Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor-in-Chief, Robert West

January 2018

Mecamylamine treatment for alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled trial

Mecamylamine did not reduce alcohol consumption significantly in either treatment-seeking smokers or non-smokers with alcohol use disorder.

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Prediction of alcohol use disorder using personality disorder traits: a twin study

Conduct disorder and self-harming impulsivity are the foremost risk traits for alcohol use disorder among the 80 personality disorder criteria of DSM-IV.

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Major life events and risk of alcohol use disorders: a prospective cohort study

There is a strong association between serious economic problems in adult life and risk of alcohol use disorders.

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The stability of baseline-defined categories of alcohol consumption during the adult life-course: a 28-year prospective cohort study

Among UK civil servants, alcohol consumption within baseline drinking categories is generally stable during the life-course, except among heavier baseline drinkers, for whom intakes decline with increasing age.

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Childhood traumatic experiences and the association with marijuana and cocaine use in adolescence through adulthood

In the US, childhood trauma (individual types and total number experienced) is significantly associated with marijuana and cocaine use throughout life.

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Risk factors for severe respiratory depression from prescription opioid overdose

The severity of symptoms in people attending US emergency departments because of prescription opioid overdose varied widely with the type of opioid and was worse in substance misusers and older patients.

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To take or not to take: the association between perceived addiction risk, expected analgesic response and likelihood of trying novel pain relievers in self-identified chronic pain patients

In the US, self-identified chronic pain patients (CPP) at higher risk for opioid misuse are more likely to report willingness to try a novel analgesic despite increasing addiction risk than CPP with low risk of opioid misuse.

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Association between universal hepatitis B prison vaccination, vaccine uptake and hepatitis B infection among people who inject drugs

In Scotland, uptake of hepatitis B virus vaccination among people in the community who inject drugs has increased since the 1999 introduction of universal prison vaccination.

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The relationship between gambling expenditure, socio-demographics, health-related correlates and gambling behaviour--a cross-sectional population-based survey in Finland

In Finland, men spend more than women on gambling relative to net income. Those on lower incomes spend proportionately more of their income on gambling than those on higher incomes.

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Self-changing behaviour in smoking cessation linked to trait and cognitive impulsivity

Among smokers who do not seek treatment to help them stop, those who succeed in stopping appear to have a lower tendency to act on impulse and inhibit thoughts than those who continue to smoke.

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Adult interest in using a hypothetical modified risk tobacco product: findings from wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2013-14)

Among US adults, interest in using a hypothetical modified risk tobacco product is low overall, and highest among current experimental and established smokers.

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German EstSmoke: Estimating adult smoking-related costs and consequences of smoking cessation for Germany

Life-time healthcare costs of German smokers appear to be substantially greater than those of German nonsmokers.

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Effects of comorbid substance use disorders on outcomes in a Housing First intervention for homeless people with mental illness

Housing First programmes in Canada for people who are experiencing homelessness and mental illness are equally effective in people with and without comorbid substance use disorder (SUD).

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Associations of coffee genetic risk scores with consumption of coffee, tea and other beverages in the UK Biobank

Coffee-related genetic risk scores could be used as instrumental variables indexing combined coffee and tea consumption in Mendelian randomization studies.

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Effects of high alcohol intake, alcohol-related symptoms and smoking on mortality

The number of symptoms related to high alcohol intake and smoking appears to account for the positive association between alcohol consumption and early death.

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Scaling-up HCV prevention and treatment interventions in rural United States-- model projections for tackling an increasing epidemic

To decrease hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and prevalence in rural Indiana, USA, by 90% by 2025/30, both HCV treatment and prevention interventions must be increased.

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February 2018

Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders

Evidence is inconclusive for using nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate to control drinking in patients with alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorder.

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Using Bayes factors to evaluate evidence for no effect: examples from the SIPS project

Scientists who find non-significant results should calculate a Bayes factor to determine if there is evidence for a null hypothesis over an alternative hypothesis or that more data are needed.

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New cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to different levels of alcohol consumption

Alcohol consumption in France appears to cause almost 8% of new cancer cases, with light and moderate drinking contributing appreciably to this burden.

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Associations between adolescent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline: a longitudinal co-twin control study

Adolescent cannabis use does not cause a decline in IQ, even when that use reaches dependence.

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Extended-release naltrexone for methamphetamine dependence among men who have sex with men: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Extended-release naltrexone does not appear to reduce methamphetamine use or sexual risk behaviors among methamphetamine-dependent men who have sex with men.

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Does paying service providers by results improve recovery outcomes for drug misusers in treatment in England?

Drug addiction recovery services in England commissioned on a payment-by-results basis tend to have lower rates of treatment initiation and completion but higher rates of in-treatment abstinence and non-injecting than other services.

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Luck, come here! Automatic approach tendencies toward gambling cues in moderate- to high-risk gamblers

In the Netherlands, moderate- to high-risk gamblers appear to have a stronger tendency than non-problem gamblers to show an 'approach' tendency in a laboratory task to gambling-related pictures compared with neutral pictures. This gambling approach bias has been found to predict persistence in gambling behaviour over time.

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Ecological momentary analysis of the relations among stressful events, affective reactivity, and smoking among smokers with high versus low depressive symptoms during a quit attempt

Depressed smokers experience more exposure to stress, longer-lasting post-stress affective disturbance and greater risk of smoking relapse after stress than non-depressed smokers.

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Factors moderating the relative effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in clients using smoking cessation services

In English stop-smoking services, the advantage of varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy is lower in pharmacy and GP settings than in specialist clinics.

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Evaluating the mutual pathways among electronic cigarette use, conventional smoking and nicotine dependence

E-cigarette use among young adults is not significantly associated with later conventional smoking, either directly or through nicotine dependence.

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Associations of parental alcohol use disorders and parental separation with offspring initiation of alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use and sexual debut in high-risk families

Parental alcohol use disorders and parental separation predict increased risk of early alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use and sexual debut in offspring from high-risk families.

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Alcohol e-Help: study protocol for web-based self-help program to reduce alcohol use in adults w/drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous or suggestive of dependence in mid-income countries

If the World Health Organization's web-based self-help program, Alcohol e-Health, is found to be effective, its potential public health impact in countries with underdeveloped alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatment systems is considerable.

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Moving alcohol prevention research forward--Part I: introducing a complex systems paradigm

A proposed complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can transcend limitations of traditional approaches and lead to high-leverage preventive interventions.

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Moving alcohol prevention research forward--Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling

Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions in alcohol misuse prevention.

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March 2018

Measuring treatment outcomes in gambling disorders: a systematic review

Measuring recovery from problem gambling needs to go beyond assessing gambling behaviour to encompass other aspects of people's wellbeing and functioning.

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The short-term impact of the alcohol act on alcohol-related deaths and hospital admissions in Scotland: a natural experiment

The October 2011 implementation of the Alcohol Act in Scotland was not clearly associated with a reduction in alcohol-related deaths or hospital admissions in the 3-year period after implementation.

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A developmental-based motivational intervention to reduce alcohol and marijuana use among non-treatment-seeking young adults: a randomized controlled trial

A brief, longitudinally delivered, developmentally based motivational intervention for young adults did not produce reductions in binge alcohol, marijuana use or dual use days relative to a control condition.

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Socio-economic differentials in cannabis use trends in Australia

The decline in cannabis use in Australia from 2001 to 2013 occurred largely among higher socio-economic status groups.

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Non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with fatal poisoning

Non-prescribed psychoactive drugs are commonly found at postmortem in drug poisoning deaths in Finland, with history of drug abuse being a major contributing factor.

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Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984-2015 US National Alcohol Surveys

Marijuana use in the US has risen steeply since 2005, but not because of the liberalization of marijuana policies in some states.

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Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray for opioid overdose reversal: Phase I healthy volunteer study

A concentrated 2mg intranasal naloxone spray delivers naloxone as effectively, over the critical first 15 minutes, as the standard 0.4mg intramuscular (IM) naloxone injection.

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Moral disapproval and perceived addiction to internet pornography: A longitudinal examination

Perceived addiction to internet pornography seems to be more strongly related to moral concerns around pornography use than to the amount of daily use.

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Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences

Three independent chromosome 19 signals account for ~20% of the variability in the nicotine metabolite ratio in African American smokers; knowledge of these may help to develop genomics-based personalization of tobacco dependence treatment.

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Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?

In the Netherlands, the peak age of smoking initiation (16 years) has not shifted despite new youth access laws.

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The effect of a behavioral activation treatment for substance use on post-treatment abstinence: a randomized controlled trial

A behavioral activation group treatment for substance use (LETS ACT) appears to increase the likelihood of abstinence and reduce adverse consequences from substance use up to 12 months post-treatment.

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Needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing HCV transmission among people who inject drugs: findings from a Cochrane Review and meta-analysis

Opioid substitution therapy reduces risk of hepatitis C acquisition and is strengthened in combination with needle and syringe programmes.

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April 2018

Predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

A wide range of socio-demographic, relationship, social, smoking-related, pregnancy-related, health and psychological factors have been found to predict smoking cessation in pregnancy.

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Alcohol-related harm in emergency departments: a prospective, multi-centre study

Almost one in 10 presentations to emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand are alcohol related.

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Efficacy of a web-based intervention with and without guidance for employees with risky drinking: results of a three-arm randomized controlled trial

A web-based alcohol intervention, administered with or without guidance, significantly reduced drinking and improved mental health and work-related outcomes in the German working population.

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Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol (CMCA): secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial showing effects of community organizing on alcohol acquisition by youth in the Cherokee nation

A community organizing intervention, Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA), is effective in reducing availability of alcohol to underage youth in the US.

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Associations between methadone maintenance treatment and crime: a 17-year longitudinal cohort study of Canadian provincial offenders

Canadians with prior convictions and opioid dependence appear to commit fewer crimes when they are receiving methadone treatment compared with no methadone treatment.

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Impulsivity predicts poorer improvement in quality of life during early treatment for people with methamphetamine dependence

Among Australian methamphetamine-dependent people, elevated impulsivity (acting without sufficient deliberation) predicts lower improvement of social and psychological quality of life in the first 6-9 weeks of treatment.

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Relationship between high-risk patients receiving prescription opioids and high-volume opioid prescribers

Health care providers in the US who typically do not prescribe large volumes of opioids frequently prescribe opioids to patients at high risk of opioid misuse.

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Self-reported marijuana use over 25 years and abdominal adiposity: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Neither cumulative nor current marijuana use is associated with liver attenuation or total abdominal, visceral, subcutaneous, or intermuscular fat in mid-life.

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The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: results of the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs)

The incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated and in future is likely to include higher proportions of women and older adults.

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Cost-effectiveness of personal tailored risk information and taster sessions to increase the uptake of the NHS stop smoking services: the Start2quit randomized controlled trial

To increase attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services, a tailored letter and taster session in the services is likely to be more cost-effective than a generic letter in the long term.

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Cigarette use is increasing among people with illicit substance use disorders in the United States, 2002-14: emerging disparities in vulnerable populations

While cigarette smoking has declined in the U.S. for the past several decades, it has increased since 2002 among people with substance use disorders.

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Patterns of substance use and mortality risk in a cohort of 'hard-to-reach' polysubstance users

In a Norwegian prospective cohort study, 'hard-to-reach' polysubstance users had a more than 10 times higher mortality risk than the general population.

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The genetic and environmental architecture of substance use development from early adolescence into young adulthood: a longitudinal twin study of comorbidity of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use

Among Norwegian adolescents, there appear to be strong genetic effects on both substance-specific and comorbid use of alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco; individual differences in alcohol use can be explained partially by family background.

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Sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking: findings from a US national sample

In the US, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high-intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts.

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Assessing causal relationships using genetic proxies for exposures: an introduction to Mendelian randomization

As genetic variants associated with addictive behaviours are identified, the potential for Mendelian randomization analyses will grow.

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May 2018

Diminishing benefit of smoking cessation medications during the first year: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The proportion of smokers who use smoking cessation medications who benefit from doing so decreases during the course of the first year, but a net benefit still remains at 12 months.

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Motivation to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent attempts at reduction and changes in consumption in increasing and higher-risk drinkers in England: a prospective population survey

Excessive drinkers in England with greater motivation to reduce consumption are more likely to report an attempt to reduce during the next 6 months, but on average this does not appear to translate to reduced consumption.

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Estimating the drink driving attributable fraction of road traffic deaths in Mexico

An estimated 19.5% of car occupant deaths in Mexico in 2010-13 may have been caused by alcohol.

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Trends in alcohol-related mortality in East and West Germany, 1980-2014: age, period and cohort variations

Between 1980 and 2014, alcohol-related mortality declined in both East and West Germany but started earlier in West Germany. This difference can partly be explained by different drinking patterns before and changes in the health care system after the reunification.

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Lifetime marijuana use and subclinical atherosclerosis: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

Marijuana use appears to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, but only among those who have ever used tobacco.

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Risk of amphetamine use disorder and mortality among incident users of prescribed stimulant medications in the Veterans Administration

Among adult incident stimulant medication users in the VA health-care system (2001 to 2012), comorbid substance use disorders were common and were risk factors for development of an amphetamine use disorder (AUD).

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Direct-acting antiviral treatment of chronic HCV-infected patients on opioid substitution therapy: Still a concern in clinical practice?

In Germany, direct-acting antiviral treatment can achieve equally high sustained virological response rates among former or current drug users and patients with no history of drug use.

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Brief telephone interventions for problem gambling: a randomized controlled trial

In treatment of problem gambling in New Zealand, brief telephone interventions are associated with reductions in days spent gambling and dollars lost that are similar to more intensive interventions.

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E-cigarette price sensitivity among middle- and high-school students: evidence from monitoring the future

Higher disposable e-cigarette prices appear to be associated with reduced e-cigarette use among adolescents in the US.

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Validation of a contextualized assessment of smoking behaviour in students

Social context plays an important role in smoking-related decision-making and simulated social contexts have potential for the study of context-related decision-making in addiction.

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Improving quit rates of web-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: full-scale randomized trial of WebQuit.org versus Smokefree.gov

The smoking cessation websites WebQuit.org and Smokefree.gov have similar 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 12 months.

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The associations between psychotic experiences and substance use and substance use disorders: findings from the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys

Associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and substance use/substance use disorders (SU/SUDs) are often bidirectional, but not all types of SU/SUDs are associated with PEs.

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Incidence and risk factors for mortality after release from prison in Australia: a prospective cohort study

People released from prison in Queensland, Australia are at increased risk of death, due particularly to drug-related causes. Those at greatest risk have poor physical and mental health and a history of risky substance use.

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Excess overdose mortality immediately following transfer of patients and their care as well as after cessation of opioid substitution therapy

In the UK, opioid-dependent people transferred to an alternative treatment provider for continuation of their OST experience high overdose mortality rates, especially within the first month.

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June 2018

Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Synthesis of the current evidence does not support the hypothesis that US medical marijuana laws (MMLs) up to 2014 have led to increases in adolescent marijuana use prevalence.

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Immediate effects on adult drinkers of exposure to alcohol harm reduction advertisements with and without drinking guideline messages: experimental study

Television advertisements on the harms of drinking increase intentions to reduce drinking among both low- and high-risk drinkers.

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Adolescents' alcohol use and strength of policy relating to youth access, trading hours and driving under the influence: findings from Australia

Population-directed policies designed to reduce alcohol availability and promotion may reduce adolescents' alcohol use.

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Differences in mortality in a cohort of cocaine use disorder patients with concurrent alcohol or opiates disorder

Mortality risk and excess mortality are significantly greater among those with cocaine and opiates use disorder than among people with only cocaine use disorder or cocaine and alcohol use disorder.

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Increased non-fatal overdose risk associated with involuntary drug treatment in a longitudinal study with people who inject drugs

In Mexico, recent involuntary drug treatment is a risk factor for non-fatal drug overdose among people who inject drugs.

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Improving recruitment to pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use: findings from a qualitative focus group study

Recruitment of participants for clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use could be improved if researchers became better at explaining clinical trials to potential participants. A checklist of issues to consider when designing trials is proposed.

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A reciprocal effects analysis of cannabis use and perceptions of risk

Longitudinal associations between cannabis use and perception of risks from cannabis use are reciprocal, with a stronger association between cannabis use and lower subsequent risk perception.

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Screening for problem gambling within mental health services: a comparison of the classification accuracy of brief instruments

The five-item Brief Problem Gambling Screen (BPGS) will be useful for mental health services wanting to screen for any level of gambling problem.

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The effects of prescribing varenicline on two-year health outcomes: an observational cohort study using electronic medical records

Varenicline prescription in UK primary care does not appear to increase likelihood of death, myocardial infarction or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease over the following 2 years compared with NRT, but may cause more weight gain and reduce primary care attendance possibly through increased smoking cessation rates.

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Education is the strongest socio-economic predictor of smoking in pregnancy

In Finland, socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy are attributable primarily to differences in the mother's educational level (low versus high) and orientation (vocational versus general).

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Measuring spatial and temporal trends of nicotine and alcohol consumption in Australia using wastewater-based epidemiology

Wastewater-based epidemiology can be used to evaluate the geographic, temporal and weekly profiles of nicotine and alcohol consumption in different communities nationally.

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Diminished alternative reinforcement as a mechanism linking conduct problems and substance use in adolescence: a longitudinal examination

Diminished alternative reinforcement may be a modifiable mechanism linking early adolescent conduct problems and subsequent marijuana use.

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July 2018

SUPPLEMENT: Development and application of an economic model (EQUIPTMOD) to assess the impact of smoking cessation

The economic model, EQUIPTMOD, provides an invaluable tool for assessment of the return on investment of policies aimed at promoting smoking cessation.

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SUPPLEMENT: Estimates of effectiveness and reach for 'return on investment' modelling of smoking cessation interventions using data from England

Parameter estimates for the effectiveness and reach of interventions that increase population quit-smoking attempt and success rates can contribute to ROI estimates in support of national or regional policy decisions.

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SUPPLEMENT: Estimates of costs for modelling return on investment from smoking cessation interventions

Costs of treating smoking-attributable diseases and implementing smoking cessation interventions vary substantially across Hungary, Netherlands, Germany, Spain and England. Cost estimates can contribute to return on investment estimates in support of national or regional policy decisions.

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SUPPLEMENT: A utility of model input uncertainty analysis in transferring tobacco control-related economic evidence to countries with scarce resources: results from the EQUIPT study

Countries with limited research time and resources can adapt the EQUIPTMOD return-on-investment model to their own settings by collecting data on a small number of model inputs.

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SUPPLEMENT: Cost-effectiveness of increasing the reach of smoking cessation interventions in Germany: results from the EQUIPTMOD

Increasing the reach of group-based behavioural support, financial incentives and varenicline for smoking cessation by just 1% of current annual quit attempts would be a cost-effective way to improve the population's health outcomes.

