Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor-in-Chief, Robert West

We welcome suggestions and contributions from our readers. Send your material to John Witton, News and Notes Editor, Addiction, National Addiction Centre PO48, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8AF. Fax +44 (0)20 7848 5966;
e-mail john.witton@kcl.ac.uk

France Plans Cannabis Decriminalization

Posted 17-July-17

French Interior Minister Gerard Collomb announced in May that the French government plans to issue new regulations under which people caught with small amounts of cannabis would be punished by a fine of about €100 Euros and not arrested. Currently offenders can face one year in prison and a fine of up to €3,750 (US $4,200) for cannabis possession offences. The new regulations were expected to be in place by September.  Justifying the proposal, a government spokesperson said that drug offence cases use an average of six hours of police time to process and another six hours of judicial resources. While police unions welcomed the plans, a representative of the French magistrates union said: "[the law] won't change much and it's not going to unclog the courts."

Source:

http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2017/05/france-ends-prison-terms-for-marijuana-usage.php

Alcohol Tax Rises in Canada

Posted 17-July-17

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation News reports that the Canadian Parliament agreed to pass the federal budget bill in June, a bill which included a measure to raise alcohol excise tax rates by 2%.  The bill also established regular indexation so that annual increases in alcohol excise duty will be linked to the rate of inflation. The passage of the bill followed the release of a report from the Canadian Institute of Health Information on alcohol sales and consumption, alcohol attributable morbidity and policy making across Canada’s provinces and territories.

Sources:

http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/senate-backs-down-budget-bill-1.4173090

https://www.cihi.ca/sites/default/files/document/report-alcohol-hospitalizations-en-web.pdf

Medicinal Cannabis Legalized in Mexico

Posted 17-July-17

The Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto signed a decree in June that gave the Ministry of Health the task of drafting and implementing “public policies regulating the medicinal use of pharmacological derivatives of cannabis sativa, indica and Americana or marijuana, including tetrahydrocannabinol, its isomers and stereochemical variants, as well as how to regulate the research and national production of them.”  Only medical products containing one percent of tetrahydrocannabinol or less will be allowed. The decree called on the Ministry to study the therapeutic effects of cannabis before creating the framework for a medical cannabis programme infrastructure. The decree was the result of a medical cannabis bill that had been passed overwhelmingly by Mexico’s senate and lower house.

Sources:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/06/21/mexico-just-legalized-medical-marijuana/?utm_term=.dac36ef34ac6

http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5487335&fecha=19/06/2017

Record Reductions in UK and US Smoking Rates

Posted 17-July-17

Figures from the Office of National Statistics (ONS) in the UK showed a record annual fall of smoking rates between 2015 and 2016 of 1.5 percentage points. The prevalence of smoking among people aged 18 and above in 2016 was 15.8%, the lowest on record. Commenting on these figures the directors of the United Kingdom Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies said: “the most likely explanation for the recent rapid decline is the increasing use by smokers of electronic cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco.” In the US the number of middle and high school students who used any tobacco product fell to 3.9 million in 2016 from 4.7 million in 2015, according to figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This is the first such decline since the CDC began reporting the measure in 2011. In Reuters Michael Siegel said: “These numbers are astounding," adding, "it really means that we may be within reach of a smoke-free generation." Current use of e-cigarettes showed a 0.6% increase among the students between 2011 and 2016.

Sources:

https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/healthandlifeexpectancies/bulletins/adultsmokinghabitsingreatbritain/2016

https://ukctas.wordpress.com/2017/06/15/vaping-may-help-explain-the-record-fall-in-uk-smoking-rates-press-release-with-comments-from-ukctas-directors/

https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/index.htm

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-usa-tobacco-youth-idUKKBN1962EE

