-idUSKBN0OK1U220150604

Global E-cigarette Market Grows

Posted 02-Jul-15

The Telegraph reports Euromonitor data showing that global sales of vapour devices grew by 59% from £2.28bn  to £3.9bn in 2014, with sales in the largest market, the USA, more than doubling to £1.7bn. In the UK, sales increased by 75% to £459m, making the UK the second largest market for vapour devices in the world.  Spending on nicotine replacement therapies fell by 3% to £137m in the UK, its first decline since 2008. Shane MacGuill, senior tobacco analyst at Euromonitor, said “The days of the traditional cigarette are numbered – the only question is how long that process will take – and e-cigarettes have the potential to drastically shorten the shelf life of traditional tobacco products.”

Sources:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/11692435/Vaping-takes-off-as-e-cigarette-sales-break-through-6bn.html

http://blog.euromonitor.com/2015/06/vapor-devices-and-e-cigarettes-in-the-global-tobacco-market.html

Medical Patients in Canada Can Legally Use All Forms of Cannabis

Posted 02-Jul-15

BBC News reports that medical cannabis users can legally use all forms of cannabis after a Canadian Supreme Court decision. Cannabis oil is now permitted instead of only "dried" cannabis so that people can bake it into food products. The court ruled that prohibiting possession of non-dried forms of cannabis is "contrary to the principles of fundamental justice because they are arbitrary; the effects of the prohibition contradict the objective of protecting health and safety."

Sources:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-33098923

http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=cbcafe2f-9ca7-43b0-8a8d-5ce22ec5d5be

Jellinek Award 2015

Posted 02-Jul-15

The Jellinek Memorial Award for 2015 has been awarded to Dr Guilherme L. G. Borges of the Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico City. Dr Borges received the award for his major contribution to epidemiological research on alcohol and related conditions, especially in relation to immigrant, cross-cultural and international issues. Dr Borges received $5000 (Canadian) and a bust of E.M. Jellinek.

Smoking Age Raised to 21 in California

Posted 02-Jul-15

The Los Angeles Times reports that the California Senate voted to raise the legal smoking age to 21 from 18. The California Senate voted 26-8 in favour of the measure, the office of bill author Senator Ed Hernandez, a Democrat, said in a statement. If the bill is approved by the state assembly then California will become one of the first states to approve a higher smoking age. Hawaii approved a measure in April to raise the smoking age to 21, and that is awaiting the state governor's signature.

Source:

http://www.latimes.com/local/political/la-me-pc-california-senate-smoking-age-to-21-20150601-story.html

Support for Medical Use of Cannabis for Pain in Germany

Posted 02-Jun-15

In May the Bundesrat, a legislative body that represents the sixteen federal states of Germany at the national level, approved a measure in which “[t]he Bundesrat asks the Federal Government to initiate a legislative procedure to change the narcotics law and the regulations on the prescription of narcotics with the aim to make cannabis extract and cannabis flowers available for standard medical care of pain and palliative patients.”

Source:

http://www.bundesrat.de/SharedDocs/drucksachen/2015/0101-0200/135-15(B).pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=1

NPS to Be Banned in the UK

Posted 02-Jun-15

The UK government plans to introduce legislation to ban novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The government plans to “create a blanket ban which would prohibit and disrupt the production, distribution, sale and supply of new psychoactive substances in the UK.”  The proposed legislation would cover “any substance intended for human consumption that is capable of producing a psychoactive effect.” The maximum sentence for offences would be seven years’ imprisonment. Substances such as alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, food and medical products would be excluded from the scope of the offence, as would controlled drugs, which would continue to be regulated by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. The Bill will have provision to extend the list of exemptions further. Following the recommendations of an NPS Expert Panel that reported in 2014, the government’s Psychoactive Substances Bill would focus on the supply of NPS and would not include a personal possession offence. Sales of nitrous oxide are also included in the ban.

Sources:

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/430149/QS_lobby_pack_FINAL_NEW_2.pdf

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/368583/NPSexpertReviewPanelReport.pdf

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/may/29/laughing-gas-government-legal-highs-nitrous-oxide

Synthetic Cannabis-related Hospitalizations Alert in USA

Posted 02-Jun-15

The New York Times reports that poison control centres around the US reported 359 cases in January of illnesses from synthetic cannabinoids, a figure that rose to just over 1,500 in April, according to the American Association of Poison Control Centers.  Mark Ryan, the director of the Louisiana Poison Center, said, “There’s a large amount of use going on. When one of these new ingredients — something that’s more potent and gives a bigger high — is released and gets into distribution, it can cause these more extreme effects.”