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SUPPLEMENT: Cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios in Spain: results from the EQUIPTMOD

According to the EQUIPTMOD modelling tool it would be cost-effective for Spain to expand the reach of existing GP brief interventions for smoking cessation, provide pro-active telephone support, and reimburse smoking cessation medication.

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SUPPLEMENT: Cost-effectiveness of possible future smoking cessation strategies in Hungary: results from the EQUIPTMOD

According to the EQUIPTMOD modelling tool, it would be cost-effective for Hungary to start a social marketing campaign and double the reach of current group-based behavioural support therapies and proactive telephone support for smoking cessation.

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SUPPLEMENT: Is it cost-effective to provide internet-based interventions to complement the current provision of smoking cessation services in the Netherlands? An analysis based on the EQUIPTMOD

Providing internet-based smoking cessation interventions to complement the current provision of smoking cessation services could be a cost-saving policy option in the Netherlands.

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SUPPLEMENT: Assessment of cost-effective changes to the current and potential provision of smoking cessation services: an analysis based on the EQUIPTMOD

Current provision of smoking cessation services in the Netherlands and England can benefit economically from the inclusion of cytisine and increasing the reach of brief physician advice, text-messaging support and group-based therapy.

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Extended-release injectable naltrexone for opioid use disorder: a systematic review

Many people who intend to start extended-release naltrexone do not do so, and most who do start discontinue treatment prematurely.

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The future of the international drug control system and national drug prohibitions

International drug treaties will need reform as more countries legalise cannabis.

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Unrecorded alcohol use: a global modelling study based on nominal group assessments and survey data

A new method for modelling country-level proportion of unrecorded alcohol use shows that lower-income countries have a higher proportion of unrecorded alcohol than higher-income countries.

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Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms

An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle shops increases rates of alcohol-related harm.

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Alcohol, pattern of drinking and all-cause mortality in Russia, Belarus and Hungary: a retrospective indirect cohort study based on mortality of relatives

Drinking frequency is associated positively with mortality among men and women in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The mortality risk is higher among frequent drinkers who exhibit binge and hazardous drinking patterns.

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Cost-effectiveness of hydromorphone for severe opioid use disorder: findings from the SALOME randomized clinical trial

Injectable hydromorphone appears to provide similar outcomes to injectable diacetylmorphine and might provide greater benefit than methadone alone as well as being cost‐saving.

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The relationship between methamphetamine use and heterosexual behaviour: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

Methamphetamine use is associated with an increase in being sexually active, having multiple and casual sex partners, and having condomless sex with casual partners, but is not associated with a change in condom use per se.

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Neonatal outcomes after fetal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: national registry studies from the Czech Republic and Norway

Two national cohorts of women (Czech Republic and Norway) receiving opioid maintenance treatment during pregnancy showed small but not statistically significant differences in neonatal outcomes in favour of buprenorphine compared with methadone.

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Do predictors of smoking relapse change as a function of duration of abstinence? Findings from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia

Among adult smokers in the US, Canada, UK and Australia, factors associated with smoking relapse differ between the early and later stages of quit attempts, suggesting relapse determinants change as a function of abstinence duration.

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Estimating the health-care costs of children born to pregnant smokers in England: cohort study using primary and secondary health-care data

In England, maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with increased child health-care costs over the first 5 years of life, driven primarily by greater hospital in-patient care.

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'Are the Times A-changin'? Trends in adolescent substance use in Europe

From 1999 to 2015 European adolescents showed strong decreasing trends in cigarette use and moderate decreases in alcohol use. Cannabis use increased in southern Europe and the Balkans.

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Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis: a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study

Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses (which can test for causal effects in observational data) have found little evidence for causal relationships between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use.

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Corrected US opioid-involved drug poisoning deaths and mortality rates, 1999-2015

Death certificate reports understate the prevalence of and changes over time in opioid and heroin/synthetic opioid-involved drug mortality in the United States.

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'Addressed to you not as a smoker... but as a doctor': doctor-targeted cigarette advertisements in JAMA

Analysis of doctor-targeted tobacco ads in US medical journals from 1936 to 1953 suggest that tobacco companies targeted physicians as a potential sales force to assuage the public's fear of health risks and to recruit them as allies against negative publicity.

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August 2018

Baclofen: its effectiveness in reducing harmful drinking, craving, and negative mood. A meta-analysis

As a treatment for alcohol use disorders, baclofen yields higher rates of abstinence than placebo. However, it does not appear to be better in terms of increasing number of abstinent days or decreasing heavy drinking, craving, anxiety or depression.

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Treatment Response and Non-response in CBT and Network Support for Alcohol Disorders: Targeted Mechanisms and Common Factors

Long-term success in Packaged Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Network Support treatments for alcohol use disorder appears to be mediated by both general mechanisms (developing coping skills and self-efficacy) and treatment-targeted mechanisms (developing network strategies that emphasize social support and avoiding friends who drink).

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Drink Less Enjoy More: effects of a multi-component intervention on improving adherence to, and knowledge of, alcohol legislation in a UK nightlife setting

A community-based multi-component intervention concerning alcohol sales legislation in the UK was associated with reduced sales of alcohol to pseudo-intoxicated patrons in on-licensed premises in a UK nightlife setting and improved nightlife patron awareness of associated legislation.

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Attempts to reduce alcohol intake and treatment needs among people with probable alcohol dependence in England: a general population survey

Adults in England with probable alcohol dependence, measured through the AUDIT, demonstrate higher motivation to quit drinking and greater use of specialist treatment and self-driven support compared with other alcohol users, but most do not access treatment resources to support their attempts.

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An investigation of an open-access model for scaling up methadone maintenance treatment

An open-access model for rapid enrolment of people with opioid use disorder in methadone treatment appears to improve treatment access, capacity, and financial sustainability without evidence of deleterious effects on treatment outcomes.

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The impact of buprenorphine and methadone on mortality: a primary care cohort study in the United Kingdom

In UK general medical practice, opioid substitution treatment with buprenorphine is associated with lower mortality risk than methadone. In the population, buprenorphine is unlikely to give greater overall protection because of shorter treatment duration.

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Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid use disorder in clinical practice: Vivitrol's Cost and Treatment Outcomes Registry

Among opioid-dependent people receiving extended release naltrexone treatment, better mental health, higher education and lower recent drug use at baseline are associated with greater treatment duration, which itself is associated with lower relapse rates and improved outcomes.

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Associations between personality disorders and cannabis use and cannabis use disorder: a population‐based twin study

Individual differences in liability to cannabis use and cannabis use disorder appear to be linked to genetic risks correlated with antisocial and borderline personality disorder traits.

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A survey of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines content in 61 countries

Although most tobacco dependence treatment guidelines in 61 countries assessed in 2016 follow the WHO's FCTC Article 14 recommendations and do not differ significantly by income level, improvements are needed in keeping guidelines up-to-date, applying good writing practices and developing a dissemination strategy.

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Factors associated with the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments and predictors of smoking abstinence in EAGLES

A range of smoker characteristics (psychiatric history, cigarette dependence prior use of NRT) are associated with lower cessation rates but do not substantially influence efficacy of varenicline, bupropion or NRT.

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Trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking among rural African American adolescents: multi‐level predictors of class membership

Cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood in rural African-Americans show several distinct developmental courses.

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Four-year follow-up of an internet-based brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in young men

An internet-based brief intervention directed at unhealthy alcohol use among young men does not appear to reduce drinking over the long-term.

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Methamphetamine psychosis: insights from the past

Research findings from the 1930s to the 1970s suggest that paranoid psychosis should be considered a probable consequence of high-dose methamphetamine use.

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Can one simple questionnaire assess substance-related and behavioural addiction problems? Results of a proposed new screener for community epidemiology

The proposed Screener for Substance and Behavioural Addiction is a reliable and valid measure to assess the lay public's self-attributed indicators of addiction across 10 substances and behaviours.

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Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework and Multiple Streams policy theories to examine the role of evidence, research and other types of knowledge in drug policy

The relationship between evidence and drug policy action is complex and follows multiple causal pathways.

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September 2018

Alcohol industry involvement in policy making: A systematic review

Those who act on behalf of the alcohol industry are highly strategic, rhetorically sophisticated, and well organised in influencing national policy-making.

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Perception of Physical Attractiveness When Consuming and Not Consuming Alcohol: A Meta-analysis

Consuming alcohol may have a small effect of increasing a person's perception of the attractiveness of people of the opposite sex.

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Reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages prompts reductions in alcohol consumption

Reducing the serving size of alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom appears to lead to a reduction in alcohol consumption within single drinking occasions.

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Texting to Reduce Alcohol Misuse (TRAM): main findings from a randomized controlled trial of a text message intervention to reduce binge drinking among disadvantaged men

A text-messaging intervention to reduce binge drinking in disadvantaged men did not appear to reduce prevalence of binge drinking at 12-month follow‐up.

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Sexual-orientation differences in alcohol use trajectories and disorders in emerging adulthood: results from a longitudinal cohort study in the United States

In the US, throughout emerging adulthood several sexual-minority subgroups appear to have higher odds of belonging to heavier alcohol use trajectories than those who are completely heterosexual.

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Sickness absence diagnoses among abstainers, low-risk drinkers and at-risk drinkers: consideration of the U-shaped association between alcohol use and sickness absence in four cohort studies

People from Finland, France and the UK who reported not drinking any alcohol over several years were absent from work due to illness more often than low-risk drinkers.

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Are changes in drinking related to changes in cannabis use among Swedish adolescents? A time-series analysis for the period 1989-2016

From 1989 to 2016 there appears to be a positive association (becoming weaker over time) between alcohol and cannabis consumption among Swedish adolescents who use cannabis.

Link to Abstract
Effects of a Prior Authorization Policy for Extended-release/Long-acting Opioids on Utilization and Outcomes in a State Medicaid Program

Oklahoma's 2008 prior authorization policy for extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids may have reduced the number of opioid-naive patients initiating ER/LA opioid use by more than half while increasing short-acting opioid prescriptions by 7%.

Link to Abstract
Testing associations between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in two large population-based samples

In exploratory analyses based on young adult and middle-aged samples, normal variation in cannabis use is unrelated statistically to individual differences in brain morphology as measured by subcortical volume.

Link to Abstract
An RCT with the combination of varenicline and bupropion for smoking cessation: clinical implications for front line use

The addition of bupropion to varenicline treatment does not appear to increase smoking abstinence rates above that of varenicline alone.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled evaluation of the tobacco status project, a Facebook intervention for young adults

Compared with referral to a smoking cessation website, a USA-focused Facebook smoking cessation intervention did not improve abstinence over 1 year, but increased abstinence at the end of treatment and participants found it engaging.

Link to Abstract
Cannabidiol reverses attentional bias to cigarette cues in a human experimental model of tobacco withdrawal

A single 800-mg oral dose of cannabidiol reduced the salience and pleasantness of cigarette cues, compared with placebo, after overnight cigarette abstinence in dependent smokers. It did not influence tobacco craving or withdrawal.

Link to Abstract
Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students

Caffeine may promote early use of other types of substances among middle school-aged adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Impact of current and scaled-up levels of hepatitis C prevention and treatment interventions for people who inject drugs in three UK settings

Current opioid substitution therapy and high-coverage needle and syringe provision is averting substantial hepatitis C transmission in the UK. Maintaining this coverage while getting current drug injectors into treatment can reduce incidence by 90% by 2030.

Link to Abstract
Keeping Secrets: Leslie E. Keeley, the Gold Cure and the Nineteenth-century Neuroscience of Addiction

Dr Leslie E. Keeley was a famous addiction cure doctor at the turn of the twentieth century, but mainstream medicine dismissed him as a quack. The article examines the role of contextual issues in the acceptance or rejection of theories of addiction, particularly the neuroscientific theories of the early twenty-first century.

Link to Abstract

October 2018

Drawing attention to a neglected injection-related harm: a systematic review of AA amyloidosis among people who inject drugs

Injecting-related skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and premature mortality among people who inject drugs. There is strong evidence of an association between SSTIs and AA amyloidosis.

Link to Abstract
National Cancer Societies and their public statements on alcohol consumption and cancer risk

In 2017, the American Cancer Society and Canadian Cancer Society websites failed to state that alcohol is a group 1 carcinogen and can cause cancer at low doses, and that there is no safe threshold for cancer risk.

Link to Abstract
Adverse adult consequences of different alcohol use patterns in adolescence: an integrative analysis of data to age 30 years from four Australasian cohorts

Frequency of adolescent drinking is a major predictor of substance use problems in adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Estimating mental health impacts of alcohol's harms from other drinkers: using propensity scoring methods with national cross-sectional data from the United States

Financial troubles due to someone else's drinking and assaults perpetrated by drinking intimates (spouses, other partners or family members) are associated with worse mental health

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness, safety and feasibility of extended-release naltrexone for opioid dependence: a 9-month follow-up to a 3-month randomized trial

Opioid-dependent people who switch from buprenorphine-naltrexone treatment after 3 months to extended-release naltrexone (XR-N) treatment for 9 months appear to have similar treatment completion rates, abstinence rates and adverse event profiles to people on XR-N from the start of treatment.

Link to Abstract
Evolution of clinical characteristics and outcomes of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist exposure in the United States: analysis of National Poison Data System data from 2010 to 2015

In the US, hospitalization for toxicity from synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (Spice, Mamba) increased significantly between 2010 and 2015.

Link to Abstract
Prevalence of youth gambling and potential influence of substance use and other risk factors throughout 33 European countries: first results from the 2015 ESPAD study

Underage gambling in Europe appears to be associated positively with alcohol, tobacco and other substance use (but not cannabis); truancy; going out at night; and active participation in sports.

Link to Abstract
'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure

People who use e-cigarettes with lower nicotine concentration e-liquids may exhibit compensatory behaviour (e.g. higher number and duration of puffs) and higher negative affect, urge to vape and formaldehyde exposure.

Link to Abstract
Cigarette brand diversity and price changes during the implementation of plain packaging in the United Kingdom

The implementation of plain packaging laws in the UK was associated with increased prices of manufactured cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Fetal assessment in buprenorphine-maintained women using fetal magnetoencephalography: a pilot study

A novel biomagnetic technique may allow simultaneous quantification of cardiac and brain activities in buprenorphine-exposed and non-exposed fetuses in the third trimester.

Link to Abstract
Global statistics on alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use: 2017 status report

In 2015, alcohol and tobacco use between them cost the human population more than a quarter of a billion disability-adjusted life years, with illicit drugs costing further tens of millions.

Link to Abstract
Denise Kandel's classic work on the gateway sequence of drug acquisition

During the early 1970s Denise Kandel and her colleagues documented an 'invariant sequence' in initiation of drug use: starting with alcohol and tobacco, progressing to cannabis and then to other illicit, or 'harder' drugs. This observation became known as the 'gateway sequence' of drug use.

Link to Abstract

November 2018

AA attendance and abstinence for dually diagnosed patients: a meta-analytic review

Clinical referral of dual diagnosis (DD) patients to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is common. In many cases, DD patients who attend AA will report higher rates of alcohol abstinence than DD patients who do not attend AA.

Link to Abstract
Whole-of-community interventions to reduce population-level harms arising from alcohol and other drug use: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Whole-community interventions to reduce alcohol and other drug use and harms have seen small reductions in risky drinking, but have had little impact upon past month alcohol use, binge drinking or 12-month marijuana use and the studies have been subject to high risk of bias.

Link to Abstract
Is there gender convergence in risky drinking when taking birth cohorts into account? Evidence from an Australian national survey 2001-13

In Australia, gender convergence in risky drinking since 2001 has been evident only in people aged 50-69 years.

Link to Abstract
Multi-level analysis of alcohol-related injury, societal drinking pattern and alcohol control policy: emergency department data from 28 countries

The more restrictive the alcohol policy in a country, the lower the rate of alcohol-related injury, with country-level drinking pattern having little effect on this relationship.

Link to Abstract
The effect of parental drinking on alcohol use in young adults: the mediating role of parental monitoring and peer deviance

Young adults whose parents have moderate or high-risk alcohol consumption are more likely to consume alcohol than those with parents with lower alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol outlet density and alcohol related hospital admissions in England: a national small-area level ecological study

In England, there appears to be an association between higher densities of alcohol outlets and higher hospital admission rates for conditions wholly attributable to alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Medical cannabis legalization and opioid prescriptions: evidence on US Medicaid enrollees during 1993-2014

State-wide medical cannabis legalization appears to have been associated with reductions in prescriptions and dosages of Schedule III opioids to US Medicaid enrollees.

Link to Abstract
Genome-wide association meta‐analysis of age at first cannabis use

Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities.

Link to Abstract
Cigarette consumption and biomarkers of nicotine exposure during pregnancy and postpartum

Neither cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) nor cotinine accurately estimate nicotine exposure during pregnancy.

Link to Abstract
Carbonyl emissions from a novel heated tobacco product (IQOS): comparison with an e-cigarette and a tobacco cigarette

The IQOS heated tobacco product emits substantially lower levels of carbonyls than a commercial tobacco cigarette (Marlboro Red) but higher levels than a Nautilus Mini e-cigarette.

Link to Abstract
Independent predictors of mortality in adolescents ascertained for conduct disorder and substance use problems, their siblings and community controls

For US juveniles, the connection between conduct disorder and risk of early death appears to exist even when other contributing factors such as sex, ethnicity, familial factors, and substance use are removed.

Link to Abstract
Modelling the impact of a national scale‐up of interventions on hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland

Most of the decline in hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence in Scotland between 2008 and 2015 appears to be attributable to intervention scale-up due to government strategies on HCV and drugs.

Link to Abstract

December 2018

Integrating smoking cessation care in alcohol and other drug treatment settings using an organizational change intervention: a systematic review

Organizational change interventions within health-care services to make smoking cessation care delivery part of usual treatment offer promise for increasing smoking cessation care and reducing smoking prevalence.

Link to Abstract
Probability discounting and gambling: a meta-analysis

There appears to be a positive association between problem gambling and shallow probability discounting (a cognitive bias that overvalues low probability gains and/or undervalues high probability losses).

Link to Abstract
A systematic review of the next-day effects of heavy alcohol consumption on cognitive performance

The research literature suggests that alcohol hangovers may involve impaired cognitive functions and performance of everyday tasks such as driving.

Link to Abstract
After how many drinks does someone experience acute consequences--determining thresholds for binge drinking based on two event-level studies

Binge drinking thresholds of 4+/5+ (women/men) drinks accurately predict the occurrence of consequences in general, but are too low to predict severe acute alcohol-related consequences.