Global Heroin and Cocaine Production Increasing

Posted 17-July-17

The latest United Nations Office of Drug Control (UNODC) World Drug Report finds that the world’s illicit drug economy is “thriving.”  Coca bush cultivation increased by 30% between 2013-15, as demand for cocaine increased in Europe and North America. Opium production rose by a third. A wider range of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) became available on the market. In 2015, the quantity of methamphetamine intercepted in East and South-East Asia surpassed the quantity intercepted in North America for the first time. The report also notes that around 29.5 million drug users, or 0.6 per cent of the global adult population, suffer from drug use disorders. The report also looks at the evidence for the links between drug markets and organized crime, illicit financial flows, corruption and terrorism. Writing in the foreword of the report, UNODC Executive Director Yury Fedetov said that while “areas such as the links between drugs, terrorism and insurgency clearly touch upon sensitive intelligence,” there is “a need to strengthen international cooperation and information-sharing” to ensure effective joint action.

Source:

https://www.unodc.org/wdr2017/

US Insurance Figures Show Extent of US Opioid Epidemic

Posted 17-July-17

A report prepared by the major US health insurer Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS), "America's Opioid Epidemic and its Effect on the Nation's Commercially-insured Population," used the medical and pharmacy records of 30 million of its members to identify trends in the US opiate addiction epidemic. By 2016, BCBS reported, nearly 1% of its members had been diagnosed with opioid use disorder, increasing by 493% since 2010. Around one in five privately insured adults in the United States filled at least one prescription for a prescription narcotic painkiller in 2015.  45% of those prescribed prescription opioids received high doses of narcotic painkillers, which were most likely to result in a later diagnosis of opioid use disorder. The highest rate of opioid use disorders was seen in patients who had been prescribed high doses of prescription pain relief medicine for short periods of less than 90 days. While the use of medication-assisted treatments by BCBS clients increased 65 percent overall between 2010 and 2016, the rate of increase in the use of these treatments did not match the rate of increase in opioid use disorder diagnoses.

Source:

https://www.bcbs.com/the-health-of-america/reports/americas-opioid-epidemic-and-its-effect-on-the-nations-commercially-insured

Supervised Injecting Facilities Approved in Ireland

Posted 17-July-17

The journal.ie reports that the Irish Senate approved a bill in May to set up supervised injecting facilities. The bill permits the preparation or possession of controlled substances in supervised premises and exempts certain users from the possession of controlled drugs under certain conditions. The facilities will provide access to clean, sterile injecting equipment and have trained staff on hand to provide emergency care in the event of an overdose, as well as advice on treatment and rehabilitation. The bill must be signed by the Irish president before becoming law.

Sources:

http://www.thejournal.ie/supervised-injection-centres-2-3382276-May2017/

http://health.gov.ie/blog/press-release/irelands-first-supervised-injecting-facility-a-step-closer-as-legislation-passes-all-stages-in-the-oireachtas/

Jellinek Award 2017

Posted 17-July-17

Nick Heather, Emeritus Professor of Alcohol and Other Drug Studies at Northumbria University, has won the 2017 Jellinek Award, established in memory of Dr. E. M. Jellinek's contribution to the field of alcohol studies. Harold Kalant, Jellinek Memorial Fund President, said: “The Jellinek Fund Board of Directors is delighted to offer its congratulations to Professor Heather for this richly deserved honour.  He has made many outstanding contributions to the field of alcohol studies, including the use of brief interventions in the treatment of alcohol problems. This year’s Jellinek Award, however, specifically recognises the great importance of his research and conceptual contributions to the understanding of the interaction of individual and socio-cultural factors in the origin, management and prevention of alcoholism.  Altogether a remarkable career.”

Source:

https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/about-us/news-events/news/2017/05/nick-heather-award/

New Oral Form of Buprenorphine Approved in Scotland

Posted 17-July-17

The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has advised that buprenorphine oral lyophilisate (Espranor) is accepted for restricted use within NHS Scotland. The SMC said that buprenorphine oral lyophilisate provides an alternative to buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablets at reduced cost.  The oral lyophilisate formulation has the advantage of a faster dissolution time. The SMC restricts the use of the medication to patients in whom methadone is not suitable. 

