Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor's Notes

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News & Meetings

We welcome suggestions and contributions from our readers. Send your material to John Witton, News and Notes Editor, Addiction, National Addiction Centre PO48, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8AF. Fax +44 (0)20 7848 5966;
e-mail john.witton@kcl.ac.uk

Indonesia Executes Eight People for Drug Trafficking

Posted 12-May-15

BBC News reports that an Indonesian firing squad executed eight convicted drug traffickers from several countries in April. The execution of a Philippine woman, Mary Jane Fiesta Veloso, was called off at the last minute after her government appealed to Indonesia, saying a woman she had accused of planting drugs on her had surrendered herself to the police. Indonesian Attorney General Muhammad Prasetyo defended the executions, saying his country was fighting a "war" on drugs and Joko Widodo, Indonesia's president, has said he will refuse all clemency applications from convicted drug traffickers.  Among the executed were two Australians and Australia recalled its ambassador. Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott said that the executions were "both cruel and unnecessary," saying the two Australians, Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran, had been "fully rehabilitated" while in prison.  "We respect Indonesia's sovereignty but we do deplore what's been done and this cannot be simply business as usual," Abbot said. Brazil's government also expressed its "deep dismay" at the execution of one of its citizens, Rodrigo Gularte. The others executed were Raheem Agbaje Salami, Sylvester Obiekwe Nwolise  and Okwudili Oyatanze  from Nigeria,  Zainal Abidin from Indonesia and  Martin Anderson from Ghana.  Amnesty International said "The execution of eight people in Indonesia today shows complete disregard for due process and human rights safeguards." In March the annual report of the International Narcotics Control Board called upon states that "continue to impose the death penalty for drug-related offences to consider abolishing the death penalty for such offences."

Sources:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-32508722

https://www.amnesty.org/press-releases/2015/04/indonesia-reprehensible-executions-show-complete-disregard-for-human-rights-safeguards

http://www.incb.org/documents/Publications/AnnualReports/AR2014/English/AR_2014.pdf

China Restricts Tobacco Ads

Posted 12-May-15

A revised Advertisement Law approved  by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, China's national legislative body, bans tobacco advertisements in the mass media, in public places, on public vehicles and outdoors, the official Xinhua news agency reported. The amended law also outlaws tobacco products, their packaging and trademarks in advertisements for other products or services. The World Health Organisation, while welcoming the wider ban of tobacco advertisments, had criticized the proposed revision for exempting advertising at points of sale. "All forms of tobacco advertising, in all settings, including at retail points of sale, should be banned," said Angela Pratt, head of the Tobacco Free Initiative at WHO's China office. She said that China has a legal obligation to implement policies contained within the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which the country ratified in 2005.

Sources:

http://uk.reuters.com/article/2015/04/25/us-china-tobacco-idUKKBN0NG04H20150425

http://china.org.cn/china/2015-04/16/content_35347224.htm

Hawaii Proposes Raising Smoking Age to 21

Posted 12-May-15

The Independent reports that Hawaii’s Senate passed a bill that raises the legal smoking age to 21 by 19 votes to four but it will not become law until it is approved by Governor David Ige. Hawaii would be the first state to set this age bar, although that age is already enforced in Hawaii County and in other towns and districts across the US including New York.  According to CNN News Matthew L. Myers, president of the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, said "Increasing the sale age to 21 will reduce tobacco use among youth and young adults, age groups when nearly all smoking begins and that are heavily targeted by the tobacco industry."

Sources:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/hawaii-could-become-the-first-us-state-to-raise-smoking-age-to-21-for-tobacco-and-ecigarettes-10203502.html

http://edition.cnn.com/2015/04/27/us/hawaii-smoking-age-21-feat/index.html

Cannabis Treatment in Europe

Posted 12-May-15

A report from the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Abuse reviews the research evidence for the interventions used in the treatment of cannabis disorders. It also uses information gathered by the EMCDDA to describe the availability of cannabis treatment in Europe.