Link to Abstract
Women's role in the rise in drinking in Australia 1950-80: an age-period-cohort analysis of data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

Specific birth cohorts influenced the post-WWII rise in alcohol consumption by Australian women born 1920-49. Much of the convergence with men's drinking after 1980 reflects large reductions in drinking among men.

Link to Abstract
Moderation of baclofen response by a GABAB receptor polymorphism: results from the BacALD randomized controlled trial

The GABBR1 rs29220 polymorphism may influence treatment response and possibly predict adverse effects to baclofen in treatment of alcohol dependence.

Link to Abstract
AUDIT-C and ICD codes as phenotypes for harmful alcohol use: association with ADH1B polymorphisms in two US populations

The age-adjusted mean AUDIT-C score is associated more strongly with genetic polymorphisms of known risk for alcohol use disorder than are longitudinal trajectories of AUDIT-C or AUD diagnostic codes.

Link to Abstract
How dependent is the alcohol industry on heavy drinking in England?

In England, the alcohol industry appears to be highly financially dependent upon heavy drinking, and might face significant financial losses were consumers to drink within guideline levels.

Link to Abstract
Underestimation of alcohol consumption in cohort studies and implications for alcohol's contribution to the global burden of disease

Underestimation of alcohol consumption in cohort studies is less than in typical population surveys. Uplifting survey estimates to 80% of total population consumption in global burden of disease studies appears appropriate.

Link to Abstract
High-intensity cannabis use is associated with retention in opioid agonist treatment: a longitudinal analysis

Among people who use illicit drugs initiating opioid agonist treatment in Vancouver, daily cannabis use was associated with approximately 21% greater odds of retention in treatment compared with less than daily consumption.

Link to Abstract
Gendered violence and overdose prevention sites: a rapid ethnographic study during an overdose epidemic in Vancouver, Canada

Overdose prevention sites in Vancouver, Canada remain 'masculine spaces' that can jeopardize access for women who use drugs.

Link to Abstract
EMS naloxone administration as non-fatal opioid overdose surveillance: 6-year outcomes in Marion County, Indiana

Among US emergency medical service patients administered naloxone for opioid overdose, those with repeat non-fatal opioid overdose events are at a much higher risk of mortality, particularly drug-related mortality, than those without repeat events.

Link to Abstract
Mediators of the effect of nicotine pre-treatment on quitting smoking

Nicotine pre-loading appears to facilitate smoking abstinence by reducing urges to smoke and smoke intake before quitting and urges to smoke after quitting.

Link to Abstract
Varenicline versus placebo for waterpipe smoking cessation: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

Varenicline was found not to be more effective than placebo in aiding cessation of tobacco use in long-term daily waterpipe smokers.

Link to Abstract

January 2017

Social cognition in alcohol use disorder: a meta-analysis

Alcohol use disorder appears to be associated with significant impairment in facial emotion recognition and theory of mind (the capacity to attribute mental states to oneself and others).

Link to Abstract
Steep delay discounting and addictive behavior: a meta-analysis of continuous associations

Delayed reward discounting (preferring smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) is more prevalent in people with a range of addictive disorders.

Link to Abstract
Effects of sex and alcohol use on antiretroviral therapy outcomes in Botswana: a cohort study

Alcohol use among HIV-infected adults in Botswana appears to worsen HIV treatment outcomes.

Link to Abstract
High-intensity drinking by underage young adults in the United States

Young adult underage binge drinking, high-intensity drinking, and intoxication are relatively common in the USA. Four-year college students and young adults living away from parents are more likely to engage in high-intensity drinking than their peers.

Link to Abstract
Is online information on ecstasy tablet content safe?

Pillreports and Partyflock website reports tend to overestimate MDMA concentrations in ecstasy tablets. Also, 15% of reports omit the concentration spread, fail to report additional illegal or dangerous substances, or underestimate MDMA concentration by >40 mg.

Link to Abstract
Prescription opioid poisoning across urban and rural areas: identifying vulnerable groups and geographic areas

In California USA from 2001-11, hospital discharge rates for prescription opioid poisoning spread from rural and suburban/exurban hot-spots to urban areas, suggesting spatial contagion.

Link to Abstract
The genetic basis of the comorbidity between cannabis use and major depression

There appears to be a significant genetic overlap between cannabis use and major depression among Mexican Americans, localized to a region on chromosome 11q23 that has been linked previously to these phenotypes.

Link to Abstract
Effects of accountable care and payment reform on substance use disorder treatment: evidence from the initial 3 years of the alternative quality contract

A global payment and accountable care model introduced in Massachusetts, USA did not greatly change substance use disorder service use during the first 3 years following implementation.

Link to Abstract
Motivational, reduction and usual care interventions for smokers who are not ready to quit: a randomized controlled trial

Among adult smokers not ready to quit, telephone interventions designed to motivate quitting or smoking reduction did not increase the odds of making a quit attempt at 6 months. The motivational intervention appeared to increase abstinence at 6 months and did increase it at 12 months. The smoking-reduction intervention did not increase abstinence at 6 months but appeared to increase it at 12 months.

Link to Abstract
Reduced nicotine content cigarettes and use of alternative nicotine products: exploratory trial

The offer of, and instructions to use, reduced nicotine content cigarettes may lead to greater use of alternative tobacco/nicotine products compared with continued use of normal nicotine cigarettes and also reductions in smoking rates.

Link to Abstract
Development of a proto-typology of opiate overdose onset

There are different types of opiate overdose onset, pointing to the need for a range of interventions, including strategies for self-administration of naloxone.

Link to Abstract

February 2017

Effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programme for people who inject drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programmes appear to be effective for reducing risk behaviours among people who inject drugs, although their effect on HIV/HCV prevalence and economic outcomes is unclear.

Link to Abstract
The role of birth cohorts in long-term trends in liver cirrhosis mortality across eight European countries

The inclusion of the birth cohort dimension improves the understanding of alcohol-attributable mortality trends in Europe.

Link to Abstract
The effect of liquor licensing restrictions on assault: a quasi-experimental study in Sydney, Australia

Restrictions on the availability of alcohol appear to reduce the incidence of assault.

Link to Abstract
A momentary exposures analysis of proximity to alcohol outlets and risk for assault

People in areas with greater densities of bars, restaurants and beer stores appear to be at increased risk for non-gun assault at these outlets' times of heaviest patronage.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of cannabis use disorder: risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcomes

Evidence suggests three distinguishable types of trajectory for development of cannabis use disorder starting in early teens: (1) persistent increasing risk; (2) maturing out, with increasing risk then decreasing risk; and (3) stable low risk.

Link to Abstract
What happened to the HIV epidemic among non-injecting drug users in New York City?

HIV prevalence has declined in New York City (NYC), USA and a high percentage of HIV-positive non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) are receiving antiretroviral treatment, suggesting an end to the HIV epidemic among NIDUs in NYC.

Link to Abstract
Evaluating the impact of a national naloxone programme on ambulance attendance at overdose incidents: a controlled time-series analysis

The supply of take-home naloxone kits through a national programme in Scotland was not associated clearly with a decrease in ambulance attendance at opioid-related overdose incidents in the 4-year period after it was implemented in April 2011.

Link to Abstract
Physician attitudes and experiences with Maryland's prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP)

In a survey of Maryland, USA physicians, most participants reported that prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) improved their opioid prescribing by decreasing prescription amounts and increasing their comfort with prescribing opioids.

Link to Abstract
Impact of laws restricting the sale of tobacco to minors on adolescent smoking and perceived obtainability of cigarettes: an intervention-control pre-post study of 19 European Union countries

Laws prohibiting the sales of tobacco to minors in Europe do not appear to be associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking rates, but they lower the perceived obtainability of cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
What a difference a day makes: differences in initial abstinence response during a smoking cessation attempt

More than one-third of people quitting smoking report extreme craving, negative affective or hunger responses on their quit day. These withdrawal symptom patterns are related to baseline characteristics, treatment and cessation success.

Link to Abstract
Do never smokers make up an increasing share of snus users as cigarette smoking declines? Changes in smoking status among male snus users in Norway 2003-15

Despite a decline in smoking prevalence, the majority of snus users in Norway are still former or current smokers.

Link to Abstract
Impact of smoking reduced nicotine content cigarettes on sensitivity to cigarette price: further results from a multi-site clinical trial

In current smokers, a reduction in nicotine content may reduce cigarette consumption, reduce the reinforcement value of cigarettes and increase cessation if reduced nicotine content cigarettes are the only cigarette available for purchase.

Link to Abstract
The neurobiology of addiction: the perspective from magnetic resonance imaging present and future

The magnetic resonance imaging literature provides a limited but convergent picture of the neurobiology of addiction as global changes to brain structure and functional disturbances to frontostriatal circuitry, accompanied by changes in anterior white matter.

Link to Abstract

March 2017

Cigarette smoking and depression comorbidity: systematic review and proposed theoretical model

A new application of incentive learning theory posits that depressed smokers experience greater increases in the expected value of smoking in the face three motivational states: low positive affect, high negative affect and cognitive impairment.

Link to Abstract
Tincture of opium for treating opioid dependence: a systematic review of safety and efficacy

Given the current evidence, it isn't possible to make conclusive recommendations about the safety and efficacy of opium tincture for treating opioid dependence.

Link to Abstract
Drinking with mixed-gender groups is associated with heavy weekend drinking among young adults

Young adults report consuming more drinks per hour when drinking with mixed-gender groups than with same-gender groups.

Link to Abstract
Acute alcohol effects on set-shifting and its moderation by baseline individual differences: a latent variable analysis

Practising tasks before drinking moderates the acute effects of alcohol on the ability to switch between tasks.

Link to Abstract
Patient-centered methadone treatment: a randomized clinical trial

Patient-centered methadone treatment (with optional counseling and with the counselor not serving as the treatment program disciplinarian) does not appear to be more effective than methadone treatment-as-usual.

Link to Abstract
Pharmaceutical sales of pseudoephedrine: the impact of electronic tracking systems on methamphetamine crime incidents

Electronic tracking systems can reduce people's capacity to produce methamphetamine domestically, but seem unlikely to affect methamphetamine possession, distribution and importation.

Link to Abstract
Assessment of rates of recanting and hair testing as a biological measure of drug use in a general population sample of young people

Hair analysis provides an unreliable marker of substance use in general population samples. People who report more frequent substance use before age 18 are less likely to later deny previous substance use at age 18 than people who report occasional use.

Link to Abstract
Drug-caused deaths in Australian medical practitioners and health-care professionals

Between 2003 and 2013, Australian health-care professionals averaged 37 deaths per year attributed to drug toxicity, with a mortality rate of nearly five deaths per 1000 employed HCPs.

Link to Abstract
Child maltreatment and cannabis use in young adulthood: a birth cohort study

Children in Australia documented as having been maltreated are more likely to use cannabis 1) before 17, 2) as an adult, and 3) daily and meet DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence.

Link to Abstract
Randomized controlled pilot trial of naloxone-on-release to prevent post-prison opioid overdose deaths

Large randomized trials of naloxone to prevent opioid deaths are feasible with prison populations. Giving prisoners take-home emergency naloxone prior to release may prevent heroin overdose deaths among ex-prisoners and the wider population.

Link to Abstract
Demographic trends among older cannabis users in the United States, 2006-13

The prevalence of cannabis use has increased significantly in recent years among US adults aged ≥ 50 years.

Link to Abstract
The effects of tobacco smoking on age of onset of psychosis and psychotic symptoms in a first-episode psychosis population

Smokers do not appear to have a significantly earlier age of psychosis onset than non-smokers after taking into account cannabis use and gender.

Link to Abstract
A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype

The Healthy School and Drugs programme adapted for secondary special education in the Netherlands lacked clear evidence for effects on all outcomes.

Link to Abstract

April 2017

Alcohol use disorder and divorce: evidence for a genetic correlation in a population-based Swedish sample

Divorce and alcohol use disorder are correlated strongly in the Swedish population, and the heritability of divorce is consistent with previous studies.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol use among fatally injured victims in Sao Paulo, Brazil: bridging the gap between research and health services in developing countries

Nearly one-third of fatal injuries in Sao Paulo between June 2014 and December 2015 were alcohol-related, with traffic accidents showing a greater association with alcohol use than other injuries.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol consumption during adolescence is associated with reduced grey matter volumes

Excessive alcohol use during adolescence appears to be associated with an abnormal development of the brain grey matter. Structural changes in the insula of alcohol users may reflect reduced sensitivity to alcohol's negative subjective effects.

Link to Abstract
Concurrent polysubstance use in a longitudinal study of US youth: associations with sexual orientation

Sexual minority youth in the US appear to be at disproportionate risk for concurrent past-year polysubstance use compared with their same-gender, completely heterosexual youth.

Link to Abstract
Fatal acute poisonings in Australian children (2003-13)

In Australia between 2003 and 2013 there were on average eight acute poisoning deaths in children each year, most commonly involving prescription opioids and adolescents, with a downward trend in mortality since 2003.

Link to Abstract
Purity, adulteration and price of drugs bought on-line versus off-line in the Netherlands

Dutch drug users increasingly purchase drugs on-line, especially new psychoactive substances. Purity and adulteration do not vary considerably between drugs purchased on-line and off-line for most substances, but on-line prices are mostly higher than off-line prices.

Link to Abstract
Childhood cognitive ability and smoking initiation, relapse and cessation throughout adulthood: evidence from two British cohort studies

Lower cognitive ability, measured in childhood before smoking is initiated, appears to predict a higher likelihood of taking up smoking and a lower likelihood of quitting in adulthood. Educational attainment appears to mediate this effect.

Link to Abstract
Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs

Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking data, health warnings appear to be more noticeable on 'plain' cigarette packs than branded packs.

Link to Abstract
How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit

Text-messaging programs for smoking cessation appear to work by promoting improvements in the psychosocial processes related to quitting rather than through the use of additional smoking cessation services.

Link to Abstract
Cannabis use during treatment for alcohol use disorders predicts alcohol treatment outcomes

People who use cannabis while undergoing treatment for an alcohol use disorder have fewer days of alcohol abstinence at the end of treatment compared with non-cannabis users; however, this relationship is present only among those who use cannabis once or twice per month.

Link to Abstract
Testing bidirectional associations among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: a daily diary study

There appear to be reciprocal relationships among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: greater daytime use of distraction, reappraisal, and problem solving predicts lower evening substance use, while higher evening substance use predicts higher next-day avoidance and reappraisal but lower next-day problem-solving.

Link to Abstract
Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa

Evidence suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between gestational age and the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome

Gestational age (pre-term, term or late term) at birth appears to be unrelated to the need for pharmacotherapy to treat neonatal abstinence syndrome in late pre-term and term infants. Treatment may tend to be given for longer in term than pre-term or late term infants.

Link to Abstract
The potential of neuroimaging for identifying predictors of adolescent alcohol use initiation and misuse

Neuroimaging data have the potential to be much better predictors of alcohol use than they currently are.

Link to Abstract

May 2017

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between poor oral health and substance abuse

Dental patients with substance use disorders have more tooth decay and periodontal disease than the general population, but are less likely to receive dental care.

Link to Abstract
Identifying in-patient costs attributable to the clinical sequelae and comorbidities of alcoholic liver disease in a national hospital database

Costs of hospital care for patients with alcoholic liver disease are higher than those for patients with other alcohol-related diagnoses.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent drinking--a touch of social class?

Adolescent drinking in Norway appears to be related inversely to parents' social standing. The elevated risk of low socio-economic status vanishes when general parenting, alcohol-related parental permissiveness and parents' drinking are accounted for.

Link to Abstract
Positive and negative affectivity as risk factors for heavy drinking in the second half of life: a prospective cohort study

Norwegian adults aged 40-80 years with a high tendency to experience negative emotions are at greater risk of heavy drinking approximately 5 years later than those with a low tendency to experience negative emotions.

Link to Abstract
Understanding the alcohol harm paradox: an analysis of sex- and condition-specific hospital admissions by socio-economic group for alcohol-associated conditions in England

In England, socio-economic differences in harmful drinking patterns (specifically, conditions associated with dependence and intoxication) may contribute to the 'alcohol harm paradox', in which people of low socioeconomic status have higher levels of alcohol-related ill health than people of higher status despite drinking the same amounts of alcohol.

Link to Abstract
Receipt of addiction treatment as a consequence of a brief intervention for drug use in primary care: a randomized trial

Brief intervention delivered in primary care for screen-identified drug use does not appear to increase addiction treatment receipt significantly; a motivational interviewing approach appears to be counterproductive.

Link to Abstract
Effects of incentives for naltrexone adherence on opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults

Incentives for naltrexone adherence increase opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults, an effect that appears to be caused by the increased naltrexone adherence produced by the incentives.

Link to Abstract
The costs of crime during and after publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorders: a population-level study for the state of California

In publicly funded drug treatment facilities in California, USA, engagement in treatment for opioid use disorders is associated with lower costs of crime in the 6 months following initiation of treatment, and the economic benefits are far greater for individuals receiving time-unlimited treatment.

Link to Abstract
Adolescents at risk for drug abuse: a 3-year dual-process analysis

Drug-relevant memory associations play a key role in drug use behavior in at-risk youth.

Link to Abstract
Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use

The likelihood that a non-daily tobacco smoker in the US will remain a stable non-daily smoker or transition to either daily use or non-use is associated with socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco.

Link to Abstract
Nationwide access to an internet-based contingency management intervention to promote smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

A contingency management/financial incentive program delivered via the internet improved short-term smoking abstinence rates compared with an internet program without the incentives.

Link to Abstract
Neural responses to negative outcomes predict success in community-based substance use treatment

An elevated response to unexpected negative feedback in parts of the brain (specifically bilateral amygdala and anterior hippocampus) appears to predict relapse to substance use in people attending community-based treatment.

Link to Abstract
Trends in serious quit attempts in the United States, 2009-14

The proportion of US smokers making a serious quit attempt has increased since 2009, due to an upward trend since 2011. The 2014 serious quit attempt rate was 55.0%.

Link to Abstract
A SMART data analysis method for constructing adaptive treatment strategies for substance use disorders

Q-learning (a new data analysis method) can inform the development of more cost-effective, adaptive treatment strategies for treating substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract

June 2017

Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review

Existing economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions lack information on one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between different dimensions of alcohol use and the burden of disease--an update

Research since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more than one dimension of use needs to be considered.

Link to Abstract
Effects of increased alcohol availability during adolescence on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: a natural experiment

In Sweden exposure to increased alcohol availability during adolescence appears to be associated with an increased risk of receiving a disability pension in later life.