Source:

https://www.scottishmedicines.org.uk/SMC_Advice/Advice/1245_17_buprenorphine_oral_lyophilisate_Espranor_Abbreviated/buprenorphine_oral_lyophilisate_Espranor_Abbreviated

Supervised Consumption Rooms in Canada

Posted 08-June-17

New legislation was passed in the Canadian parliament in May to simplify the process of setting up supervised consumption rooms for injecting drug users. Speaking in parliament in support of the bill, government health minister Jane Philpot said: “We need to create an environment that encourages communities that want and need these sites to apply for them. I can assure the House that Bill C-37 and the revised amendments our government is proposing will ensure that communities that want and need these sites do not experience unreasonable delays in their efforts to save lives.” The preceding Conservative government had introduced 26 criteria under The Respect for Communities Act 2015 for setting up safe consumption sites which, according to The Guardian, had prevented communities from following the example of Insite in Vancouver, British Columbia, the first supervised consumption room in North America. The new legislation replaces these requirements with five criteria set out by the Canadian Supreme Court when it rejected the Conservative government’s case for closing Insite. The factors are impact on crime rates, local conditions indicating need, regulatory structure in place to support the facility, resources available to support its maintenance, and expressions of community support or opposition. Two new safe consumption sites are set to open in Montreal and the government said it would also expedite another 18 applications from 10 cities.

Sources:

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/may/21/canada-opioid-crisis-supervised-drug-injection-sites

https://openparliament.ca/bills/42-1/C-37/   

https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/montreal-gets-federal-approval-for-two-supervised-injection-sites/article34978907/?ref=http://www.theglobeandmail.com&service=mobile

National Smoking Ban in the Philippines

Posted 08-June-17

An executive order signed by the president Rodrigo Duterte bans smoking in public places across the Philippines.  Offenders face a maximum penalty of four months in jail and a fine of 5,000 pesos (US$100).  The order also covers existing bans on tobacco advertisements, promotions or sponsorship. These are subject to fines of up to 400,000 pesos (US$8000) and a maximum jail sentence of three years.  Designated smoking areas not larger than 10 square metres will be set up for adults only and must be at least 10 metres from building entrances and exits. Members of the public are invited to join a Smoke Free Task Force to help carry out the provisions of the order and apprehend and charge offenders in their areas. The ban replicates an ordinance Duterte created in 2012 when he was mayor of Davao City.  The executive order does not cover non-tobacco products, but the Department of Health is considering regulating the use of e-cigarettes, according to The Philippine Star.

Sources:

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/may/19/philippines-president-bans-smoking-in-public-with-offenders-facing-jail

http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2017/05/23/1702634/doh-seeks-regulation-e-cigarettes-vapes

WHO Report on Smoking in China

Posted 08-June-17

A new report by the World Health Organization (WHO) on smoking in China, The Bill China Cannot Afford, says that “China is the epicentre” of the global epidemic of tobacco-related harms and “thus lies at the heart of global efforts to stop it.” According to the report, China is the world's largest producer and consumer of tobacco, with an estimated 315 million smokers. In 2014, 44% of the world's cigarettes were smoked in China. The report also estimates that the economic cost of tobacco use in China was 350 billion yuan ($57 billion) in 2014, more than 0.5% of GDP, and that one million people die of tobacco-related diseases in China every year.  With most of the health and economic costs being borne by poor and vulnerable people in China, the report suggests that this will threaten Chinese President Xi’s goal of eradicating poverty in China by 2020 unless immediate action is taken.

Sources:

http://www.wpro.who.int/china/publications/2017_china_tobacco_control_report_en.pdf?ua=1

http://shanghaiist.com/2017/04/18/smoking_kill_200_million.php

Standardised Packaging Begins in the UK

Posted 08-June-17

Regulations requiring tobacco packaging to be uniformly green and carry images of the harmful effects of smoking came into effect in the UK in May. All packs of cigarettes must contain at least 20 cigarettes so the packs are large enough for the health warnings that cover 65% of the front and back of the package. Brand names are restricted to a standard size, font and colour. Packaging of hand-rolled tobacco must also be in the same colour and pouches must contain a minimum of 30g of tobacco. E-cigarettes are also subject to the regulations, with tank sizes restricted to no more than 2ml and the nicotine strength of liquids to no more than 20mg/ml. The tanks must have a health warning on the front and back reading: “This product contains nicotine which is a highly addictive substance.” The new rules also include a ban on menthol cigarettes from 2020 as well as promotional statements such as “this product is free of additives” or “is less harmful than other brands.”