Source:

http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_237537_EN_TDXD14017ENN.pdf

New Medical Cannabis Law in Washington, USA

Posted 12-May-15

The New York Times reports that the Governor of Washington, Jay Inslee, signed into law a bill that attempts to bring the state’s largely unregulated medical cannabis system into line with Washington’s new recreational cannabis market. In 1998 Washington became one of the first US states to approve the use of cannabis for medical purposes, but the initiative passed by voters did not allow commercial sales. The new law sets up a voluntary registry of patients who will be able to buy medical-grade products at legal recreational cannabis stores that obtain an endorsement to sell cannabis, or they will be able to participate in co-operatives of up to four patients. The co-operatives would be limited to a maximum of 60 plants, and the location of the collective would have to be registered with the state, and cannot be within 15 miles of a licensed cannabis retailer. Patients on the register will be allowed to possess three ounces dry, 48 ounces of cannabis-infused solids, 216 ounces liquid and 21 grams of concentrates.

Source:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/26/us/washington-state-tightens-its-law-on-medical-marijuana.html?_r=0

Obama Support for Medical Cannabis Bill

Posted 12-May-15

In a CNN interview broadcast in April President Obama signalled his approval of a Senate bill that seeks to reduce federal constraints around the use of medical cannabis.  The Senate bill, known as the Carers Act, was introduced in March by the Democrats Cory Booker and Kirsten Gillibrand and the Republican Rand Paul. The bill seeks to allow patients to use medical cannabis without being prosecuted under federal law and to open the banking system to cannabis dispensaries. When asked about the bill the president said “I’m on record as saying that not only do I think carefully prescribed medical use of marijuana may in fact be appropriate and we should follow the science as opposed to ideology on this issue, but I’m also on record as saying that the more we treat some of these issues related to drug abuse from a public health model and not just from an incarceration model, the better off we’re going to be.”

Source:

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/apr/19/obamamedical-marijuana-senate-bill-rand-paul

Trans Pacific Partnership Threat to Public Health

Posted 12-May-15

Eight health and community organisations in Australia have written to the Minister for Trade and Investment, Andrew Robb, expressing “grave concerns” about a late-stage draft of the investment chapter of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP). The chapter, which had been leaked by Wikileaks, includes the investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism which allows foreign corporations to sue governments in offshore tribunals over their health and environmental policies. The draft contains a footnote proposing to exempt Australia from ISDS, but includes a note indicating that deletion of the footnote “is subject to certain conditions” which are not specified.  In February the eight organisations published a health impact study  which found that ISDS was a threat to public health policies, and strongly recommended that ISDS be excluded from the TPP altogether. “We have serious concerns about the purported safeguards to protect public health in this draft chapter,” said Michael Moore, CEO of the Public Health Association of Australia. “If ISDS is to be included in the TPP, what we want to see is safeguards that prevent corporations from making claims against governments over policies like tobacco plain packaging, limits on alcohol advertising and food labelling requirements. But as it stands, the chapter appears to allow these sorts of policies to be challenged.”

Sources:

http://phaa.net.au/documents/150401%20Letter%20to%20Minister%20Robb%20re%20proposed%20investment%20chapter%20of%20the%20TPP.pdf

http://hiaconnect.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/TPP_HIA.pdf

Small Retailers in England Make Little Profit from Cigarette Sales

Posted 12-May-15

Tobacco Point of Sale displays were removed in large shops in England in 2012 and removed in small shops in April 2015. A study published by Cancer Research UK assessed retailer preparations for the removal. Sixty-two small retailers were interviewed and most reported that they felt that tobacco was an important part of their business but  almost all said they made little profit from it.  Over two thirds of shop keepers were not against removing tobacco from sight and 40 per cent of the retailers said they wanted to reduce their reliance on selling tobacco. The Trading Standards Institute will be responsible for inspecting small shops and enforcing the law.

Sources:

http://www.healthcanal.com/public-health-safety/60988-tobacco-goes-out-of-sight-as-shop-keepers-admit-to-little-profit-from-cigs.html

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/policy_march2015_pos_report.pdf

New Hurdles for Supervised Injecting Sites in Canada

Posted 12-May-15

Health Canada has granted Vancouver’s Insite supervised drug injection site an exemption to operate for another year. However, the Vancouver Courier reports concern that new legislation, the Respect for Communities Act, will make it difficult, if not impossible, to open another injection site in Canada. Under  the bill, to get an exemption the applicant must provide information outlining the views of police, municipal leaders, public health officials and provincial health ministers. The applicant is also required to provide documentation that shows the site’s expected impact on crime rates, treatment options for drug users, the public health reasons for needing such a site and evidence there are resources to sustain the site's operations. Dr. Patricia Daly, the chief medical health officer for Vancouver Coastal Health, said in a statement that the health authority was “troubled by the numerous conditions set out in the new legislation, which will make it much more difficult for Insite to apply for an exemption in the future, and near impossible for a new supervised injection site to receive exemption under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.”