Link to Abstract
Passengers at risk: a multi-level analysis of the decision to travel with a drunk driver

In Chile, men are at higher risk than women of being a passenger with an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID).

Link to Abstract
A preliminary randomized controlled trial of contingency management for alcohol use reduction using a transdermal alcohol sensor

Cash incentives linked to a transdermal alcohol sensor can reduce heavy alcohol consumption while the incentives are in operation.

Link to Abstract
Non-buprenorphine opioid utilization among patients using buprenorphine

The use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder has increased markedly in the United States, but a substantial proportion of patients fill prescriptions for non-buprenorphine opioids during and following such treatment.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of heroin use: 10-11-year findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

Heroin users in Australia show widely varying patterns of use over a 10-year period and it is proving difficult to predict which users will show which pattern.

Link to Abstract
Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries

Patients in Eastern Europe with opioid dependence are likely to experience additional barriers to accessing opioids over and above those experienced by non-dependent patients.

Link to Abstract
Dropout in clinical trials of pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine dependence: the role of initial abstinence

Participants in randomized controlled trials of pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine use disorder who are able to achieve a brief period of early abstinence are retained longer in the trials and are less likely to drop out overall.

Link to Abstract
Trait and neurobiological underpinnings of negative emotion regulation in gambling disorder

Gambling disorder is associated with greater use of emotional suppression and middle frontal gyrus activation for regulating negative emotions, compared with healthy controls; both are linked with negative emotion-driven impulsivity in this disorder.

Link to Abstract
Attrition during a randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine content cigarettes as a proxy for understanding acceptability of nicotine product standards

Participant drop-out in a 35-day trial of varying levels of reduced nicotine content cigarettes was greater for cigarettes with lower nicotine content and less in smokers reporting more favourable subjective ratings of the cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Feasibility and safety of extended-release naltrexone treatment of opioid and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics: a pilot/feasibility randomized trial

Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is feasible and safe for treatment of opioid use disorder and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics. Treatment initiation appears to be lower and retention greater for XR-NTX compared with treatment as usual.

Link to Abstract
Life-time history of insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms as correlates of alcohol, cocaine and heroin use and relapse among adults seeking substance use treatment in the United States from 1991 to 1994

There is evidence of an adverse association between substance use and sleep disturbance, which includes higher frequency of all substance use before substance misuse treatment and higher rates of cocaine use after a treatment episode.

Link to Abstract

July 2017

Modifiable parenting factors associated with adolescent alcohol misuse: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

Risk of adolescent alcohol misuse is positively associated with parental provision of alcohol, favourable parental attitudes towards alcohol use and parental drinking and is negatively associated with parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support and parental involvement.

Link to Abstract
The safety and efficacy of baclofen to reduce alcohol use in veterans with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial

Baclofen administered at 30 mg/day does not appear to be superior to placebo in increasing abstinence or in reducing alcohol use, cravings for alcohol or anxiety among people with alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of risky drinking around the time of statutory retirement: a longitudinal latent class analysis

In Finland, approximately 12% of people who reach retirement age experience a temporary increase in alcohol consumption to risky levels, while approximately 7% experience a slow decline in risky levels of alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Binge drinking and family history of alcoholism are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence

A greater degree of familial alcoholism is associated with a steeper decline in impulsive choice among adolescents who do not drink. More life-time drinks during adolescence is associated with increases in impulsive choice.

Link to Abstract
Substance use disorders and the risk of suicide mortality among men and women in the US Veterans Health Administration

Among people receiving Veterans Health Administration care in the US, current substance use disorders (SUDs) signal increased suicide risk, especially among women.

Link to Abstract
Volatility and change in chronic pain severity predict outcomes of treatment for prescription opioid addiction

Adults with chronic pain receiving out-patient treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NLX) for prescription opioid addiction have an elevated risk for opioid use when tapering off maintenance treatment.

Link to Abstract
Generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

The findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for substance use disorder treatment do not appear to be generalizable to target populations when the RCT samples do not reflect the target populations and there is treatment effect heterogeneity across patient subgroups.

Link to Abstract
Working memory ability and early drug use progression as predictors of adolescent substance use disorders

Adolescents with weak working memory have less control over impulsive urges, placing them at risk for later substance use disorder.

Link to Abstract
The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis

Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline (a national telephone support service for quitting smoking) but did not significantly increase the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers.

Link to Abstract
Large multi-centre pilot randomized controlled trial testing a low-cost, tailored, self-help smoking cessation text message intervention for pregnant smokers (MiQuit)

A text-messaging programme may increase cessation rates in pregnant smokers when provided alongside routine NHS cessation care.

Link to Abstract
Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness: a Danish nation-wide, prospective, register-based study...

Substance use disorders are strongly associated with risk of suicide and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness.

Link to Abstract
Intravenous midazolam-droperidol combination, droperidol or olanzapine monotherapy for methamphetamine-related acute agitation: subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial

A midazolam-droperidol combination appears to provide more rapid sedation of patients with methamphetamine-related acute agitation than droperidol or olanzapine alone.

Link to Abstract
Adjustment for survey non-representativeness using record-linkage: refined estimates of alcohol consumption by deprivation in Scotland

Using information from data linkage to adjust for non-response bias in health surveys can improve estimates of alternative harmful behaviours.

Link to Abstract
Treatment and primary prevention in people who inject drugs for chronic hepatitis C infection: is elimination possible in a high-prevalence setting?

Based on theoretical model projections, chronic hepatitis C in Greece could be eliminated in the next 4-5 years by increasing treatment to more than 16% of people who inject drugs per year combined with moderate increases in harm reduction coverage.

Link to Abstract
Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland

Incarceration and the elevated transmission risk following prison release can contribute significantly to hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract

August 2017

Dimensional personality traits and alcohol treatment outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Among patients receiving treatment for an alcohol use disorder, those who relapse during follow-up have higher novelty-seeking behaviour, lower persistence, lower reward dependence and lower cooperativeness than those who do not relapse.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality: a cohort study in 19 002 men and women attending alcohol treatment

Alcohol-dependent men and women have significantly higher risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic (body-related) diseases relative to the general population.

Link to Abstract
Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics

The total number of drinks consumed in a risky single occasion drinking session appears to rise independently with the duration of the event, the number of drinking locations, and the number of different types of beverage consumed.

Link to Abstract
A National Swedish Longitudinal Twin-Sibling Study of alcohol use disorders among males

There appear to be two major genetic factors contributing to the risk of alcohol use disorder among Swedish men: one beginning at ages 18-25 and another, of less impact, beginning at ages 26-33.

Link to Abstract
Disparities in pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in the context of universal health care: a Swedish register study

There appear to be socio-economic disparities in the receipt of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in Sweden.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions to reduce drug use among adults in a low-income urban emergency department: the HealthiER You study

An emergency department-based motivational brief intervention, delivered by a therapist and guided by computer, appears to reduce drug use among adults seeking emergency department care.

Link to Abstract
Does exposure to opioid substitution treatment in prison reduce the risk of death after release? A national prospective observational study in England

In an English national study, prison-based opioid substitution therapy was associated with a 75% reduction in all-cause mortality and an 85% reduction in fatal drug-related poisoning in the first month after prison release.

Link to Abstract
Engagement in HIV care and its correlates among people who inject drugs in St Petersburg, Russian Federation and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

The two steps in treatment cascade for HIV-positive PWID in St Petersburg, RF and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia requiring greatest improvement are retention in regular care and initiation of HAART.

Link to Abstract
High risk of overdose death following release from prison: variations in mortality during a 15-year observation period

There is an elevated risk of death from drug overdose among individuals released from Norwegian prisons, peaking in the first week, and greatest for those having served 3-12 months.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of extended release naltrexone to prevent relapse among criminal justice-involved individuals with a history of opioid use disorder

While extended-release naltrexone appears to increase both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective due to the high price of injections.

Link to Abstract
Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial

Extending cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for alcohol and drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary health care in Chile

It is not clear whether a brief intervention associated with the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test is more effective than an informational pamphlet in reducing alcohol and illicit substance consumption in non-treatment-seeking, primary care users with moderate risk.

Link to Abstract
Self-reported substance use in Iraq: findings from the Iraqi National Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use, 2014

Psychoactive drug use is generally low in Iraq, tobacco being highest at an estimated 23.2%. Iraqi women report significantly less substance use than Iraqi men. Discrepancy between self-report and 'knowing someone who uses a substance' suggests under-reporting.

Link to Abstract
Epidemiology of HIV and hepatitis C infection among women who inject drugs in Northeast India: a respondent-driven sampling study

Women who inject drugs in Northeast India have a high HIV prevalence, which was more than double their hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence, an opposite pattern than is observed typically among men who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol use from adolescence through early adulthood: an assessment of measurement invariance by age and gender

Studies that do not account for the effects of gender and age on the measurement of alcohol use may be statistically biased.

Link to Abstract

September 2017

Internet interventions for adult illicit substance users: a meta-analysis

Internet interventions can yield small but significant reduction in illicit substance use.

Link to Abstract
Life-time risk of mortality due to different levels of alcohol consumption in seven European countries: implications for low-risk drinking guidelines

If low-risk alcohol guidelines were based on an acceptable risk of one in 1000 premature deaths, maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men, and some current guidelines would need downward revision.

Link to Abstract
Coping mediates the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among out-patient clients in Project MATCH when dependence severity is high

Coping activities seem to be a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among clients with high dependence severity, but not low dependence severity.

Link to Abstract
Hospitalizations, costs and outcomes associated with heroin and prescription opioid overdoses in the United States 2001-12

Rates and costs of US hospital admissions related to heroin and prescription opioid overdose increased substantially from 2001 to 2012.

Link to Abstract
Insular and cingulate attenuation during decision making is associated with future transition to stimulant use disorder

People who transition from stimulant use to stimulant use disorder appear to show specific types of neural activity that may constitute a high-risk addiction profile.

Link to Abstract
Risk to heroin users of polydrug use of pregabalin or gabapentin

For heroin users, the combination of opioids with gabapentin or pregabalin potentially increases the risk of acute overdose death.

Link to Abstract
The economic burden of neonatal abstinence syndrome in the United States

The number of US hospital admissions involving neonatal abstinence syndrome increased more than fourfold between 2003 and 2012. In 2012, neonatal abstinence syndrome cost nearly $316 million.

Link to Abstract
Associations between childhood maltreatment and non-medical use of prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents

Maltreatment while a child is associated with an increased risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Effect of 0.5 mg versus 1 mg varenicline for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

There appears to be no difference in smoking cessation effectiveness between 1 mg and 0.5 mg varenicline, both administered twice daily for 8 weeks.

Link to Abstract
Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up

Among people who smoke, those also using an e-cigarette regularly are more likely to try to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption during the next 6 months.

Link to Abstract
The role of novelty seeking as a predictor of substance use disorder outcomes in early adulthood

The association between high novelty seeking and substance use disorders is not explained by common underlying individual factors and environmental exposures; thus, novelty seeking may play a causal role in the development of substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract
Prescription contraception use and adherence by women with substance use disorders

Women with substance use disorders are less likely to use prescription contraceptives but not less likely to adhere to them once prescribed.

Link to Abstract
Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray over first 30 minutes post-dosing: analysis of suitability for opioid overdose reversal

Concentrated naloxone nasal spray has a promising pharmacokinetic profile, with substantial bioavailability. Its early absorption time-course suggests it is suitable for emergency administration in the community.

Link to Abstract
Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: the electronic gaming motives questionnaire

The four-dimensional Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming.

Link to Abstract
Significant reductions in alcohol use after hepatitis C treatment: results from the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH cohort

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment appears to help HIV-HCV co-infected patients reduce alcohol use.

Link to Abstract

October 2017

Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women

From 1966 to 2015, approximately a quarter of newly incarcerated prisoners of both sexes across 10 countries had an alcohol use disorder, and the prevalence of a drug use disorder was at least as high in men, and higher in women.

Link to Abstract
Adolescents' exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and their alcohol use: exploring associations during a 13-year period

While Australian adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising on television reduced between 1999 and 2011, higher levels of past-month television alcohol advertising were associated with an increased likelihood of adolescents' drinking.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension in Denmark: a prospective cohort study

In Danish men aged 18-60, both alcohol abstinence and heavy consumption are associated with increased subsequent risk of unemployment and sickness absence compared with low consumption. In Danish women, abstainers have increased risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension, while binge drinkers are more likely to become unemployed subsequently.

Link to Abstract
The impact of normative perceptions on alcohol consumption in military veterans

Among US military personnel, attitudes to drinking appear to mediate the association between descriptive norms (what most people in a group think, feel, or do) and injunctions norms (what most people in a group approve of) about alcohol and subsequent level of alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Do more robust prescription drug monitoring programs reduce prescription opioid overdose?

US states that have more robust prescription drug monitoring programs (PMPs) have fewer prescription opioid overdose deaths than states with weaker PMPs.

Link to Abstract
Impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on opioid utilization among Medicare beneficiaries in 10 US States

Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are associated with reductions in opioid use among disabled and older adult Medicare beneficiaries in the United States compared with states that do not have PDMPs.

Link to Abstract
Assessing the impact of a temporary class drug order on ethylphenidate-related infections among people who inject drugs in Lothian, Scotland: an interrupted time-series analysis

The UK government's 2015 temporary class drug order on ethylphenidate was effective in reducing infections among people who inject drugs during an outbreak situation in Lothian, Scotland.

Link to Abstract
Varenicline versus nicotine patch with brief advice for smokers with substance use disorders with or without depression: effects on smoking, substance use and depressive symptoms

Varenicline appears to improve the chances of achieving at least 3 months of smoking abstinence in smokers with substance use disorders trying to stop, compared with transdermal nicotine patches, the effect being independent of history of depressive disorder.

Link to Abstract
Perceived harms and benefits of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic vaporizers among young adults in Colorado: implications for health education and research

Young adults in Colorado, USA, perceive the harms and benefits of tobacco and marijuana in terms of potency, chemical additives, addiction, combustible versus non-combustible products, and source of information.

Link to Abstract
Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: a time-series analysis of population trends in England

Between 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were associated positively with prevalence of high-risk drinking.

Link to Abstract
Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking?

Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking.

Link to Abstract
An analysis of purchase price of legal and illicit cigarettes in urban retail environments in 14 low- and middle-income countries

The median purchase price of illicit cigarettes is higher than that of legal cigarette packs in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia appear to have few or no illicit cigarettes for purchase from formal, urban retailers.

Link to Abstract
PPAR-gamma agonist pioglitazone modifies craving intensity and brain white matter integrity in patients with primary cocaine use disorder: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial

Compared with placebo, patients receiving pioglitazone show a higher likelihood of reduced cocaine craving and improved brain white matter integrity as a function of time in treatment.

Link to Abstract

November 2017

The effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol-related violence in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol: a randomized controlled trial

In Wales, UK, an Environmental Health Practitioner-led intervention in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol resulted in an increase in police recorded violence.

Link to Abstract
Familial association of abstinent remission from alcohol use disorder in first-degree relatives of alcohol-dependent treatment-seeking probands

The likelihood of abstinent remission among people with alcohol use disorder appears to be more than three times greater for individuals who are related to an abstinent proband versus those related to a proband with persistent alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
The contribution of alcohol use and other behavioural, material and social factors to socio-economic differences in alcohol-related disorders in a Swedish cohort

Socio-economic differences in alcohol use only explain a quarter of the socio-economic position differences in alcohol-related disorders in Stockholm, Sweden.

Link to Abstract
Are alcohol-related disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth decreasing?

Lesbian/gay and bisexual youth in Canada show elevated rates of alcohol use compared with heterosexual youth.

Link to Abstract
The impacts of minimum alcohol pricing on alcohol attributable morbidity in regions of British Colombia, Canada with low, medium and high mean family income

In Canada, setting a minimum price for alcohol has been associated with a reduction in alcohol attributable hospitalizations.

Link to Abstract
Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort

Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with youth with fewer depressive symptoms.

Link to Abstract
Nucleus accumbens functional connectivity at age 20 is associated with trajectory of adolescent cannabis use and predicts psychosocial functioning in young adulthood

Patterns of cannabis use frequency in US male adolescents could affect mood symptoms and educational attainment in early adulthood via altered function in neural reward circuitry.

Link to Abstract
Ready, willing, and able: the role of cannabis use opportunities in understanding adolescent cannabis use

Approaches to measuring adolescent cannabis use that account for realistic use opportunities are critical to understanding underage cannabis use. Delineation of realistic opportunities from behaviours conditioned upon such opportunities is generalizable to a range of public health issues.

Link to Abstract
Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder

Non-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults aged 26+ years.

Link to Abstract
Changes in undergraduates' marijuana, heavy alcohol and cigarette use following legalization of recreational marijuana use in Oregon

Rates of Oregon college students' marijuana use increased (relative to that of students in other states) following recreational marijuana legislation in 2015, but only for those who reported recent heavy use of alcohol.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of emergency department-initiated treatment for opioid dependence

Buprenorphine appears to be the most cost-effective treatment for people with untreated opioid addiction who visit US emergency departments.

Link to Abstract
Deriving low-risk gambling limits from longitudinal data collected in two independent Canadian studies

Longitudinal data in Canada suggest low-risk gambling thresholds of eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling.

Link to Abstract
Progress in implementation of WHO FCTC Article 14 and its guidelines: a survey of tobacco dependence treatment provision in 142 countries

Fewer than half the Parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have implemented the recommendations of Article 14 and its guidelines to promote tobacco cessation and implement effective measures to help tobacco users quit.

Link to Abstract
Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit: a randomized trial

A very brief, proactive, low-cost smoking-reduction intervention without medications for Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit appears to increase smoking abstinence.

Link to Abstract
Association between elementary school personality and high school smoking and drinking

Three personality traits (urgency, sensation-seeking and low conscientiousness), when measured in 11-year-old children, predict those children's drinking and smoking behavior individually at age 15.

Link to Abstract
A new methodological approach to adjust alcohol exposure distributions to improve the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions

A refinement of Rehm et al.'s approach to adjusting for underreporting in the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions provides more flexibility.

Link to Abstract

December 2017

The experience of initiating injection drug use and its social context: a qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis

Injection drug use initiation is a dynamic process shaped by social and structural factors. Interventions should seek to modify the contexts for initiation.

Link to Abstract
Who achieves low risk drinking during alcohol treatment? An analysis of patients in three alcohol clinical trials

Low-risk drinking is achievable for some individuals as they undergo treatment for alcohol dependence.

Link to Abstract
Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of active tuberculosis in Taiwanese adults: a nation-wide population-based cohort study

In Taiwan, heavy and regular alcohol consumption are associated with higher risks of active tuberculosis.