Sources:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/25/health/surge-in-hospital-visits-linked-to-a-drug-called-spice-alarms-health-officials.html?_r=1

http://www.aapcc.org/alerts/synthetic-marijuana/

Genetically Modified Yeast for Opiate Production

Posted 02-Jun-15

The New Scientist reports that recent research suggests that genetically engineered yeasts could make it possible to produce more innovative forms of opiates than those derived from opium poppies. The article envisages a possibility of home brewing of opiates if biosynthetic yeasts became widely available. Although these yeasts are not available yet, John Dueber, whose research team has created a yeast that makes a main precursor chemical needed to produce opiates, said, “The field is moving much faster than we had previously realised.”  Dueber added that he thought a yeast strain capable of producing a low yield of opiates could be made in two to three years. It might take many more years to produce a high-yielding strain. In the New York Times   Kenneth A. Oye, a professor of engineering and political science at MIT, said, “All the elements are in place, but the whole pathway needs to be integrated before a one-pot glucose-to-morphine stream is ready to roll.”

Sources:

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22630224.400-homebrew-heroin-soon-anyone-will-be-able-to-make-illegal-drugs.html?full=true#.VWhoOU2D45s

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/19/health/a-way-to-brew-morphine-raises-concerns-over-regulation.html?_r=0

EU Alcohol Strategy Dropped

Posted 02-Jun-15

Vytenis Andriukaitis, the European Union's Health and Food Safety Commissioner, has said that the European Commission  will not be submitting a new strategy to reduce alcohol-related harm in Europe. The previous strategy expired in 2013. Mr Andriukaitis suggested that alcohol-related harm will be one of the risk factors in a wider strategy to tackle chronic diseases. "I would like to place action on the main causes of chronic diseases, including alcohol but also tobacco, nutrition and physical inactivity. It is less important for me what word we are using to define the paper setting out such a joint commitment. What matters is the results," Andriukaitis said in a speech to the European Alcohol and Health Forum (EAHF).  Mariann Skar, Secretary General of Eurocare, a network of non-governmental organisations that works on the prevention and reduction of alcohol abuse across Europe, said "we have now been waiting since 2012 to see any development on policies to tackle alcohol related harm in Europe. It has continuously been postponed, and now was the time to present new actions. However, it is a great disappointment that the Commissioner is not able to address the calls from the Parliament and the member states for a strengthened policy framework to tackle alcohol related harm."

Source:

http://www.euractiv.com/sections/health-consumers/commission-set-dump-eu-alcohol-strategy-314782

European Project Links Recovery with Arts

Posted 02-Jun-15

Typecast-Manchester is a project that brings together people in the early stages of substance misuse recovery with artists to explore how ceramic materials, methods and processes can be a catalyst for positive change. Initiated by PORe (Portraits of Recovery) and developed in partnership with the Manchester School of Art, Typecast-Manchester is part of a wider two year European project exploring new approaches to substance misuse recovery through artistic involvement and aims to draw “upon individual recovery narratives and identities, by exploring how material and object making can be used to articulate complex emotions and life events.”

Sources:

http://www.type-cast.org/global/

http://www.portraitsofrecovery.org.uk/projects.html

New French Guidelines on Alcohol Misuse

Posted 02-Jun-15

The Société Française d’Alcoologie has issued its new guidelines on alcohol misuse. Development of the guidelines was supported by the European Federation of Addiction Societies. There was a two-stage validation process for the guidelines with a French review process followed by an ultimate European review process on behalf of the European Federation of Addiction Societies. Professor Henri-Jean Aubin said, "The quality of the guidelines was enhanced by the involvement of the European Federation of Addiction Societies in the review process which represented a milestone in the cross-European clinical practice collaboration."