Source:

http://www.vancourier.com/news/updated-health-canada-grants-exemption-to-insite-drug-injection-centre-1.1803957

Plain Packaging for England

Posted 16-Apr-15

The Guardian reports that MPs have voted in favour of introducing plain packaging for cigarettes in England. Three hundred sixty-seven MPs voted in favour of plain packaging with 113 against it in a free vote. There was no debate before the vote because it is not primary legislation. Powers to introduce plain packaging were included in the Children and Families Act 2014 and only needed approval from parliament before being introduced. The plain packets will be introduced in 2016. Deborah Arnott, the chief executive of ASG, said "The government, and MPs from all parties, are to be congratulated for resisting the bully-boy tactics and misinformation of the tobacco industry and for implementing the most important public health reform of this parliament."

Source:

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/mar/11/mps-pass-legislation-introduce-standardised-cigarette-packaging

Chewable Tobacco Banned in Delhi

Posted 16-Apr-15

The Indian Express reports that the Delhi government has banned all products containing chewable tobacco, such as gutka, pan masala and flavoured/scented tobacco. Gutka is a preparation containing crushed betel nut, tobacco, catechu, paraffin, slaked lime and sweet or savoury flavourings. Gutka had been banned in Delhi and other Indian states in 2012 under the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act 2003, with penalties ranging from a fine of 1,000 rupees to three months imprisonment.  Retailers had circumvented the ban by selling the betel and tobacco separately. The existing ban on gutka was enforced by the Delhi Food Department but the latest ban will be driven by the Health Department. The Health Department plans to form citizens’ monitoring committees in each constituency in Delhi to help educate about the ban and harms of chewable tobacco and also inform the Health Department of any violations of the ban.

Source:

http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/delhi-govt-to-ban-sale-purchase-of-chewable-tobacco-from-monday/

National US Anti-smoking Campaign Features E-cigarettes

Posted 16-Apr-15

Bloomberg Business reports that the latest Centers for Disease Control (CDC) media campaign designed to help smokers quit will continue to use the “Tips From Former Smokers” series. This series features real people who have been damaged by smoking and will feature former e-cigarette users for the first time. One radio and print ad features a 35-year-old named Kristy, "who tried using e-cigarettes to quit smoking cigarettes but ended up using both products instead," according to the CDC. Kristy’s lung collapsed, and she was diagnosed with pulmonary disease before she quit. There is concern that e-cigarette marketing reaches adolescents and could reverse public health efforts to portray smoking as unsophisticated. Matthew Myers, president of the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, said television ads for e-cigarettes are "introducing the glamor and sex appeal to adolescents today that have never been exposed to cigarette advertising on TV."

Source:

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-03-26/the-cdc-s-anti-smoking-ads-now-include-e-cigarettes

Alcohol Industry Retreats from Anti-drink Campaign Involvement

Posted 16-Apr-15

The Irish Times reports that the Stop Out-of-Control Drinking campaign, established to develop a strategy to reduce alcohol abuse in Ireland, has been criticised for alcohol industry involvement and receiving its funding from Diageo. Fergus Finlay, chair of the campaign and chief executive of Barnado’s, said Diageo’s funding of about €1 million had allowed the campaign to be started. The campaign is inviting submissions from the public and holding workshops to develop ideas, and is expected to report early in the summer. St Patrick’s Mental Health Services GP and health commentator Dr Ciara Kelly and psychologist Krystian Fikert of the MyMind mental health centre resigned from the board in light of Diageo’s involvement. Diageo Ireland country director David Smith stepped down from the board after the controversy about the campaign’s independence if he remained on it. Minister for Health Leo Varadkar said he welcomed Smith’s decision to leave the board: "I don’t think it’s appropriate that the drinks industry should be actively involved in campaigns around public health for the obvious reason."  A statement from the campaign said it welcomed Diageo’s decision to continue to fund the campaign.