Link to Abstract
Self-reported cognitive scales in a US National Survey: reliability, validity, and preliminary evidence for associations with alcohol and drug use

Impairments in attention and executive functioning are positively associated with substance use in the US general population.

Link to Abstract
Structural neuroimaging correlates of alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents and adults

Alcohol use severity is associated with widespread lower gray matter volume and white matter integrity in adults, and with lower gray matter volume in adolescents.

Link to Abstract
A pilot randomized clinical trial testing integrated 12-Step facilitation (iTSF) treatment for adolescent substance use disorder

A novel integrated 12-Step facilitation treatment for adolescent substance use disorder showed benefits in terms of 12-Step attendance and consequences and may provide an integrated evidence-based option compatible with existing practices.

Link to Abstract
Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state

In the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flowers, with growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flowers, both THC and cannabidiol concentration are associated with higher per-gram prices.

Link to Abstract
Associations between anhedonia and marijuana use escalation across mid-adolescence

In mid-adolescence, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure) is associated with subsequent marijuana use escalation, but marijuana use escalation does not appear to be associated with subsequent anhedonia.

Link to Abstract
Rates, characteristics and circumstances of methamphetamine-related death in Australia: a national 7-year study

Methamphetamine death rates doubled in Australia from 2009 to 2015. While toxicity was the most frequent cause, natural disease, suicide and accident comprised more than half of deaths.

Link to Abstract
Mapping medical marijuana: state laws regulating patients, product safety, supply chains and dispensaries, 2017

The US federal ban on marijuana has manifested as a patchwork of regulatory strategies not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and of unknown effectiveness.

Link to Abstract
A free ride? An analysis of the association of casino bus tours and problem gambling among older adults

Older adults who use bus tours to access Canadian gambling venues have an increased likelihood of problem gambling.

Link to Abstract
Accuracy of self-reported smoking abstinence in clinical trials of hospital-initiated smoking interventions

In the United States, high rates (40%) of recently hospitalized smokers enrolled in smoking cessation trials fail biochemical verification of their self-reported abstinence.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of intensive practice nurse counselling versus brief general practitioner advice, both combined with varenicline, for smoking cessation: a randomized pragmatic trial in primary care

In people seeking help to stop smoking, one-off brief advice from a GP appears to be as effective as several sessions of behavioural support from a practice nurse when smoking cessation medication is provided.

Link to Abstract
The association between personal income and smoking among adolescents: a study in six European cities

In the Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Finland, adolescents' personal income is related positively to smoking behaviours independent of family socio-economic status.

Link to Abstract
Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project

Stakeholders in tobacco control and smoking cessation research identified electronic cigarettes, addressing inequalities, and mental health and other substance abuse as key areas for research.

Link to Abstract

January 2016

How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest; it primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives.

Link to Abstract
The drug situation in Europe: an overview of data available on illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances from European monitoring in 2015

Opioid drugs continue to burden the European drug treatment system, although both new heroin entrants and injecting show declines. The European early warning system now monitors more than 450 new psychoactive substances.

Link to Abstract
Health information on alcoholic beverage containers: has the alcohol industry's pledge in England to improve labelling been met?

The UK Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol labelling pledge has not been fully met. Labelling information frequently falls short of best practice, with font and logos smaller than would be accepted on other products with adverse health effects.

Link to Abstract
Relating off-premises alcohol outlet density to intentional and unintentional injuries

Greater off-premises outlet density is related to greater incidence of traumatic injury. Chain outlets appear to be most strongly associated with traumatic injury rates.

Link to Abstract
The association between alcohol outlet density and alcohol use among urban and regional Australian adolescents

Higher densities of alcohol outlets in an adolescent's immediate neighbourhood are related to increased likelihood of alcohol consumption. The density of licensed clubs is associated more strongly with drinking for urban than for regional adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Risk of mortality on and off methadone substitution treatment in primary care: a national cohort study

Among primary care patients undergoing methadone treatment, risk of all-cause mortality increases following treatment cessation, and is highest in the initial 4-week period.

Link to Abstract
Understanding Americans' views on opioid pain reliever abuse

Americans view the problem of opioid pain reliever abuse as serious, and support nearly all policies recommended by experts to curb the epidemic.

Link to Abstract
Innovative community-based educational face-to-face intervention to reduce HIV, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne infectious risks in difficult-to-reach people who inject drugs: ANRS-AERLI study

An inexpensive and easily implemented educational intervention on risks associated with drug injection reduces significantly unsafe HIV-HCV transmission practices and injection-related complications.

Link to Abstract
Enhancing the effectiveness of smoking treatment research: conceptual bases and progress

A new, synthesized research approach identifies promising components for every phase of smoking treatment. Many intervention components interact with one another.

Link to Abstract
Comparative effectiveness of motivation phase intervention components for use with smokers unwilling to quit: a factorial screening experiment

Motivation-phase nicotine gum and behavioral reduction counseling are promising intervention components for smokers who are initially unwilling to quit.

Link to Abstract
Identifying effective intervention components for smoking cessation: a factorial screening experiment

Preparation counseling and the combination of intensive cessation in-person counseling with preparation nicotine gum or patch are promising intervention components for smoking.

Link to Abstract
Comparative effectiveness of intervention components for producing long-term abstinence from smoking: a factorial screening experiment

Twenty-six weeks of nicotine patch/gum (versus 8 weeks) and maintenance counseling provided by phone are promising intervention components for the cessation and maintenance phases of smoking treatment.

Link to Abstract
Predictors of comorbid polysubstance use and mental health disorders in young adults--a latent class analysis

Mental health disorders are more likely in young adults with polysubstance use disorders than those with alcohol/cannabis use disorders.

Link to Abstract

February 2016

Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin: a 40-year history of Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service

The history of Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service in 1973, reflects changing perceptions of appropriate addiction treatment and appropriate funding relationships between statutory authorities and service providers.

Link to Abstract
Does parental drinking influence children's drinking? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies

More parental drinking is associated with more drinking in offspring, but a causal connection has not yet been established.

Link to Abstract
An international systematic review of smoking prevalence in addiction treatment

Smoking prevalence is higher among people enrolled in addiction treatment compared with the general population. Within that group, smoking rates are higher in people being treated for opiate dependence compared with people being treated for alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Validation of an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

The computer self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test appears to be a valid way to identify substance use in primary care patients.

Link to Abstract
Drinking and mortality: long-term follow-up of drinking-discordant twin pairs

Twin data from Finland show that monthly alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced blackouts are important factors leading to increased deaths in heavy drinkers.

Link to Abstract
The importance of age groups in estimates of alcohol-attributable mortality: impact on trends in Switzerland between 1997 and 2011

Trends in alcohol-attributable mortality differ according to the upper age limit used for the estimates.

Link to Abstract
Does promoting parents' negative attitudes to underage drinking reduce adolescents' drinking? The mediating process and moderators of the effects of the Ã-rebro Prevention Programme

Increasing parents' restrictive attitudes to youth drinking appears to reduce heavy underage drinking regardless of gender, immigrant status, parents' and peers' alcohol use and parent-youth relationship quality.

Link to Abstract
Declining and rebounding unhealthy alcohol consumption during the first year of HIV care in rural Uganda, using phosphatidylethanol to augment self-report

Unhealthy alcohol use among Ugandan adults entering HIV care declines prior to the start of anti-retroviral therapy but rebounds with time. The alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol increases detection of unhealthy alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
Prevalence of and motives for pharmacological neuroenhancement in Switzerland--results from a national internet panel

Taking prescription or recreational drugs for pharmacological neuroenhancement is rare among Swiss employees and students (4.0%), with mood enhancement (3.1%) more prevalent than cognitive enhancement (1.4%).

Link to Abstract
Impact of treatment for opioid dependence on fatal drug-related poisoning: a national cohort study in England

Patients who receive only psychological support for opioid dependence in England appear to be at greater risk of fatal opioid poisoning than those who receive pharmacotherapy.

Link to Abstract
Treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs attending opioid substitution treatment and community health clinics: the ETHOS Study

People with a history of injecting drug use and chronic hepatitis C virus attending opioid substitution treatment and community health clinics adhere to, and respond to, interferon-based therapy similarly to other populations.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between player losses and gambling-related harm: evidence from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in four countries

Contrary to previous reports, increased gambling losses appear to increase gambling-related harms according to a linear or r-shaped function, not a j-shaped function.

Link to Abstract
Enhancing Quit & Win contests to improve cessation among college smokers: a randomized clinical trial

Multiple Quit & Win contests appear to increase smoking abstinence rates in college students more than single contests.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinical smoking cessation interventions in Thailand

In middle-income countries such as Thailand, nortriptyline and varenicline appear to provide cost-effective clinical options to help smokers quit.

Link to Abstract
Behavioral associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence among US young adults

A new waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence scale created by adapting traditional tobacco dependence measures appears to be a valid tool for measuring dependence.

Link to Abstract
Are financial incentives cost-effective to support smoking cessation during pregnancy?

Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy are highly cost-effective.

Link to Abstract

March 2016

Peer-led interventions to prevent tobacco, alcohol and/or drug use among young people aged 11-21 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Peer interventions may help prevent tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents, but the evidence base is limited.

Link to Abstract
The prevalence of compulsive buying: A meta-analysis

Evidence to date suggests that in countries where it has been studied around 1 in 20 adults may suffer from compulsive buying.

Link to Abstract
Enforcement uniquely predicts reductions in alcohol-impaired crash fatalities

As enforcement of drunk driving laws increases, alcohol-impaired crash fatalities decrease.

Link to Abstract
The contribution of education, social class and economic activity to the income-mortality association in alcohol-related and other mortality in Finland in 1988-2012

The income disparity in mortality among working-age Finns originates increasingly from alcohol-related causes of death.

Link to Abstract
Increasing compliance with alcohol service laws in a developing country: intervention trial in the Kingdom of Bhutan

A programme to improve compliance with legal restrictions on serving alcohol in Bhutan had a modest effect, reducing illegal purchases from 80% to 66%.

Link to Abstract
Potential cost-effectiveness of supervised injection facilities in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada

It is likely to be cost-effective to establish at least three supervised injection facilities in Toronto, Canada and two in Ottawa, Canada.

Link to Abstract
Being the victim of violence during a date predicts next-day cannabis use among female college students

Among female college students in the United States, being the victim of violence during a date appears to increase the risk for cannabis use the following day.

Link to Abstract
Clinical risk factors for death after release from prison in Washington State: a nested case-control study

Injection drug use and substance use disorders are important risk factors for death following release from prison.

Link to Abstract
Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users

Self-reported addiction to video gaming and internet use correlates better with problems associated with these activities than reports of heavy use of these products over time.

Link to Abstract
Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs

Higher tobacco outlet density may increase life-time smoking among youths.

Link to Abstract
Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes

E-cigarettes can deliver levels of nicotine that are comparable to or higher than typical tobacco cigarettes, with similar systemic retention, suggesting addictive potential.

Link to Abstract
Predictors of 10-year smoking abstinence in smokers abstinent for 1 year after treatment

Having a psychological disorder at the time of stopping smoking is a risk factor for relapse to smoking, even after more than 1 year of abstinence.

Link to Abstract

April 2016

Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban) and varenicline (Chantix, Champix) appear to be effective and tolerable stop-smoking aids for adults with serious mental illnesses.

Link to Abstract
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a potential measure in substance use treatment-outcome studies

Because respiratory sinus arrhythmia appears to measure self-regulatory capacity, it may be a useful measure of underlying mechanisms in substance use disorder treatment studies.

Link to Abstract
Temporal changes in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity in Australia

In Australia between 2001 and 2010, alcohol-attributable death and illness increased without a corresponding increase in per capita alcohol consumption.

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Relation between age of first drinking and mental health and alcohol and drug disorders in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year cohort study

The associations between age of first drinking and later alcohol/drug disorders appear to be partly accounted for by factors related to characteristics of the individual and family during childhood.

Link to Abstract
Population trends in smoking, alcohol use and primary prevention variables among adolescents in Iceland, 1997-2014

Substance use among adolescents in Iceland has declined steadily from 1997 to 2014, while primary prevention factors for substance use (e.g., parental monitoring, participation in organized sports) have increased in strength.

Link to Abstract
The burden of disease attributable to cannabis use in Canada in 2012

The cannabis-attributable burden of disease in Canada in 2012 included 55,813 years of life lost due to disability, caused mainly by cannabis use disorders.

Link to Abstract
Qualitative evaluation of a novel contingency management-related intervention for patients receiving supervised injectable opioid treatment

A 'qualitative realist' evaluation of an intervention for complex substance use disorders suggests that the programmes need to: have stakeholder input implement consistent eligibility criteria, rules and processes; and be introduced into stable treatment settings where relationships are trusting and patients and staff feel secure.

Link to Abstract
Measuring benefits of opioid misuse treatment for economic evaluation: health-related quality of life of opioid-dependent individuals and their spouses as assessed by a sample of the US population

US public opinion holds that injection opioid misuse reduces quality of life more than prescription drug misuse, and methadone therapy reduces quality of life more than buprenorphine therapy.

Link to Abstract
Advancing patient-centered care for structurally vulnerable drug-using populations: a qualitative study of the perspectives of people who use drugs ...

Hospital-based harm reduction interventions for people who use drugs can potentially improve hospital care retention, promote patient-centered care and reduce adverse health outcomes among people who use drugs.

Link to Abstract
Long-term outcomes after randomization to buprenorphine/naloxone versus methadone in a multi-site trial

There are few differences in long-term outcomes between buprenorphine and methadone treatment for opioid dependence. Treatment with each medication is associated with a strong reduction in illicit opioid use.

Link to Abstract
Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan

Approximately half of 8240 respondents in a Japanese internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products and 6.6% had tried them. Of that 6.6%, more than 70% used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, which are unregulated in Japan, and 33% used nicotine e-cigarettes, which are prohibited.

Link to Abstract
Integrating smoking cessation into routine care in hospitals--a randomized controlled trial

A pharmacist-led multi-component stop-smoking intervention during hospital stay did not improve abstinence rates at 6 or 12 months compared with routine hospital care.

Link to Abstract
Characteristics of users and usage of different types of electronic cigarettes: findings from an online survey

In an online survey of e-cigarette users, newer-generation e-cigarettes were perceived as more satisfactory and more effective for refraining from smoking than older models.

Link to Abstract
The effect of potential electronic nicotine delivery system regulations on nicotine product selection

Higher taxes, a proposed US FDA warning label for e-cigarettes, and a more severe warning label may discourage adult smokers from switching from cigarettes to e-cigarettes.

Link to Abstract

May 2016

Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of alcohol screening with brief interventions for patients in emergency care settings

Brief interventions in emergency care settings appear to have very small effects on alcohol consumption. More intensive interventions show no clear benefit over briefer ones.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of motivational interviewing to reduce illicit drug use in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Motivational interviewing has not been found thus far to reduce adolescent use of illicit drugs.

Link to Abstract
Validity of the alcohol purchase task: a meta-analysis

The Alcohol Purchase Task appears to have good construct validity but limited incremental utility in estimating risk for alcohol problems.

Link to Abstract
A microsimulation cost-utility analysis of alcohol screening and brief intervention to reduce heavy alcohol consumption in Canada

In Canada, screening and brief intervention via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) to reduce heavy alcohol consumption appears to be cost-effective at AUDIT thresholds of 8 and lower and AUDIT-C thresholds of 7 and lower.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of motivational intervention with significant others for patients with alcohol misuse

It appears to be cost-effective to incorporate a patient's partner into a patient's motivational intervention for alcohol misuse.

Link to Abstract
Assessing elements of a family approach to reduce adolescent drinking frequency: parent-adolescent relationship, knowledge management and keeping secrets

Adolescent alcohol use appears to increase as parental control decreases and child secrecy increases.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of drinking urges and the initiation of abstinence during cognitive-behavioral alcohol treatment

Drinking urges during out-patient behavioral treatment for alcohol use disorders may be maintained in part by alcohol consumption. Initiating abstinence is associated with reductions in drinking urges immediately and then more gradually over time.

Link to Abstract
Malmo Treatment Referral and Intervention Study (MATRIS)--effective referral from syringe exchange to treatment for heroin dependence: a pilot randomized controlled trial

A pilot randomized controlled trial in a syringe exchange programme did not indicate effectiveness of a strength-based case management intervention to improve attendance for treatment over referral alone.

Link to Abstract
Medical treatments for opioid use disorder in Iran: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of buprenorphine/naloxone and naltrexone maintenance treatment

Among patients with opioid use disorder in Iran, sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone led to a greater number of opioid-negative urine tests and better treatment retention than oral naltrexone, but did not yield significantly greater initial abstinence duration or proportions with sustained abstinence.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of Scotland's National Naloxone Programme for reducing opioid-related deaths: a before (2006-10) versus after (2011-13) comparison

Scotland's National Naloxone Programme has been associated with a 36% reduction in opioid-related deaths in the 4 weeks following prison release.

Link to Abstract
Association between Trajectories of Buprenorphine Treatment and Emergency Department and In-patient Utilization

Patients who persistently use buprenorphine for 12 months have a lower risk of all-cause hospitalizations/emergency department visits.

Link to Abstract
Financial incentives to promote extended smoking abstinence in opioid-maintained patients: a randomized trial

Among opioid-maintained smokers receiving an initial period of daily contingent incentives, contingent reinforcement appears to be more effective at extending smoking abstinence than noncontingent reinforcement over 10 weeks.

Link to Abstract
Childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and 3-year persistence of adult alcohol and nicotine dependence in a national sample

The association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol and nicotine dependence may be mediated in part by development of personality disorders.

Link to Abstract
When psychopathology matters most: identifying sensitive periods when within-person changes in conduct, affective and anxiety problems are associated with male adolescent substance use

Among adolescent boys, increased conduct disorder problems appear to increase the likelihood of later substance use, and increased alcohol use appears to increase the likelihood of later anxiety problems. Developmental turning points appear to be particularly sensitive periods for developing these patterns.

Link to Abstract

June 2016

In the weeds: a baseline view of cannabis use among legalizing states and their neighbours

In the United States, 86% of people who report ever using cannabis for medicinal purposes also use it recreationally. People who use cannabis do not commonly use it with alcohol, irrespective of recreational or medical use.

Link to Abstract
Re-starting smoking in the postpartum period after receiving a smoking cessation intervention: a systematic review

Nearly half of women who stop smoking during pregnancy go back to smoking soon after the baby is born.

Link to Abstract
Impacts of drinking-age legislation on alcohol-impaired driving crimes among young people in Canada, 2009-13

Release from drinking-age restrictions appears to be associated with increases in alcohol-impaired driving offences among young drivers in Canada.