Sources:

http://www.sfalcoologie.asso.fr/download/RBP2014-SFA-Mesusage-AA.pdf

http://www.sfalcoologie.asso.fr/download/SFA-GPR-AlcoholMisuse.pdf?PHPSESSID=2077188362a85f1dda8390b6da31cdfa

US Report on Quitting Aids

Posted 02-Jun-15

The British Medical Journal reports that The US Preventive Services Task Force has concluded that there are not enough data on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes to determine whether the devices can help smokers quit. The Task Force makes recommendations on the effectiveness of preventive healthcare.  In its Draft Recommendation Statement: Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults and Pregnant Women: Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Interventions, The Task Force said that there is a large evidence base for smoking cessation interventions and that “the overall benefit of pharmacotherapy and behavioral counseling to promote smoking cessation is well established.”  The effective features of complex behavioural counselling interventions, the benefits of pharmacotherapy in specific subpopulations, and the efficacy of newer technology-based interventions such as text messaging need further research. The Task Force said that it had not been able to determine the balance of benefits and harms of using e-cigarettes.  The statement says there is “a critical gap in the evidence” — a lack of well designed, randomized controlled trials reporting rates of smoking abstinence or adverse events. Task Force member Francisco Garcia said, “Clinicians should ask all patients whether they smoke and provide appropriate interventions to help smokers quit. We’re fortunate that doctors and patients have a choice of many interventions that have been proven to be effective.”

Sources:

http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h2488

http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/draft-recommendation-statement147/tobacco-use-in-adults-and-pregnant-women-counseling-and-interventions1

Italian Army Grows Cannabis for Medical Use

Posted 02-Jun-15

BBC News reports that cannabis plants are being grown in a secure room at a military-run pharmaceutical plant in Florence. The plant also has drying and packing facilities. The army expects to produce 100kg (220lb) of the drug annually. "The aim of this operation is to make available to a growing number of patients a medical product which isn't always readily available on the market, at a much better price for the user," Col Antonio Medica told the Corriere della Sera.  Italian doctors can legally prescribe cannabis but the cost is not covered by the state and it is often very expensive to buy at pharmacies. At the moment medical cannabis is imported, mainly from the Netherlands, and costs up to 35 euros per gram. "We're aiming to lower the price to under 15 euros, maybe even around 5 euros per gram," says Col Medica. The army laboratory was chosen for the project because it already had the necessary facilities and could guarantee security thanks to its surveillance system, Italian Defence Minister Roberta Pinotti said.

Source:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-32531376

E-cigarette Sales for Under-18s to Be Banned in Scotland

Posted 02-Jun-15

Scottish Public Health Minister Maureen Watt announced proposals in May that would ban sales of electronic cigarettes to under-18s, according to the Scotsman. The measure will be included in the health bill which is due to be introduced later in 2015. The Minister said, “E-cigarettes might have a place when it comes to helping current smokers to quit their habit. This government is not opposed to e-cigarettes, but we think it is right to protect children from nicotine addiction, and to limit the prevalence of smoking behaviours. Through this bill we will seek to strike that balance.”

Source:

http://www.scotsman.com/news/health/new-bill-to-ban-e-cigarettes-for-under-18s-1-3763278

ASH Briefing on Illicit Tobacco Trade

Posted 02-Jun-15

For World No Tobacco Day 2015 on 31 May, the WHO and the UN system as a whole urged Member States to sign the Protocol to Eliminate the Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. “The Protocol offers the world a unique legal instrument to counter and eventually eliminate a sophisticated criminal activity,” said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “Fully implemented, it will replenish government revenues and allow more spending on health.” The Protocol needs ratification by 40 countries before it can become international law and has been signed by just 8 countries so far. In a briefing published to coincide with World No Tobacco Day, the UK’s Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) said that some tobacco companies are sending more of their products to foreign markets than there is demand. The report went on to say that  when some of this tobacco is subsequently smuggled back to the UK, it enables the tobacco companies to point to the dangers of an increasing contraband trade and to say that measures such as increasing tax would only serve to make legitimate cigarettes more expensive.

Sources:

http://www.who.int/campaigns/no-tobacco-day/2015/en/

http://www.ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_961.pdf

Subject to editorial review, we will be glad to include brief details of your conference or event. Please send your notification to Jean O’Reilly, Addiction, National Addiction Centre PO48, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8AF. Fax +44 (0)20 7848 5966;
e-mail jean@addictionjournal.org

American Psychological Association (APA) Annual Convention

6 - 9 August 2015, Toronto, Canada.

website: http://www.apa.org/convention/index.aspx

5th International Drug Abuse Research Society (IDARS) Conference

18 - 21 August 2015, Sydney, Australia.

website: http://www.idars.org/meeting%20information.html

110th American Sociological Association (ASA) Annual Meeting

22 - 25 August 2015, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

website: http://www.asanet.org/am2015/am2015.cfm

28th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) Conference

29 August - 1 September 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

website: http://www.ecnp-congress.eu/

International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE) Annual Meeting

1 - 2 September 2015, Budapest, Hungary.