Sources:

https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/may/19/stricter-cigarette-packaging-rules-come-into-force-in-uk

http://ash.org.uk/media-and-news/press-releases-media-and-news/all-tobacco-packs-on-sale-will-be-in-standardised-plain-packs-from-20th-may-2017/

Medical Cannabis Available in Pharmacies in Chile

Posted 08-June-17

Pharmacies in Chile's capital, Santiago, began selling cannabis-based medicines to patients with their doctor’s authorization in May.  Chile legalized the use of medical cannabis in 2015 but patients had only been able to obtain it by importing it or from a limited number of dedicated farms set up by a charity in the country.  Reuters reports that the Canadian cannabis producer and distributor Tilray will be supplying the medical cannabis products in partnership with a local company, Alef Biotechnology, which is licensed by the Chilean government.

Source:

http://www.reuters.com/article/chile-marijuana-idUSL1N1IC22S

US Government Reverses Its Plan to Cut Office of National Drug Contol Policy Budget

Posted 08-June-17

The US government has backed down from its plans to cut back drastically its funding for the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) after pressure from Republican and Democrat legislators. In response to initial plans to cut the ONDCP budget by 95%, Republican Senator Chuck Grassley and Democrat Senator Dianne Feinstein led a bipartisan letter which urged the administration "to protect ONDCP and maintain the long-standing and effective programs that prevent and fight against the scourge of drug abuse.”  The government now proposes a $369 million budget for the ONDCP in 2018, amounting to a 5% cut.

Source:

http://www.politico.com/story/2017/05/23/trump-budget-drug-control-office-cuts-238720

Recreational Cannabis Use Approved by Vermont, USA Legislature

Posted 08-June-17

Both Vermont’s House of Representatives and its Senate have approved a bill that would allow adults aged 21 and over to buy and use cannabis. The measure would mark the first time cannabis has been legalized by legislation in the US rather than through a state ballot initiative. Governor Phil Scott vetoed the bill, citing concerns about public safety and health. But Scott said he was "offering a path forward" and wants the bill to have increased penalties for driving under the influence of cannabis and for providing cannabis. Scott also wants the bill to include money for regulation, enforcement and education.

Sources:

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-vermont-marijuana-idUKKBN1862RQ

http://money.cnn.com/2017/05/24/news/vermont-marijuana-legalization/

Drug Tests Trial for Welfare Recipients in Australia

Posted 08-June-17

Announcing Australia’s 2017-18 budget in May, Federal Treasurer Scott Morrison said that a drug test trial will be conducted on 5,000 current welfare recipients. Beginning in 2018, the trial will take place at three sites and will last for two years. Any welfare recipients that test positive for drugs, including ecstasy, methamphetamine and cannabis, will have their regular payments locked onto a cashless card that can only be used for "essential living expenses." Those who fail the tests more than once will be referred to medical professionals for assessment and treatment.  The Guardian reports that the Australian Council of Social Service chief executive, Cassandra Goldie, said: “This is further demonising of people on social security, people on the lowest incomes in the country.”

Sources:

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/may/10/budget-2017-drug-testing-will-demonise-australians-on-welfare-experts-say

https://theconversation.com/helping-drug-users-get-back-to-work-not-random-drug-testing-should-be-our-priority-77468?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=twitterbutton

Australia Plain Packaging Laws Upheld at WTO

Posted 22-May-17

Bloomberg News reported in May that Australia’s laws on plain packaging of cigarettes and other tobacco products have been upheld by a dispute resolution panel at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) following challenges from a number of countries including several major tobacco exporters. A confidential draft of the WTO ruling accepted Australia’s argument that its Tobacco Plain Packaging Act 2011 did not violate trade law because it qualifies as a legitimate public health measure, according to Bloomberg News. The WTO's final ruling is not expected until July and the parties to the ruling, which include Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras and Indonesia, will then be permitted to appeal the decision, according to WTO rules.