Link to Abstract
Association between a brief alcohol craving measure and drinking in the following week

Craving for alcohol is associated strongly with alcohol use in the following week.

Link to Abstract
Therapist and client discussions of drinking and coping: a sequential analysis of therapy dialogues in three evidence-based alcohol use disorder treatments

In motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and 12-Step facilitation therapy for alcohol use disorders, the therapists who explore and connect with clients appear to be more successful at eliciting discussion about change than therapists who engage in teaching behaviour.

Link to Abstract
Long-term effects of changes in Swedish alcohol policy: can alcohol policies effective during adolescence impact consumption during adulthood?

Men and women in Sweden who grew up during a period with more restrictive alcohol policies currently drink less alcohol than those who grew up during periods with more liberal policies.

Link to Abstract
A micro-temporal geospatial analysis of medical marijuana dispensaries and crime in Long Beach, California

Using law enforcement to reduce the number of medical marijuana dispensaries in California appears to have reduced crime in residential areas near to, but not in, these locations.

Link to Abstract
Role of overlapping genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between early adolescent conduct problems and substance use in young adulthood

Conduct disorder symptoms in early adolescence appear moderately to predict substance use in early adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage

Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility and feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances.

Link to Abstract
Associations between smoking and caffeine consumption in two European cohorts

There appears to be a positive association between smoking and caffeine consumption in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

Link to Abstract
Protocol proposal for, and evaluation of, consistency in nicotine delivery from the liquid to the aerosol of electronic cigarettes atomizers: regulatory implications

E-cigarettes that use tank-type atomizers appear to deliver nicotine in more consistent quantities than electronic cigarettes that use cartomizers. The protocol for testing e-cigarette nicotine delivery consistency described in this paper could be used effectively for regulatory purposes.

Link to Abstract
E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives

Themes that emerge in UK vapers' views about e-cigarettes are a need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping, and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence.

Link to Abstract
Polysomnographic measures of sleep in cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence: Implications for age-related loss of slow wave, stage 3 sleep

Cocaine and alcohol dependence appear to be associated with marked disturbances of sleep architecture.

Link to Abstract
Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

Iterative categorization (IC) is a simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and able to support a range of common analytical approaches.

Link to Abstract
Reverse engineering a 'responsible drinking' campaign to assess strategic intent

The "How to Drink Properly" ad by Drinkwise in Australia may reinforce existing drinking attitudes and behaviours among young drinkers.

Link to Abstract

July 2016

Gabapentin misuse, abuse and diversion: a systematic review

The anti-epileptic and analgesic medication gabapentin appears to be misused in many countries.

Link to Abstract
Are take-home naloxone programmes effective? Systematic review utilizing application of the Bradford Hill criteria

Take-home naloxone reduces overdose mortality and has a low rate of adverse events.

Link to Abstract
Sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood

Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and young adulthood appears to be mostly influenced by gender-specific shared environmental factors (e.g. rearing influences, shared friends).

Link to Abstract
A successful high-visibility enforcement intervention targeting underage drinking drivers

A high-visibility enforcement campaign targeting underage drink driving appeared to reduce both underage driving after drinking among US college students and drink driving at any age.

Link to Abstract
Estimating under- and over-reporting of drinking in national surveys of alcohol consumption: identification of consistent biases across four English-speaking countries

People who describe themselves as less frequent drinkers appear to under-report their drinking frequency substantially.

Link to Abstract
Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

In the USA, recruits for randomized controlled trials of substance use disorder treatments tend to have more years of education and a greater likelihood of full-time work compared with people receiving care in routine clinical settings.

Link to Abstract
Differences in polysubstance use patterns and drug-related outcomes between people who inject drugs receiving and not receiving opioid substitution therapies

People who inject drugs and also use a broad range of substances have more injecting-related injuries and poorer health outcomes and are more likely to engage in criminal activity than other groups of people who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract
Clinical outcomes of patients infected with HIV through use of injected drugs compared to patients infected through sexual transmission

In Spain, patients who acquire HIV infection through use of injected drugs appear to have a higher risk of late presentation, delayed initiation of anti-retroviral treatment and progression to AIDS and death than patients who acquire HIV by sexual transmission.

Link to Abstract
Spatial patterns of arrests, police assault and addiction treatment center locations in Tijuana, Mexico

In Mexico, people who inject drugs are at greater risk of police violence if they consider themselves in need of addiction treatment, and their police interactions are more frequent around treatment centers.

Link to Abstract
The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation: Results from a randomized controlled trial

Proactive telephone counselling is more effective than a self-help booklet in achieving prolonged smoking abstinence for 12 months.

Link to Abstract
Who thinks what about e-cigarette regulation? A content analysis of UK newspapers

In the UK between 2013 and 2014, governments and tobacco control advocates frequently commented on e-cigs in UK-wide and Scottish national newspapers, most supporting e-cig regulation, but not agreeing on e-cig use in enclosed public spaces.

Link to Abstract
Does cigarette reduction while using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit attempt predict abstinence following quit date?

Smoking reduction prior to a target quit date while on a smoking cessation medication may only predict subsequent abstinence when smokers are consciously attempting to reduce.

Link to Abstract
A comparison of neuropsychiatric adverse events during early treatment with varenicline or a nicotine patch

In US Veterans Administration patients using varenicline from smoking cessation prior to implementation of a 'black box' warning about neuropsychiatric side effects, the drug was not associated with an increase in hospitalization for mental health disorders compared with use of nicotine patches.

Link to Abstract
Governmental standard drink definitions and low-risk alcohol consumption guidelines in 37 countries

Drinking guidelines and 'standard drink' definitions are inconsistent across the globe. The size of a standard drink varies by as much as 250% from country to country.

Link to Abstract

August 2016

Topiramate for cocaine dependence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Topiramate for cocaine dependence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Current evidence does not support the use of topiramate to improve treatment retention for cocaine use disorder.

Link to Abstract
The effects of cannabis intoxication on motor vehicle collision revisited and revised

Acute cannabis intoxication is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in motor vehicle crash risk.

Link to Abstract
Daily alcohol Use as an independent risk factor for HIV seroconversion among people who inject drugs

Daily alcohol use appears to be an independent risk factor for HIV seroconversion among people who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract
Gender-specific effects of comorbid depression and anxiety on the propensity to drink in negative emotional states

Female alcoholics seem to have a higher prevalence than males of comorbid depression and anxiety disorders and tendency to drink in negative emotional situations.

Link to Abstract
Estimating demand for primary care-based treatment for substance and alcohol use disorders

In the US, people with substance or alcohol use disorders seem more willing to enter treatment in a primary care setting than in a specialty drug treatment centre.

Link to Abstract
A randomized trial of a pain management intervention for adults receiving substance use disorder treatment

Among adults with pain receiving addictions treatment, a psychological pain management intervention appears to reduce pain and alcohol use and improve pain-related functioning over 12 months.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of a universal internet-based prevention program for ecstasy and new psychoactive substances: a cluster randomized controlled trial

A universal online school-based prevention program appeared to reduce students' intentions to use new psychoactive substances (NPS) and increased knowledge about ecstasy and NPS in the short term.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine taper duration among opioid-dependent adolescents and young adults

Longer (56-day) buprenorphine taper produces better opioid abstinence and retention outcomes than shorter (28-day) taper for opioid-dependent youth.

Link to Abstract
Buprenorphine + naloxone plus naltrexone for the treatment of cocaine dependence: the Cocaine Use Reduction with Buprenorphine (CURB) study

Buprenorphine + naloxone, used in combination with naltrexone, may be associated with reductions in cocaine use among people with cocaine dependence.

Link to Abstract
Problem gambling and the five-factor model of personality: a large population-based study

Higher severity problem gambling may be associated with higher neuroticism scores and lower conscientiousness and agreeableness scores in the Mini-International Personality Item Pool.

Link to Abstract
Depression motivates quit attempts but predicts relapse: differential findings for gender from the International Tobacco Control Study

Smokers with depressive symptoms or diagnosis make more quit attempts than their non-depressed counterparts but are likelier to relapse in the first month.

Link to Abstract
The impact of quitting smoking on depressive symptoms: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey

Most people who stop smoking appear to be at no greater risk of developing symptoms of depression than if they had continued smoking.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio-economic background to alcohol consumption

In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and if they participate in tertiary education (college and university).

Link to Abstract
Ecological momentary assessment of working memory under conditions of simultaneous marijuana and tobacco use

The putative effect of marijuana on working memory and the facilitative effect of tobacco on working memory are no longer present when used simultaneously with tobacco and alcohol, respectively.

Link to Abstract
Weak evidence on nalmefene creates dilemmas for clinicians and poses questions for regulators and researchers

Nalmefene, a drug used to treat alcohol problems, was licensed for use in the UK despite insufficient evidence to prove its effectiveness.

Link to Abstract

September 2016

A mixed-method systematic review and meta-analysis of mental health professionals' attitudes toward smoking and smoking cessation among people with mental illnesses

A significant proportion of mental health professionals holds attitudes and misconceptions that may undermine the delivery of smoking cessation interventions.

Link to Abstract
Varenicline for smoking cessation and reduction in people with severe mental illnesses: systematic review and meta-analysis

Varenicline appears to be significantly more effective than placebo for smoking cessation and reduction in people with severe mental illness, with no clear evidence of increased risk of psychiatric adverse events.

Link to Abstract
Developing a social practice-based typology of British drinking culture in 2009-2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis

Eight types of drinking situation in Great Britain can be identified: mixed -location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get-together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%).

Link to Abstract
The indirect effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on alcohol problems in adulthood through unique facets of impulsivity

Elevated levels of emotional impulsivity (negative/positive urgency) may be what puts children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at increased risk for alcohol problems in adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Understanding trends in Australian alcohol consumption--an age-period-cohort model

The overall decline in drinking in Australia during the past decade is due mainly to less drinking among people in their teens and early twenties.

Link to Abstract
Risk of heavy drinking among sexual minority adolescents: indirect pathways through sexual orientation-related victimization and affiliation with substance-using peers

Sexual minority adolescents in the US appear to exhibit increased heavy episodic drinking via an indirect socialization pathway, including affiliations with substance-using peers and sexual minority-related victimization.

Link to Abstract
The toxicology of heroin-related death: estimating survival times

In heroin-related deaths in Sydney, Australia during 2013 and 2014, 6-monoacetyl morphine (6MAM) was present in the blood in <50% of cases, suggesting that in >50% of those fatalities, survival time exceeded 20-30 minutes, giving sufficient time to intervene.

Link to Abstract
An economic evaluation of contingency management for completion of hepatitis B vaccination in those on treatment for opiate dependence

Using financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost-effective use of health-care resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%.

Link to Abstract
Implications of gambling problems for family and interpersonal adjustment: results from the Quinte Longitudinal Study

At-risk and problem gambling may be associated with concurrent and near-term future decreases in social functioning but possibly not longer-term trajectories in social functioning.

Link to Abstract
'Maybe they should regulate them quite strictly until they know the true dangers': a focus group study exploring UK adolescents' views on e-cigarette regulation

In focus group discussions, a sample of UK adolescents exposed to particular communications about e-cigarettes supported strict regulation of e-cigarettes, including banning sales to minors and use in indoor public areas.

Link to Abstract
Motivating parents of kids with asthma to quit smoking: the effect of the teachable moment and increasing intervention intensity using a longitudinal randomized trial design

Parents who smoke whose children have asthma are more likely to quit smoking after receiving motivational smoking cessation counselling following a teachable moment, such as witnessing their child experience an asthma attack).

Link to Abstract
Which measures of cigarette dependence are predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy? Analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial

Four common measures of nicotine dependence (number of cigarettes per day, Fagerström Test score, frequency of urges, level of expired CO) predict short-term smoking abstinence during pregnancy and at end of pregnancy with similar predictive validity.

Link to Abstract
Is khat use disorder a valid diagnostic entity?

The construct of a substance use disorder syndrome for khat using DSM-5 criteria appears valid and performs in a manner consistent with other substances of dependence.

Link to Abstract

October 2016

Gender differences in the impact of population-level alcohol policy interventions: evidence synthesis of systematic reviews

Gender is poorly reported in systematic reviews of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm, hindering assessment of the effects of such policies on women versus men.

Link to Abstract
Smoking in movies and smoking initiation in adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

There are substantial associations between young people reporting having seen smoking imagery in films and smoking initiation, whether assessed cross-sectionally or prospectively. It is not clear whether the association is causal.

Link to Abstract
Evaluating the public health impacts of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the United States

Plausible effects of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the United States include substantially reducing the price of cannabis and increasing heavy use and some types of cannabis-related harm among existing users. In the longer term it may also increase the number of new users.

Link to Abstract
European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use

Degree of adolescent exposure to alcohol marketing appears to be associated with subsequent amount of alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
The burden of alcohol use disorders in US military veterans: results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study

More than 40% of US military veterans have a lifetime history of alcohol use disorder, usually with a substantial comorbid psychiatric burden, including elevated rates of suicidal ideation and attempts.

Link to Abstract
Parental alcohol-related disorders and school performance in 16-year-olds--a Swedish national cohort study

In Sweden, alcohol-related disorders in both mothers and fathers are associated with lower school performance in their children at age 15-16 years.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol-attributed disease burden in four Nordic countries: a comparison using the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors 2013 study

Finland and Denmark had a higher alcohol-attributed disease burden than Sweden and Norway from 1990-2013. Non-fatal conditions accounted for a higher proportion of disability-adjusted life years in Norway and Sweden than Finland and Denmark.

Link to Abstract
Cognitive ability and risk for substance misuse in men: genetic and environmental correlations in a longitudinal nation-wide family study

Common genetic factors appear to explain the association between low cognitive ability and subsequent risk of substance misuse events among Swedish men.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol and marijuana use trajectories in a diverse longitudinal sample of adolescents: examining use patterns from age 11 to 17 years

Greater alcohol and marijuana use is associated with worse functioning in high school for all youth.

Link to Abstract
Epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders in Iran: prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and service utilization results from the Iranian Mental Health Survey

Opioid use disorders are the most common type of drug use disorders in Iran.

Link to Abstract
The impact of codeine re-scheduling on misuse: a retrospective review of calls to Australia's largest poisons centre

Misuse of codeine combination products appears to be increasing in Australia. Limited rescheduling in 2010 failed to curb this increase.

Link to Abstract
From cannabis initiation to daily use: educational inequalities in consumption behaviours over three generations in France

In France, the risk of transition from cannabis initiation to daily use has remained consistently higher among less educated cannabis initiators over three generations.

Link to Abstract
Is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among men associated with initiation or escalation of substance use at 15-month follow-up? A longitudinal study involving young Swiss men

For men in their early 20s, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a risk factor for continued heavier use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and initiating use of cannabis, stimulants, hallucinogens and sedatives, independent of conduct disorder in early adolescence.

Link to Abstract

November 2016

The association between smoking prevalence and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

People with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa are significantly more likely to be life-time smokers than healthy controls.

Link to Abstract
Craving cannabis: a meta-analysis of self-report and psychophysiological cue-reactivity studies

Regular cannabis users have attentional biases towards cannabis cues that appear to be greater relative to non-users than perceptions of craving for the drug.

Link to Abstract
Improving the delivery of brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care: outcome results of the ODHIN five-country cluster randomized factorial trial

Giving primary health-care units training, support and financial reimbursement for delivering AUDIT-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers increases screening for alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Estimated increase in cross-border purchases by Washington residents following liquor privatization and implications for alcohol consumption trends

The privatization of liquor sales in Washington, USA in 2012 resulted in a significant increase in sales in bordering counties in Oregon and Idaho with little change to the amount of alcohol sales and revenue in Washington.

Link to Abstract
Behavioral economic indicators of drinking problem severity and initial outcomes among problem drinkers attempting natural recovery: a cross-sectional naturalistic study

Two behavioral assessment tools that measure spending on alcohol, the Alcohol Purchase Task and the Alcohol-Savings Discretionary Expenditure index, appear to be reliable in assessing drinking problem severity.

Link to Abstract
Perceived parental alcohol problems, internalizing problems and impaired parent-child relationships among 71 988 young people in Denmark

Young people in secondary education in Denmark who report perceived parental alcohol problems have significantly higher odds of internalizing problems and poorer parent-child relationships compared with young people without perceived parental alcohol problems.

Link to Abstract
Predictive validity of clinical AUDIT-C alcohol screening scores and changes in scores for three objective alcohol-related outcomes in a Veterans Affairs population

In clinical settings, baseline AUDIT-C scores and score increases to moderate-severe alcohol misuse at follow-up screening appear to predict higher HDL cholesterol, alcohol-related gastrointestinal hospitalizations and physical trauma.

Link to Abstract
The role of living context in prescription opioid injection and the associated risk of hepatitis C infection

People who inject prescription opioids in inner-city areas of Montréal, Canada are more likely to engage in injecting-related risk behaviours and have a higher risk of hepatitis C virus infection than those who live in the suburbs.

Link to Abstract
Essential/precursor chemicals and drug consumption: impacts of US sodium permanganate and Mexico pseudoephedrine controls on the numbers of US cocaine and methamphetamine users

Essential/precursor chemical controls in the USA (2006) and Mexico (2007) were associated with large, extended reductions in cocaine and methamphetamine users in the USA.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent cannabis use and repeated voluntary unprotected sex in women

Women who start using cannabis during adolescence appear to be more likely to report voluntary engagement in repeated unprotected sex than women who never use cannabis or who initiate cannabis use after adolescence.

Link to Abstract
Non-medical use of prescription opioids is associated with heroin initiation among US veterans: a prospective cohort study

New-onset non-medical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) is a strong risk factor for heroin initiation among HIV-infected and uninfected veterans in the United States who reported no previous history of NMUPO or illicit opioid use.

Link to Abstract
Electronic cigarette use in the European Union: analysis of a representative sample of 27 460 Europeans from 28 countries

E-cigarette use in the European Union appears to be largely confined to current or former smokers, while current use and nicotine use by people who have never smoked is rare.

Link to Abstract
Estimating met demand for alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia

A new method of calculating the use of drug treatment estimates that between 202,168 and 232,419 Australians received alcohol and other drug treatment in 2011-12.

Link to Abstract
Cannabis and alcohol use, affect and impulsivity in psychiatric out-patients' daily lives

Cannabis and alcohol use are associated with higher levels of impulsivity (both), hostility (cannabis) and positive affect (alcohol) in daily life.

Link to Abstract

December 2016

Buprenorphine compared with methadone to treat pregnant women with opioid use disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of safety in the mother, fetus and child

Buprenorphine treatment of opioid use disorder during pregnancy appears to result in lower risk of preterm birth, greater birth weight and larger head circumference compared with methadone treatment, and no greater harms.