website:  http://www.parint.org/isajewebsite/meetings2015.htm

KBS Thematic Meeting: Alcohol Harm to Others: Perceptions, Policies and Approaches

14 - 17 September 2015, Helsinki, Finland.

website: http://www.nordicwelfare.org/kbsthematic2015

Contemporary Drug Problems: Encountering Alcohol and Other Drugs

16 - 18 September 2015, Lisbon, Portugal.

website: http://ndri.curtin.edu.au/local/docs/pdf/cdp_lisbon_2015.pdf

Alcohol Concern Cymru 2015 Conference: Drinking for Two? Alcohol and Pregnancy

21 September 2015, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

website: http://www.alcoholconcern.org.uk/what-we-do/our-work-in-wales/cardiff2015/

Lisbon Addictions 2015: First European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies

23 - 25 September 2015, Lisbon, Portugal.

website: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/events/2015/addiction-conference

American College of Clinical Pharmacology (ACCP) 2015 Annual Meeting

27 September - 29 May 2015, San Francisco, California, USA.

website: http://www.accp1.org/2015_meetings_welcome.shtml

Canadian Psychiatric Association Annual Conference

1 - 3 October 2015, Vancouver, Canada.

website: http://www.cpa-apc.org/browse/documents/92

International Society of Addiction Medicine (ISAM) Congress 2015

5 - 8 October 2015, Dundee, Scotland, UK.

website: http://isamdundee2015.com/

NCPIC (National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre) 3rd National Cannabis Conference

7 - 9 October 2015, Melbourne, Australia.

website: http://mers.vpweb.com.au/3rd-NCPIC-Conf.html

Global Alcohol Policy Conference

7 - 9 October 2015, Edinburgh, Scotland.

website: http://www.gapc2015.com/

The Association for Addiction Professionals (NAADAC) 2015 Annual Conference

9 - 13 October 2015, Washington, DC, USA.

website: http://www.naadac.org/annualconference

New York Association of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Providers (ASAP) 16th Annual Conference

11 - 14 October 2015, Sarasota Springs, New York, USA.

website: http://tinyurl.com/p4c7wbr

Addiction Health Services Research (AHSR) Conference 2015

14 - 16 October 2015, Marina del Rey, California, USA.

website: http://www.uclaisap.org/ahsr/

National Drug Trends Conference and Drug Policy Modelling Program (DPMP) Symposium

14 - 15 October 2015, Sydney, Australia.

website: https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/event/2015-drug-policy-modelling-program-symposium

American Public Health Association (APHA) 2015 Annual Meeting and Exposition

31 October - 4 November 2015, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

website: https://www.apha.org/events-and-meetings/annual

Society for the Study of Addiction (SSA) Annual Symposium

5 - 6 November 2015, York, UK.

website: http://www.addiction-ssa.org/symposium

AMERSA 39th Annual National Conference

5 - 7 November 2015, Washington, D.C., USA.

website: http://www.amersa.org/Conference_at_a_Glance_2015.pdf

Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs (APSAD) Annual Conference

8 - 11 November 2015, Perth, Australia.

website: http://www.apsadconference.com.au/ehome/index.php?eventid=114007&

MCA Annual Symposium

11 November 2015, London, UK.

website: http://info145072.wix.com/mca-2015-symposium

Canadian Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) 25th Annual Meeting & Scientific Conference

12 - 14 November 2015, Alberta, Canada.

website: http://www.csam-smca.org/events/xxv-annual-meeting-scientific-conference-2015/

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Liver Meeting 2015

13 - 17 November 2015, San Francisco, California, USA.

website: http://www.aasld.org/events-professional-development/liver-meeting

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse Issues of Substance 2015 Conference

16 - 18 November 2015, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

website: http://www.ccsa.ca/Eng/newsevents/Issues-of-Substance-Conference/Pages/default.aspx

American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry (AAAP) Annual Meeting

3 - 6 December 2015, Huntington Beach, California, USA.

website: http://www.aaap.org/annual-meeting/

American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM) 32nd Annual Meeting

18 - 21 February 2016, Palm Springs, California, USA.

website: http://www.painmed.org/annualmeeting/main.aspx

American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) Annual Meeting

8 - 12 March 2016, San Diego, California, USA.

website: http://www.ascpt.org/Meetings

12th European Opiate Addiction Treatment Association Conference (EUROPAD)

27 - 29 May 2016, Leiden, The Netherlands.

website: http://www.europad.org/europad16.php