Source:

http://www.irishtimes.com/news/health/diageo-steps-down-from-stop-out-of-control-drinking-board-1.2152674

DrugScope Closes

Posted 16-Apr-15

DrugScope, the UK's leading independent centre of expertise on drugs and drug use, closed on 31 March because of its ‘worsening financial situation’. DrugScope was founded in 2000 as a merger between two longstanding organisations, the Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence (ISDD) and the Standing Conference on Drug Abuse (SCODA). ISDD housed the world’s largest library on the non-medical use of drugs, had a wide publications programme providing non-judgmental information based on available evidence, conducted innovative research and published Druglink, a magazine that was essential reading for the UK drug field. SCODA represented drug and alcohol services and provided an important voice to policy development in the UK. DrugScope combined ISDD and SCODA’s work and also campaigned for evidence-based treatment, promoted good practice and challenged discrimination and stigma in the field. Edwin Richards, chair of DrugScope’s board of trustees, said “The focus going forward is on ensuring that the mission is carried on by other means.”

Sources:

http://www.drugscope.org.uk/Media/Press+office/pressreleases/DrugScope+to+close.htm

http://www.theguardian.com/voluntary-sector-network/2015/apr/02/drugscope-closure-blow-civil-society-not-just-social-care

Cannabis Arrests Report from Colorado

Posted 16-Apr-15

A report from the Drug Policy Alliance shows that cannabis-related arrests have almost stopped following legalization in Colorado. The total number of charges for cannabis possession, distribution and cultivation fell from about 39,000 in 2010 to just over 2,000 in 2014. However after legalization, blacks were more than twice as likely as whites to be charged with public use of cannabis as well as more likely to be charged with illegal cultivation or possession of more than an ounce. "Despite the unsurprising racial disparities, these massive drops in arrests have been enormously beneficial to people of color," said Tony Newman of the Drug Policy Alliance.

Sources:

http://www.drugpolicy.org/sites/default/files/Marijuana_Arrests_After_the_Passage_of_Amendment_64.pdf

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/mar/25/colorado-marijuana-legalization-racial-disparity-drug-arrests

Moves to Ban Powdered Alcohol in Some US States

Posted 16-Apr-15

The News Tribune reports that a bill passing through its legislature would mean the state of Washington would join a growing number of US states prohibiting powdered alcohol. The company Lipsmark LLC won approval from the US Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau to market powdered alcohol. The company plans to make its product, called Palcohol, available in several different flavours during the summer of 2015. Each 29-gram packet of Palcohol will contain up to 16 grams of alcohol.  The company’s website says that powdered alcohol would meet the needs of those such as hikers and airlines who can find the bulk and weight of alcoholic drinks a problem. The website also claims that Palcohol could also be used as a nutrient source for livestock, and as an energy source or antiseptic.  "This is not a crafted bourbon, or a scotch, or a tequila or something that's special," said Washington legislator Jeff Holy. "Powdered alcohol is simply for the purpose of intoxication, period. You're not crafting the finer liquors." The Victorian government in Australia is also calling on other state governments to join it in banning powdered alcohol.

Sources:

http://www.thenewstribune.com/2015/03/29/3714851/washington-lawmakers-consider.html

http://theconversation.com/victoria-needs-other-states-help-for-powdered-alcohol-ban-to-work-38850

Possession of Ecstasy and Other Drugs Legal for a Day in Ireland

Posted 16-Apr-15

The possession of ecstasy, magic mushrooms and around 100 other drugs was legal in Ireland for one day in March. The Republic’s court of appeal said part of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1977, which allows certain substances to be controlled, was unconstitutional. The Guardian reports that the court found that the act was being added to via ministerial order and without consulting the Oireachtas (both houses of the Irish parliament) and deemed this unconstitutional. Nevertheless, the Irish police said that those in possession of drugs would still be arrested. Ireland’s Minister for Health Leo Varadkar introduced new legislation. "We had no way of knowing what the Court would decide," he said. "But we prepared for this possibility. Legislation was prepared and approved in advance by Cabinet. The emergency legislation I am introducing will re-instate the status quo ante and re-control all drugs that were controlled prior to this judgment."