Link to Abstract
Behavioural tasks sensitive to acute abstinence and predictive of smoking cessation success: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Compared with satiated smokers, acutely abstinent smokers display higher delay discounting, lower response inhibition, and impaired arithmetic and recognition memory performance.

Link to Abstract
Finding success in failure: using latent profile analysis to examine heterogeneity in psychosocial functioning among heavy drinkers following treatment

Current US Food and Drug Administration guidance to use heavy drinking as indicative of treatment 'failure' does not to take into account substantial psychological and social improvements made by individuals who continue occasionally to drink heavily post-treatment.

Link to Abstract
The party effect: prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content

Adolescents and young adults in the USA appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset associated with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non-party themes.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol-induced place conditioning in moderate social drinkers

Non-dependent consumers of alcohol appear to develop a behavioral preference for locations paired with alcohol consumption, more so for those who experience sedative effects from alcohol in those locations.

Link to Abstract
Developmental course of non-medical use of prescription drugs from adolescence to adulthood in the United States: national longitudinal data

The non-medical use of prescription opioids, sedatives, stimulants and tranquilizers appears to peak during late adolescence. The developmental course of non-medical use is not the same among all four classes of drugs.

Link to Abstract
Community pharmacist knowledge, attitudes and confidence regarding naloxone for overdose reversal

Community pharmacists in Australia appear to be willing to supply naloxone but have low levels of knowledge about naloxone pharmacology and administration.

Link to Abstract
How does state marijuana policy affect US youth? Medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived harmfulness: 1991-2014

While perceived harmfulness of marijuana use appears to be decreasing nationally among adolescents in the USA, the passage of medical marijuana laws (MML) has been associated with increases in perceived harmfulness among young adolescents and marijuana use has decreased among those who perceive marijuana to be harmful after passage of MML.

Link to Abstract
Gambling and violence in a nationally representative sample of UK men

Among UK men, self-reports of problem/pathological gambling are predictive of violent behaviour after adjusting for alcohol and drug dependence, comorbid mental disorder and impulsivity.

Link to Abstract
Estimations and predictors of non-compliance in switchers to reduced nicotine content cigarettes

Among smokers volunteering to smoke only very low nicotine cigarettes for 6 weeks, non-compliance was common and biochemical assessments detected more cases of non-compliance than self-report. Despite this, smokers reduced their intake of nicotine by an average of 60%.

Link to Abstract
Long-term effectiveness of a combined student-parent and a student-only smoking prevention intervention among 7th grade school children in Berlin, Germany

A combined student-parent smoking prevention intervention delivered via secondary schools in Berlin, Germany, did not significantly reduce regular smoking compared with a control group or a student-only intervention. The student-only intervention did not significantly reduce regular smoking compared with the control group.

Link to Abstract
Using Bayes factors for testing hypotheses about intervention effectiveness in addictions research

Use of Bayes factors when analysing data from randomized trials of interventions in addiction research can provide information allowing more precise conclusions than are typically obtained using current methods.

Link to Abstract
The Australian experience following plain packaging: the impact on tobacco branding

The introduction of plain packaging of cigarettes in Australia did not deter the introduction of new brands and variants of cigarettes.

Link to Abstract

January 2015

What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use?

The epidemiological literature in the past 20 years shows that cannabis use increases the risk of accidents and can produce dependence, and that there are consistent associations between regular cannabis use and poor psychosocial outcomes and mental health in adulthood.

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Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in the treatment of adolescents and young adults with depression and substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Antidepressant medication has a small overall effect in reducing depression in young patients with combined depressive and substance-use disorders, but does not appear to improve substance use outcomes.

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Patterns of change in implementation of state alcohol control policies in the United States, 1999-2011

Implementation of politically palatable but ineffective state alcohol policies increased during 1999-2011 in the United States, while the most effective policies remained underused.

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Alcohol expectancies in childhood: change with the onset of drinking and ability to predict adolescent drunkenness and binge drinking

Higher childhood alcohol expectations of positive effects predict earlier onset of problem drinking. Onset of alcohol use is followed by an increase in the rate of development of positive expectancies.

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HERMITAGE--a randomized controlled trial to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviors among HIV-infected Russian drinkers

The HERMITAGE HIV risk reduction intervention does not appear to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviours in Russian HIV-infected heavy drinkers compared with simply providing standard care and attention.

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Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men

Stimulating effects of alcohol are common in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but alcohol appears to be less rewarding.

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Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10 365 general population men

In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime.

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Ongoing impact of HIV infection on mortality among people who inject drugs despite free antiretroviral therapy

HIV infection continues to have a persistent association with mortality rates among people who inject drugs in settings with free HIV/AIDS care, although causes of death have shifted markedly from infectious and AIDS-related causes to non-AIDS-related causes.

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High-frequency drug purity and price series as tools for explaining drug trends and harms in Victoria, Australia

Decreases in methamphetamine purity-adjusted price along with the bimodality of crystal methamphetamine purity may account for some of the recent increase in methamphetamine-related harm in Victoria, Australia. For a given amount spent, methamphetamine purchase power has increased and the presence of extreme purity variations may challenge individuals' control of consumption.

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Cost-effectiveness of rapid HCV testing and simultaneous rapid HCV and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs

On-site rapid hepatitis C virus and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs is cost-effective at a <$100,000/ quality-adjusted life year threshold in the US.

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Telescoping and gender differences in the time course of disordered gambling: evidence from a general population sample

When assessed at the general population level, female gamblers do not appear to show a telescoped disordered gambling trajectory (showing a later age at initiation of gambling but a shorter time from initiation to disorder) compared with male gamblers.

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The Impact of the Tobacco Retail Outlet Environment on Adult Cessation and Differences by Neighborhood Poverty

In the USA, density of tobacco outlets within 500 meters of the home residence appears to be negatively associated with smoking abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes only in poor areas.

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The association between family affluence and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in 33 European countries, Israel and Canada: the role of national wealth

The difference in smoking prevalence between rich and poor people is greater in more affluent countries.

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Plain cigarette packs do not exert Pavlovian to instrumental transfer of control over tobacco-seeking

Plain packaging may reduce smoking rates in current smokers by reducing the extent to which the package acts as an unconscious trigger for smoking urges.

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February 2015

Familial factors associated with development of alcohol and mental health comorbidity

Maternal smoking and low mother-child warmth may lead to alcohol, mental health and comorbid disorders at age 21.

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Effects of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol problems: evaluating chained mediation through generalized anxiety, depression and drinking motives

Propensity to anxiety appears to lead to alcohol problems in part through drinking to deal with negative emotions.

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Tests of the effects of adolescent early alcohol exposures on adult outcomes

Early alcohol use and intoxication may be partly responsible for adult alcohol- and drug-related problems and antisocial behaviour.

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Relative risk of injury from acute alcohol consumption: modeling the dose-response relationship in emergency department data from 18 countries

Women have a higher risk of injury than men after more than three drinks.

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Interaction effects between the 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype and family conflict on adolescent alcohol use and misuse

Compared with non-carriers, adolescents carrying the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele are more susceptible to the effects of family conflict on alcohol misuse.

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Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 US states: impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density

In the United States, the density of alcohol outlets in a county is positively correlated with alcohol-related suicide, especially among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

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Alcohol in the second half of life: do usual quantity and frequency of drinking to intoxication increase with increased drinking frequency?

Among Norwegian adults in the second half of life, increased drinking frequency appears to be associated with a small reduction in usual quantity, and a small increase in frequency of drinking to intoxication.

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Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs

There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions

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Smoking cessation-related weight gain--beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength and bone health

Weight gain from smoking cessation is caused by an increase in muscle mass and bone density as well as an increase in fat.

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The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands

On current projections, smoking will continue to kill hundreds of thousands of people in Northern Europe each year for the foreseeable future.

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Use of stop-smoking medications in the United States before and after the introduction of varenicline

The introduction of varenicline in the United States coincided with a net increase in attempts to quit smoking and, among these, a net increase in use of stop-smoking medications.

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'Wide-awake drunkenness'? Investigating the association between alcohol intoxication and stimulant use in the night-time economy

Stimulants users are more likely to have prolonged sessions of heavy alcohol consumption and a range of risk-taking behaviours on a night out than those who do not use stimulants.

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March 2015

DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among young Swiss men

Previous studies suggest the new DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) will increase the apparent prevalence of AUD. However, in a high-risk sample of young Swiss males, prevalence of AUD as diagnosed by DSM-5 was slightly lower than prevalence of DSM-IV diagnosis of dependence plus abuse.

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The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

When examining the association between alcohol taxes and binge drinking, use of more specific tax measures, incorporating both volume-based taxes and value-based taxes, shows stronger associations than generic measures.

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Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality within siblings

The association between educational status and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality is only driven by familial factors to a small degree.

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Genomic influences on alcohol problems in a population-based sample of young adults

Genetic influences on alcohol problems involve genes underpinning both nervous system functioning and physiological functions outside the nervous system.

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Driving under the influence as a turning point? A register-based study on financial and social consequences among first-time male offenders

Among men in Finland, the first drunk-driving conviction constitutes a significant life event that appears to increase the likelihood of financial problems and divorce.

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Drug use, health and social outcomes of hard-to-treat heroin addicts receiving supervised injectable opiate treatment: secondary outcomes from the Randomized Injectable Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT)

In a randomised controlled trial, supervised injectable heroin treatment and supervised injectable methadone treatment showed no benefit over optimized oral methadone in terms of wider drug use, crime, and physical and mental health within a 6-month period, despite achieving a greater reduction in street heroin use.

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Subtyping based on readiness and confidence: the identification of help-seeking profiles for gamblers accessing web-based counselling

Problem gamblers in Australia who seek web-based counselling comprise four distinct subgroups based on self-reported levels of readiness to change, confidence to resist the urge to gamble, and importance of change.

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Smoking and mortality in a prospective cohort study of elderly Chinese in Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the risk of death from smoking appears to be the same for Chinese women as it is for men. Half of all deaths in Chinese smokers aged 65 years and older and a quarter of all deaths in Chinese smokers aged 85 years and older are caused by smoking-attributable diseases.

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Associations between use of pharmacological aids in a smoking cessation attempt and subsequent quitting activity: a population study

Smokers who have tried to quit in the past year are more likely to try to quit again within 6 months regardless of whether they used a pharmacological aid, and they are more likely to re-try aids they had used previously.

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Gender differences in the relationship between affect and adolescent smoking uptake

Low positive affect (low experience of positive feelings or emotions) for females, and high negative affect (high experience of negative feelings or emotions) for both males and females increases the risk of adolescents taking up smoking.

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Examining the role of common genetic variants on alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and illicit drug dependence

At least 20% of the variance in the generalized vulnerability to substance dependence is attributable to common genetic variations.

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April 2015

Alcohol consumption in adolescent homicide victims in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a substantial proportion of adolescent homicides in Johannesburg, South Africa, especially among male and older adolescent victims and in victims killed with sharp instruments over the weekends and during the evenings.

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Factors associated with over-serving at drinking establishments

In urban settings in Norway, over-serving of alcohol in drinking establishments appears to occur frequently and increases in the presence of poor lighting, loud music and high intoxication level among patrons.

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Drinking experience uncovers genetic influences on alcohol expectancies across adolescence

In young people, environmental factors explain beliefs about the social and behavioural consequences of alcohol use before they experience drinking for the first time whereas genetic factors explain an increasing proportion of the variance in these beliefs after drinking onset.

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The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening--an event-level analysis

Among young adults in Switzerland, individual alcohol consumption appears to increase with the number of friends in the drinking group.

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A longitudinal study of the association of adolescent polydrug use, alcohol use and high school non-completion

Unsurprisingly, Australian adolescents who use multiple psychoactive drugs or who mainly use alcohol us are less likely to complete school than adolescents who do not use drugs.

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Benzodiazepine use among mothers of small children: a register-based cohort study

In Finland, benzodiazepine use among mothers is reduced during pregnancy and the child's first year, and then increases as the child grows older. Mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric disorders are at particularly high risk of benzodiazepine use.

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A longitudinal comparison of retention in buprenorphine and methadone treatment for opioid dependence in New South Wales, Australia

Although retention rates for buprenorphine treatment have improved in New South Wales, Australia, individuals starting methadone treatment still show higher retention rates.

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Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study

In England, both cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence are associated strongly with subsequent adverse educational outcomes, including low standardised test scores and leaving school with no qualifications.

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First- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes: predictors of choice and effects on urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms

First- and second-generation electronic cigarettes appear to be similarly effective in reducing urges to smoke during abstinence, but second-generation devices appear to be more satisfying to users.

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Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: a single-arm intervention study assessing cessation and gaming

In the UK, pregnant smokers enrolled in an incentive scheme to quit smoking appeared to achieve prolonged cessation rates comparable to those reported in US trials.

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Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students

Adolescents in the UK who notice tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognise a higher number of tobacco brands appear to have an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking. (People who are susceptible to smoking intend to try smoking and are likely to smoke if offered a cigarette.)

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Adolescents' exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos

Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding.

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May 2015

Effects of Experimental Negative Affect Manipulations on Ad Lib Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

A review of experimental studies confirms that feeling bad increases intensity of smoking.

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Prevalence of alcohol use disorders in mainland China: a systematic review

Current and lifetime prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence in China measure 2.2% and 3.7%, respectively, approaching those of the Netherlands, USA, and other Western countries.

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Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking

Ability to resist drinking when feeling bad could be what is driving the link between poorer mental health, impulsiveness and tendency to drink alone in adolescents.

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Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

Adolescents who show worsening inattention symptoms as they grow older and delinquency tend to have increased levels of substance use in early adulthood.

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Hepatitis C seroconversion in methadone maintenance treatment programs in Wuhan, China

Methadone maintenance treatment patients in Wuhan, China show a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus at admission (72.1%) and a high rate of seroconversion during treatment (46.3%). Seroconversion is associated with continuing injection drug use.

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US federal cocaine essential ('precursor') chemical regulation impacts on US cocaine availability: an intervention time-series analysis with temporal replication

In the United States, controls of chemicals critical to cocaine manufacture from 1989 to 2006 seemed to be highly effective in reducing cocaine availability.

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Prolonged hypogonadism in males following withdrawal from anabolic-androgenic steroids: an under-recognized problem

Male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid misusers tend to experience prolonged low testosterone levels when they stop using the drugs leading to substantial effects on sexual functioning.

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Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing for reducing injection risk behaviours among persons who inject drugs

A brief motivational interviewing intervention was more effective than a brief educational intervention in reducing some high risk drug injecting behaviours in the 6 months following the intervention.

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Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a statewide representative sample

Using the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD), symptoms related to "giving up other activities," "tolerance" and "withdrawal" seem to be most relevant for diagnosing IGD in German students aged 13-18 years.

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Efficacy of a smoking prevention programme in Catalan secondary schools: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Spain

A school-based educational intervention for secondary school students in Catalonia, Spain was not found to lead to a noticeable reduction of smoking, confirming yet again the limitations of this kind of approach.

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The comparative efficacy of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal

Second-generation e-cigarettes (those involving refillable cartridges and looking less like cigarettes) seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first-generation e-cigarettes.

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Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers

Among vapor store customers in the US who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer generation devices, and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavoured e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation.

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June 2015

Global Statistics on Addiction Behaviours: 2014 Status Report

A major new global report on addictive behaviour shows that the harm to society from legal drugs far outweighs the harm from illicit drugs: 240 million people have an alcohol use disorder and more than 1 billion people smoke tobacco.

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The efficacy of acamprosate and naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence, Europe versus the rest of the world: a meta-analysis

Both acamprosate and naltrexone appear to reduce the risk of alcohol-dependent individuals returning to drinking.

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The harmful dysfunction model of alcohol use disorder: revised criteria to improve the validity of diagnosis and prevalence estimates

Diagnostic validity improves when using 'harmful dysfunction' diagnostic criteria compared with standard DSM criteria, partly by reducing misdiagnosis of teenage transient drinkers.

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Heterogeneous dose-response and college student drinking: examining problem risks related to low drinking levels

Among US college students, all drinkers exhibit greater risks for physiological problems related to alcohol use (hangover, nausea, memory loss, etc.) when drinking greater amounts of alcohol, but heavier drinkers exhibit fewer problems for each additional drink consumed than light and moderate drinkers.

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The impact of extended closing times of alcohol outlets on alcohol-related injuries in the nightlife areas of Amsterdam: a controlled before-and-after evaluation

A 1-hour extension of alcohol outlet closing times in some of Amsterdam's nightlife areas was associated with 34% more alcohol-related injuries.

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Is there a link between per capita alcohol consumption and youth drinking? A time-series analysis for Sweden in 1972-2012

Adult and youth drinking in Sweden were synchronized closely during the two last decades of the 20th century, but youth drinking developed an independent trajectory shortly before 2000.

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Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention among injecting drug users: who should we cure first?

When more than half of all exchanged syringes in a population of injecting drug users (IDU) are contaminated by hepatitis C virus, it is most efficient to treat low-risk IDU first. Below this threshold, it is most efficient to treat high-risk IDU first.

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Long-term mortality, remission, criminality and psychiatric comorbidity of heroin dependence: 11-year findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

In an 11-year follow-up of patients undergoing treatment for heroin dependence in Australia, 10.2% had died and almost half were still in treatment. The proportion still using heroin had fallen to a quarter, with major depression being a significant predictor of continued use.

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Mortality among individuals accessing pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence in California, 2006-10

In people with opiate dependence, detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment both independently reduce the immediate risk of death.

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Opioid treatment at release from jail using extended-release naltrexone: a pilot proof-of-concept randomized effectiveness trial

Extended-release naltrexone is associated with significantly lower rates of opioid relapse among men in the United States following release from jail when compared with a no medication treatment-as-usual condition.

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Examining the association between substance use disorder treatment and smoking cessation

Being recently in receipt of substance use disorder treatment is associated with reduced chances of stopping smoking.

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An exploratory short-term double-blind randomized trial of varenicline versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation in women

Varenicline appears to be better at helping women stop smoking than does nicotine patch.

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Craving and Substance Use among Patients with Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis or Heroin Addiction: A Comparison of Substance-specific and Person-specific Cues

Person-specific cues for substance abuse (e.g. places associated with use) appear to be powerful triggers for craving and relapse and to persist for longer than more general cues relating to taking drugs.

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July 2015

A comparison of the efficacy of brief interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption between European and non-European countries

Brief interventions appear to be effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption by hazardous and harmful drinkers at 6 and 12 month follow-up in both primary health care and emergency department trials.

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Educational inequalities in hospitalisation attributable to alcohol: a population-based longitudinal study of changes over the period 2000 to 2007

Lower educational level is markedly associated with increased risk of alcohol-related hospitalisation among men and women in Finland.