Sources:

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-05-04/wto-said-to-uphold-australia-s-ban-on-cigarette-logos  

http://www.worldtrademarkreview.com/Blog/detail.aspx?g=8ac77409-af50-4b21-bca1-30f70d250e9c

FDA's Standards for E-cigarette and Cigar Industries Delayed

Posted 22-May-17

In May 2016 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a rule that extended its authority under the Tobacco Control Act to enable it to regulate all tobacco products including e-cigarettes and cigars for the first time. The Washington Post reports that the US government has now delayed enforcement of the rule. Any deadlines established under the rule have been postponed as a result of this move, according to FDA officials.  Cigar manufacturers will not have to submit their plans for putting dependence risk warnings on their products, as originally planned by the FDA under the rule. Information on what ingredients are contained in e-cigarettes and cigars will not have to be submitted in August. Interstate commerce of Modified Risk Tobacco Products, including those with the label of “light,” “low” or “mild”, will not be banned as of that date. According to The Washington Post, court filings show that the rule has been challenged by Department of Justice legal representatives, together with the e-cigarette and tobacco industry, to give “new leadership personnel” at the Health and Human Services “additional time to more fully consider the Rule and issues raised in this case.”

Sources:

https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm499234.htm

https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/fda-suspends-enforcement-of-stricter-standards-for-e-cigarette-cigar-industry/2017/05/02/be7e557a-2ed6-11e7-9534-00e4656c22aa_story.html?utm_term=.837e3a73884a

Bill to Legalize Medical Cannabis Use Passed in Mexican Congress

Posted 22-May-17

Reuters reports that a bill to allow the use of cannabis for medical purposes was passed in Mexico’s lower House of Congress on 28 April 28, with 371 votes in favour and seven against. The bill had already passed in the Mexican senate in the previous December with a similarly overwhelming majority.  A statement on the House’s website said: "The ruling eliminates the prohibition and criminalization of acts related to the medicinal use of marijuana and its scientific research, and those relating to the production and distribution of the plant for these purposes."

Sources:

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mexico-marijuana-idUSKBN17U2ZJ

http://www5.diputados.gob.mx/index.php/esl/Comunicacion/Boletines/2017/Abril/28/3577-Diputados-aprueban-uso-medicinal-de-la-cannabis-sativa-indica-y-americana-o-mariguana

Good Samaritan Drug Overdose Act Passed in Canada

Posted 22-May-17

The Good Samaritan Drug Overdose Act received Royal Assent and became law in Canada in May. The Act is intended to counter the fear among overdose witnesses that a call to emergency services may bring police involvement. Under the Act, people who call emergency services for themselves or another person suffering an overdose, as well as anyone who is at the scene when emergency help arrives, will be exempt from charges of simple possession of a controlled substance. The Act also exempts from charges those people who are on a probation order, serving a conditional sentence or who are on parole.

Source:

http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/good-samaritan-drug-overdose-act-becomes-law-in-canada-621367873.html

US Office of National Drug Control Policy Budget Under Threat

Posted 22-May-17

According to the New York Times the US government proposes to cut the budget of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) by about 95 percent, from US$388 million to US$24 million. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has proposed budget cuts for fiscal year 2018 that would cut 33 employees, half of the ONDCP’s staff. The OMB also propose to eliminate grant programmes administered by the ONDCP. These programmes include the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program and the Drug-free Communities Support Program, with the OMB stating that these grants are "duplicative of other efforts across the Federal government and supplant State and local responsibilities."