Sources:

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/10/irish-es-are-smiling-ecstasy-drugs-temporarily-legal-in-ireland

http://www.irishpost.co.uk/news/ireland-accidentally-legalises-drugs-thursday-night

France to Introduce Plain Packaging on Cigarettes

Posted 16-Apr-15

French MPs have made amendments to health-reflecting measures proposed by Health Minister Marisol Touraine in September 2014 and, as of 20 May 2016, all tobacco packaging will be standardised in France. The Riviera Times also reports that there will be action taken against smoking in cars with children, ‘vaping’ bans in some public places and prohibition of the flavouring of electronic cigarettes.

Source:

http://www.rivieratimes.com/index.php/provence-cote-dazur-article/items/france-to-introduce-plain-packaging-on-cigarettes.html

Ketamine Scheduling Decision Postponed

Posted 16-Apr-15

China withdrew its proposal to add ketamine to Schedule I of the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances at the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) meeting in March. Substances in Schedule I can be used for medical purposes only under direct governmental supervision, and in very limited situations. Critics of the Chinese proposal said such control was very inappropriate for an essential medicine and lobbied their governments. The CND decided to postpone its decision on scheduling ketamine to a future date to allow more information to be gathered.

Sources:

http://www.cndblog.org/2015/03/agenda-item-6b-change-in-scope-of.html#more

http://idpc.net/blog/2015/03/ketamine-secured-for-medical-and-veterinary-use#.VQq3Lm_qd7M.facebook

New Legal Fund to Help Countries Fight Big Tobacco

Posted 16-Apr-15

Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have set up a $US4 million anti-tobacco trade litigation fund. Michael Bloomberg said, "This new fund is going to help countries who are sued by the tobacco industry fight back in court and win." "This is not about trade," Bloomberg added, ‘No one is a stronger supporter of capitalism and trade than I am. This is about sovereignty and whether a country has the right to set its own public health policies." The fund will be administered by the US-based Campaign for Tobacco-free Kids and the initial investment is expected to attract more donors.

Source:

http://www.businessinsider.com.au/r-gates-and-bloomberg-create-fourth-quarter-million-fund-to-fight-big-tobacco-2015-3

Subject to editorial review, we will be glad to include brief details of your conference or event. Please send your notification to Jean O’Reilly, Addiction, National Addiction Centre PO48, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8AF. Fax +44 (0)20 7848 5966;
e-mail jean@addictionjournal.org

Addictions in 2015

29 - 30 May 2015, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

website: http://www.mcleanhospital.org/education-training/continuing-education?key=4

41st Annual Alcohol Epidemiology Symposium of the Kettil Bruun Society

1 - 5 June 2015, Munich, Germany.

website: http://kbs2015munich.de/

Global Addiction 2015

1 - 3 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia.

website: http://www.globaladdiction.org/

2015 International Conference on Opioids

7 - 9 June 2015, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

website: http://www.opioidconference.org/

2015 UK National Smoking Cessation Conference (UKNSCC)

11 - 12 June 2015, Manchester, UK.

website: http://www.uknscc.org/

College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) Annual Meeting

13 - 18 June 2015, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

website: http://www.cpdd.vcu.edu/index.html

The International Narcotics Research Conference 2015

15 - 19 June 2015, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

website: http://www.inrcworld.org/2015/2015mtg.htm

9th International Conference on Nightlife, Substance Use, and Related Health Issues

17 - 19 June 2015, Lisbon, Portugal.

website: http://www.clubhealthlisbon2015.org/

Alcohol and Drugs History Society (ADHS) 2015 Conference

18 - 21 June 2015, Bowling Green, Ohio, USA

website: http://tinyurl.com/pj6m6kc

ASH Scotland Conference 2015

18 - 19 June 2015, Scotland, UK.

website: http://www.ashscotland.org.uk/about-us/conference-2015-towards-a-generation-free-from-tobacco.aspx

38th Annual Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Scientific Meeting

20 - 24 June 2015, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

website: http://www.rsoa.org/2015meet-indexAbs.htm

University of Amsterdam 9th Summer Institute on Alcohol, Drugs, and Addiction

5 - 17 July 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

website: http://www.uva.nl/summer-addiction

American Psychological Association (APA) Annual Convention

6 - 9 August 2015, Toronto, Canada.