Source:

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/05/us/politics/white-house-proposes-cutting-drug-control-office-funding-by-95.html?_r=0

Opposition to Smoking Ban in Japan

Posted 22-May-17

In 2010, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) agreed with the World Health Organization to promote a smokeless Olympics. But according to Reuters a bill to ban smoking indoors across Japan for the 2020 summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo has been opposed by politicians, the restaurant industry and Japan Tobacco. A bill from Japan’s Health, Welfare and Labor ministry, which aims to restrict smoking in public places, is opposed by about 90 per cent of the members of Japan’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) who argue it would put bars and restaurants out of business. The ministry revised its initial plan after opposition to allow smoking indoors in spaces around 30 square metres, as long as adequate ventilation is installed. Nevertheless the Liberal Democratic Party's (LDP) health committee, whose support is essential to introducing the bill in parliament, refuse to meet ministry officials to discuss the bill, saying the revised bill is too strict. The committee chair, Naomi Tokashiki, acknowledged there should be protection against second-hand smoke, but that Japan's cultural emphasis on good manners and sensitivity to others would be enough. "I believe Japanese people really are considerate of others," she said. "It's more important for us to trust people than enact a really repressive law." The Mainichi reports that the new national stadium being planned for Tokyo is to be completely smoke-free, although the Japan Sport Council (JSC) said dignitaries might be allowed to smoke in VIP rooms.

Sources:

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-japan-smokingban-idUKKBN17X2J8

https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20170331/p2a/00m/0na/003000c

Report on the Global Drug Market

Posted 22-May-17

A report from Global Financial Integrity (GFI) estimates that the illicit drug market has an annual global value of between US$426 billion and US$652 billion. GFI, a US-based non-profit research organization, produces value estimates of major illegal markets and advises governments on policy responses. The report, Transnational Crime and the Developing World, estimates the overall size of criminal markets in 11 categories: the trafficking of drugs, arms, humans, human organs, and cultural property; counterfeiting, illegal wildlife crime, illegal fishing, illegal logging, illegal mining, and crude oil theft. Mainly using data from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime World Drug Reports, GFI estimates that drug trafficking is the second most valuable transnational crime after counterfeiting.  

Source:

http://www.gfintegrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Transnational_Crime-final.pdf

Report on Smoking in China

Posted 22-May-17

The Bill China Cannot Afford: Health Economic and Social Costs of China’s Tobacco Epidemic is a new report co-authored by the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The report says that China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of tobacco, estimating that 44% of the world’s cigarettes are smoked in China. Dr Bernhard Schwartländer, WHO Representative in China, said: “If nothing is done to reduce these numbers and introduce more progressive policies, the consequences could be devastating not just for the health of people across the country, but also for China’s economy as a whole. The rapid increase in costs associated with tobacco use in China is unsustainable, the report reveals, estimating the total annual economic cost in 2014 at RMB 350 billion (USD 57 billion), an increase of 1000% since 2000.”

Source:

http://www.wpro.who.int/china/mediacentre/releases/2017/20170414-tobacco-report/en/

Legislation to Legalize Cannabis Introduced in Canada

Posted 22-May-17

The Canadian government introduced legislation in April to establish a “strict legal framework” for the production, sale, distribution and possession of cannabis for recreational use. Under the proposed Cannabis Act adults would be allowed to possess up to 30 grams of dried cannabis or its equivalent in public, share up to 30 grams of dried cannabis with other adults and buy cannabis or cannabis oil from a provincially regulated retailer. Adults would also be permitted to grow up to four plants per residence for personal use, as well as make legal cannabis-containing products at home. The Toronto Sun reports that MP Bill Blair, who is leading on the legislation for the government, expects the legalized cannabis system to be in place by June 2018. Under the new Act it would remain illegal to import cannabis and cannabis products, and to export them without a valid permit. Permits may be issued for certain purposes, such as medical cannabis and industrial hemp. Provinces, territories and municipalities in Canada will be allowed to tailor the new rules for their own jurisdictions and permitted to set their own licensing, distribution and retail sales rules.

Sources:

http://www.torontosun.com/2017/04/13/what-to-expect-from-the-liberals-marijuana-bill

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/04/13/canada-introduces-legislation-allow-recreational-use-marijuana/