website: http://www.apa.org/convention/index.aspx

National Conference on Addictive Disorders and Behavioral Healthcare Leadership Summit

8 - 11 August 2015, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

website: http://www.addictionpro.com/ncad-conference/2015-call-presentations

5th International Drug Abuse Research Society (IDARS) Conference

18 - 21 August 2015, Sydney, Australia.

website: http://www.idars.org/meeting%20information.html

110th American Sociological Association (ASA) Annual Meeting

22 - 25 August 2015, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

website: http://www.asanet.org/am2015/am2015.cfm

28th European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) Conference

29 August - 1 September 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

website: http://www.ecnp-congress.eu/

International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE) Annual Meeting

1 - 2 September 2015, Budapest, Hungary.

website:  http://www.parint.org/isajewebsite/meetings2015.htm

KBS Thematic Meeting: Alcohol Harm to Others: Perceptions, Policies and Approaches

14 - 17 September 2015, Helsinki, Finland.

website: http://www.nordicwelfare.org/kbsthematic2015

Contemporary Drug Problems: Encountering Alcohol and Other Drugs

16 - 18 September 2015, Lisbon, Portugal.

website: http://ndri.curtin.edu.au/local/docs/pdf/cdp_lisbon_2015.pdf

Alcohol Concern Cymru 2015 Conference: Drinking for Two? Alcohol and Pregnancy

21 September 2015, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

website: http://www.alcoholconcern.org.uk/what-we-do/our-work-in-wales/cardiff2015/

Lisbon Addictions 2015: First European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies

23 - 25 September 2015, Lisbon, Portugal.

website: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/events/2015/addiction-conference

American College of Clinical Pharmacology (ACCP) 2015 Annual Meeting

27 September - 29 May 2015, San Francisco, California, USA.

website: http://www.accp1.org/2015_meetings_welcome.shtml

Canadian Psychiatric Association Annual Conference

1 - 3 October 2015, Vancouver, Canada.

website: http://www.cpa-apc.org/browse/documents/92

International Society of Addiction Medicine (ISAM) Congress 2015

5 - 8 October 2015, Dundee, Scotland, UK.

website: http://isamdundee2015.com/

NCPIC (National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre) 3rd National Cannabis Conference

7 - 9 October 2015, Melbourne, Australia.

website: http://mers.vpweb.com.au/3rd-NCPIC-Conf.html

Global Alcohol Policy Conference

7 - 9 October 2015, Edinburgh, Scotland.

website: http://www.gapc2015.com/

The Association for Addiction Professionals (NAADAC) 2015 Annual Conference

9 - 13 October 2015, Washington, DC, USA.

website: http://www.naadac.org/annualconference

New York Association of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Providers (ASAP) 16th Annual Conference

11 - 14 October 2015, Sarasota Springs, New York, USA.

website: http://tinyurl.com/p4c7wbr

American Public Health Association (APHA) 2015 Annual Meeting and Exposition

31 October - 4 November 2015, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

website: https://www.apha.org/events-and-meetings/annual

AMERSA 39th Annual National Conference

5 - 7 November 2015, Washington, D.C., USA.

website: http://www.amersa.org/Conference_at_a_Glance_2015.pdf

Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs (APSAD) Annual Conference

8 - 11 November 2015, Perth, Australia.

website: http://www.apsadconference.com.au/ehome/index.php?eventid=114007&

Canadian Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) 25th Annual Meeting & Scientific Conference

12 - 14 November 2015, Alberta, Canada.

website: http://www.csam-smca.org/events/xxv-annual-meeting-scientific-conference-2015/

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Liver Meeting 2015

13 - 17 November 2015, San Francisco, California, USA.

website: http://www.aasld.org/events-professional-development/liver-meeting

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse Issues of Substance 2015 Conference

16 - 18 November 2015, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

website: http://www.ccsa.ca/Eng/newsevents/Issues-of-Substance-Conference/Pages/default.aspx

American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry (AAAP) Annual Meeting

3 - 6 December 2015, Huntington Beach, California, USA.

website: http://www.aaap.org/annual-meeting/