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Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: Results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

The alcohol prevention programme Preventure appears to have little or no effect on overall prevalence of binge drinking in adolescents in the Netherlands but may reduce the development of binge drinking over time.

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Parental transmission of risk for cannabis use disorders to offspring

Parental histories of antisocial personality and illicit substance use disorders are associated with increased risk for cannabis use disorder onset in offspring.

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The impact of paying treatment providers for outcomes: Difference-indifferences analysis of the 'payment by results for drugs recovery' pilot

In the first year of the pilot "Payment by Results for Drugs Recovery" scheme in England, linking payments to outcomes reduced the probability of completing drug misuse treatment and increased the proportion service users declining to continue with treatment.

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Economic crisis and changes in drug use in the Spanish economically active population

During a period of economic recession in Spain, heavy drinking decreased and binge drinking increased. Sporadic cannabis use increased among older unemployed men and women. Heavy use of hypnotics/sedatives increased among employed men while older women increased use irrespective of employment status.

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4-Fluoroamphetamine in the Netherlands: more than a one-night stand

The stimulant 4-fluoroamphetamine is increasingly popular in the Netherlands, which might be due to its subjective effects profile, which lies between amphetamine and MDMA.

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The health consequences of injecting tablet preparations: foreign body pulmonary embolization and pulmonary hypertension among deceased injecting drug users

Cases of foreign body pulmonary embolization (resulting from injecting crushed tablets meant for oral use, such as benzodiazepines and pharmaceutical opioids) in Sydney, Australia increased markedly from 1997 to 2013.

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Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland

In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting.

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Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up

Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation.

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Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among US young adults: survival analysis using annual national cohorts from 1976 to 2005

Among high school seniors in the United States, taking up occasional and experimental smoking increased from 1976 to 2005. Smoking uptake remained most likely to occur at age 19/20, but prevalence of uptake at older ages increased.

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Abstinence and relapse amongst smokers who use varenicline in a quit attempt - a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials

Varenicline does a better job than placebo at getting smokers to quit after they have failed to stop smoking on their target quit date. Relapse rates from end of treatment to 52 weeks are similar in varenicline and placebo treated smokers.

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A randomized controlled trial of treatments for co-occurring substance use disorders and PTSD

Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy may improve drug-related outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sufferers with substance use disorder more than drug focused counseling but probably not by reducing PTSD symptoms to a greater extent.

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August 2015

Are the Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges likely to improve public health?: An evidence synthesis

England's Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges do not reflect the most effective evidence-based strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm.

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Potential bias due to outcome-related loss to follow-up in cohort studies on incidence of drug injection: systematic review and meta-analysis

In cohort studies on drug injection initiation, study participants with higher risk of starting injection drop out at a higher rate than other participants, which can produce a false impression of decline in the incidence of drug injection in studies that use long follow-up periods.

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Pain as a predictor of heavy drinking and any drinking lapses in the COMBINE study and the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial

Among people treated for alcohol use disorder, being in physical pain appears to predict heavy drinking lapses during or after treatment.

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Transition probabilities for four states of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood: what factors matter when?

There is a high degree of stability over time in the drinking patterns of German adolescents and young adults with those who are abstinent at one time being very likely to be abstinent years later, and those with risky drinking patterns maintaining those patterns over time.

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Cocaine-related stimuli impair inhibitory control in cocaine users following short stimulus onset asynchronies

Cocaine-related stimuli appear to decrease inhibitory control in cocaine users at short (100 and 200 ms) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: the amount of time between the start of one stimulus and the start of another stimulus), but not at longer (300, 400 and 500 ms) SOAs.

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Estimating the number of people with hepatitis C virus who have ever injected drugs and have yet to be diagnosed: an evidence synthesis approach for Scotland

The number of undiagnosed hepatitis C virus-infected cases in Scotland appears to be particularly high among those who are over 35 and have injected drugs more than 1 year ago.

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Predictors of participant engagement and naloxone utilization in a community-based naloxone distribution program

Community naloxone distribution programs are capable of reaching sizeable populations of high-risk individuals and facilitating large numbers of overdose reversals.

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The association between speed of transition from initiation to subsequent use of cannabis and later problematic cannabis use, abuse and dependence

Rapid transition (within one week) from first to second use of cannabis is associated with increased likelihood of subsequent daily cannabis use and abuse/dependence.

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Fatal opioid poisoning: a counterfactual model to estimate the preventive effect of treatment for opioid use disorder in England

It is estimated that treatment services for opioid use prevent about 880 fatalities from overdose per year in England.

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Dose-response relationship between methadone dose and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive persons who use illicit opioids

HIV-positive people in methadone maintenance therapy who receive higher doses of methadone are more likely to stick with their antiretroviral therapy than those receiving lower doses.

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Towards a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling

A modification of Kendler's model for major depression provides a foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling.

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E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditions

E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditions that e-cigarette users typically detect and avoid.

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September 2015

Healthcare interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

Brief advice from a healthcare worker, telephone helplines, automated text messaging, printed self-help materials, cytisine and nortriptyline are globally affordable healthcare interventions to promote and assist smoking cessation.

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Specialty substance use disorder services following brief alcohol intervention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

There is no clear evidence currently that brief alcohol interventions increase uptake of treatment for alcohol use disorder.

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Increased behavioral economic demand and craving for alcohol following a laboratory alcohol challenge

When they are intoxicated with alcohol people say that they would pay more for a drink and consume more drinks if they were free.

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Ecological evidence that affect and perceptions of drink effects depend on alcohol expectancies

Frequent drinkers' expectations that drinking will enhance sociability or reduce tension influence their perceptions of pleasure and relief from drinking.

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Changes in mortality due to major alcohol-related diseases in four Nordic countries, France and Germany between 1980 and 2009: a comparative age-period-cohort analysis

Trends in alcohol-attributable mortality in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Norway and Sweden clearly differed between 1980 and 2009. It appears that country-specific events simultaneously affected all age groups and cohorts in the respective countries.

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Design and baseline findings of a large-scale rapid response to an HIV outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme

In Athens, Greece, the ARISTOTLE intervention for identifying HIV-positive people among people who inject drugs (PWID) facilitated rapid identification of a hidden population experiencing an outbreak.

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Arrhythmia associated with buprenorphine and methadone reported to the Food and Drug Administration

In spontaneously reported adverse events, methadone is associated with disproportionately high reporting of cardiac arrhythmias, whereas buprenorphine is not.

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Changes in health outcomes as a function of abstinence and reduction in illicit psychoactive drug use: a prospective study in primary care

Among primary care patients in the US who use illicit psychoactive drugs, abstinence but not reduction in use appears to be associated with decreased adverse drug use consequences.

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Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England

In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by approximately 80% since 1998. The proportion of children living in a home reported to be smoke-free increased from 63% in 1998 to 87.3% in 2012.

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Distress, race/ethnicity, and smoking cessation in treatment-seekers: implications for disparity elimination

Among smokers in Florida, USA, racial/ethnic differences in distress before starting cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation were eliminated at the end of treatment, driven by improvements among African American and Hispanic people. Tackling distress through CBT may be important in eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in smoking cessation.

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What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health & Morbidity Survey

People who don't respond to health surveys in Denmark have an increased risk of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with respondents.

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Screening for substance misuse in the dental care setting: findings from a nationally representative survey of dentists

While more than three-quarters of US dentists report that they ask their patients about substance misuse, two-thirds do not think it is part of their professional role.

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Social Networks and Substance Use among At-Risk Emerging Adults Living in Disadvantaged Urban Areas in the Southern United States: A Cross-Sectional Naturalistic Study

Social networks appear to be important in both promoting and preventing substance use in disadvantaged young adults in the USA.

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October 2015

Red flags on pinkwashed drinks: Contradictions and dangers in marketing alcohol to prevent cancer

Some alcohol corporations use pink ribbons and other breast cancer-related media to help promote a product that contributes to cancer disease and early death.

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An experimental investigation of reactivity to ecological momentary assessment frequency among adults trying to quit smoking

In smokers trying to quit, more frequent ecological momentary assessment self-monitoring (real-time reports in subjects' natural environments) results in lower craving, anxiety, anger, hunger and positive affect.

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Reliability of a retrospective decade-based life-course alcohol consumption questionnaire administered in later life

A retrospective decade-based Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) grid administered in older age provides a relatively reliable measure of alcohol consumption across the life course.

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The effects of liquor licensing restriction on alcohol-related violence in NSW, 2008-13

Legislative reforms introduced in New South Wales, Australia between 2008 and 2012 to restrict trading hours and conditions of licensed alcohol premises may have reduced police-recorded incidences of actual bodily harm and grievous bodily harm by 31.27% and 39.70% respectively.

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The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions delivered by community pharmacists: randomized controlled trial

A brief intervention delivered by community pharmacists in London, UK appears to have had no effect in reducing hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption.

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Adolescents from affluent city districts drink more alcohol than others

Adolescents in affluent parts of Oslo reported higher levels of alcohol use and more frequent alcohol intoxication than did those in more disadvantaged areas.

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Changes in daily substance use among people experiencing homelessness and mental illness: 24-month outcomes following randomization to Housing First or usual care

Housing First, an intervention to support recovery for homeless people who have co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, did not reduce daily substance use compared with treatment as usual after 12 or 24 months.

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Impact of opioid substitution therapy for Scotland's prisoners on drug-related deaths soon after prisoner release

Prison-based opioid substitution therapy is unlikely to reduce the very high drug-related death risk in the first 2 weeks after prison release.

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Can cannabis use be prevented by targeting personality risk in schools? Twenty-four-month outcome of the adventure trial on cannabis use: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Trained school staff can deliver personality-targeted interventions to delay marijuana use onset aong a subset of high-risk teenagers called sensation-seekers.

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Licit and illicit substance use among people who inject drugs and the association with subsequent suicidal attempt

Among people who inject drugs, use of alcohol, sedative-hypnotics and cannabis, but not cocaine, amphetamine or opioids, appears to be associated with an increased likelihood of later attempted suicide.

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Naloxone--does over-antagonism matter? Evidence of iatrogenic harm after emergency treatment of heroin/opioid overdose

Opiate users in urban Scotland repeatedly report harm caused by naloxone over-antagonism, although this is not evident in observational data.

Link to Abstract
Are predictors of making a quit attempt the same as predictors of 3-month abstinence from smoking? Findings from a sample of smokers recruited for a study of computer-tailored smoking cessation advice

While high motivation and determination to quit are necessary to prompt an attempt to quit smoking, demographic factors (marital status, reading level, level of social deprivation) and level of nicotine dependence are more important for maintaining abstinence.

Link to Abstract
Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up

Progressively reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may not lead smokers to quit

Link to Abstract
Intervention study for smoking cessation in Spanish college students: pragmatic randomized controlled trial

A multi-component intervention tailored to college students and managed by a nurse is effective in helping college students quit smoking.

Link to Abstract

November 2015

How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

The alcohol industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self-regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol Attributable Fraction for Injury Morbidity from the Dose-Response Relationship of Acute Alcohol Consumption: Emergency Department Data from 18 Countries

Alcohol-attributable injuries presenting in emergency departments are higher 1) for males than females, 2) for violence-related injuries compared with other types of injury, and 3) for countries with more detrimental drinking patterns compared with those with less detrimental patterns.

Link to Abstract
Internet-based brief intervention for young men with unhealthy alcohol use: a randomized controlled trial in a general population sample

An internet-based brief intervention directed at harmful alcohol use among young men led to a reduction in self-reported alcohol consumption and AUDIT scores compared with a control condition involving assessment only.

Link to Abstract
Liberal alcohol legislation: does it amplify the effects among Swiss men of person-related risk factors on heavy alcohol use?

Stronger alcohol legislation protects against heavy alcohol use in young Swiss men, but this protective effect is lost in individuals with high levels of sensation-seeking or having an antisocial personality disorder.

Link to Abstract
Impacts of New Zealand's lowered minimum purchase age on context-specific drinking and related risks

The 1999 change in New Zealand's minimum purchase age for alcohol from 20 to 18 years appears to have been associated with increased drinking and associated drinking problems among 16 to 19-year-olds.

Link to Abstract
Are overdoses treated by ambulance services an opportunity for additional interventions? A prospective cohort study

Mortality risk among people who inject drugs is significantly greater in time-periods after an overdose attendance than outside these time-periods.

Link to Abstract
Project QUIT (Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial): A randomized controlled trial of a primary care based multi component brief intervention to reduce risky drug use

A primary-care based, clinician-delivered brief intervention with follow-up coaching calls may decrease risky psychoactive drug use.

Link to Abstract
Cannabis use among Swedish men in adolescence and the risk of adverse life course outcomes: results from a 20 year-follow-up study

Heavy cannabis use among Swedish men in late adolescence appears to be associated with unemployment and being in need of social welfare assistance in adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Drug use in Australian nightlife settings: estimation of prevalence and validity of self-report

Self-report findings suggest drug use in Australian nightlife is common, although still very much a minority activity. Drug swabs indicate a higher prevalence of use (20%) than self-report (9%).

Link to Abstract
Early second-hand smoke exposure and child and adolescent mental health: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort

Prenatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure (e.g. from smoking by the pregnant smoker's partner) appears to be a risk factor for behavioural problems at age 11.

Link to Abstract
Changes in the rate of nicotine metabolism across pregnancy: a longitudinal study

Nicotine metabolism appears to be faster during pregnancy; this faster metabolism is apparent from 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy and appears to fall by 4 weeks after childbirth.

Link to Abstract
E-cigarettes and expectancies: why do some users keep smoking?

E-cigarette users with positive expectancies of e-cigs have a greater likelihood of having quit smoking but lower likelihood of intention to quit e-cigs.

Link to Abstract
Personality and smoking: individual-participant meta-analysis of nine cohort studies

Adult smokers have higher extraversion, higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness personality scores than non-smokers.

Link to Abstract
The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption. The Inter99 Study--a randomized controlled trial

A population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention in Denmark had sustained beneficial effects on smoking abstinence and binge drinking 5 years after its discontinuation.

Link to Abstract

December 2015

Implementation strategies to enhance management of heavy alcohol consumption in primary health care: a meta-analysis

Implementation strategies for alcohol screening and brief interventions should combine patient-, professional- and organizational-orientated approaches and involve mid-level health professionals as well as physicians.

Link to Abstract
The effect of alcohol outlets, sales and trading hours on alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments in Perth, Australia, from 2002 to 2010

Regions of Perth, Australia with greater off-premises alcohol sales and numbers of on-premises alcohol outlets, particularly those with extended trading hours, appear to have higher levels of alcohol-related injuries.

Link to Abstract
Lay epidemiology and the interpretation of low-risk drinking guidelines by adults in the United Kingdom

Drinking guidelines based solely epidemiological paradigms lack relevance for UK drinkers, who control their alcohol intake according to their own knowledge and risk perceptions derived from experience.

Link to Abstract
Shared additive genetic influences on DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence in subjects of European ancestry

Additive genetic effects on DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria overlap; there appear to be common genetic effects across alcohol dependence symptoms.

Link to Abstract
Sex and age differences in the early identification and treatment of alcohol use: a population-based study of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

In the UK, prior to alcoholic cirrhosis diagnosis, men are more likely than women to use health-care services and have their alcohol use recorded but women are more likely to receive alcohol brief interventions.

Link to Abstract
Potency trends of delta9 THC and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15

The average tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of the most popular herbal cannabis products in the Netherlands has decreased slightly since 2005.

Link to Abstract
Cocaine-specific neuroplasticity in the ventral striatum network is linked to delay discounting and drug relapse

Cocaine dependence-related neuroadaptations in the brain may increase impulsivity and increase the rate of cocaine relapse.

Link to Abstract
Natural outcome of cannabis use disorder: a 3-year longitudinal follow-up

A substantial level of remission from cannabis use disorders (CUDs), including non-abstinent remission, suggests that the nature of CUDs may be more unstable than reported previously.

Link to Abstract
A cost-effectiveness analysis of opioid substitution therapy upon prison release in reducing mortality among people with a history of opioid dependence

Opioid substitution treatment given on release from prison to people with a history of opioid dependence is cost-effective in reducing mortality in the first 6 months of release.

Link to Abstract
Variety of gambling activities from adolescence to age 30 and association with gambling problems: a 15-year longitudinal study of a general population sample

Engaging in several different types of gambling in early adulthood appears to be a risk factor for emergence of problem gambling.

Link to Abstract
Damage to the insula leads to decreased nicotine withdrawal during abstinence

Smokers who have a stroke in the insular cortex are more likely to quit smoking and experience fewer and less severe withdrawal symptoms than those with strokes in other parts of the brain.

Link to Abstract
Self-help educational booklets for the prevention of smoking relapse following smoking cessation treatment: a randomized controlled trial

In people who stopped smoking with behavioural support, a comprehensive self-help educational programme on handling high-risk situations for return to smoking did not reduce relapse.

Link to Abstract
Effect of warning statements in e-cigarette advertisements: an experiment with young adults in the United States

Both ingredient-themed and industry-themed warnings on e-cigarette television ads reduce craving and purchase intent similarly similarly but have inconsistent effects on perceived risks.

Link to Abstract
Under pressure: Adolescent substance users show exaggerated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli

Adolescents with alcohol and marijuana substance use disorders may be hypersensitive to aversive internally generated stimuli (in the form of restricted breathing), which may lead to drug-seeking behaviour.

Link to Abstract

February 2014

Trend analysis and modelling of gender-specific age, period and birth cohort effects on alcohol abstention and consumption level for drinkers in Great Britain: General Lifestyle Survey 1984-2009

Rising alcohol consumption among women and progression of higher-consuming birth cohorts through the life course are key drivers of increased per capita alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom.

Link to Abstract
Balance--a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of an online intensive self-help alcohol intervention

Balance (an automated online alcohol intervention), added to a brief online screening intervention, may aid reduction in alcohol consumption compared with the screening intervention plus an educational booklet.

Link to Abstract
Family transitions and changes in drinking from adolescence through mid-life

From late adolescence to mid-life, women and men in Britain are most at risk for higher levels of alcohol consumption and problem drinking when they are not involved in family roles such as intimate cohabitation, marriage and parenthood.

Link to Abstract
Altered cingulate and insular cortex activation during risk-taking in methamphetamine dependence: losses lose impact

Methamphetamine-dependent individuals show disrupted risk-related processing in the brain, which may lead to risk-taking despite experiencing negative consequences.

Link to Abstract
Training family members to manage heroin overdose and administer naloxone: randomized trial of effects on knowledge and attitudes

Take-home naloxone training for family members of heroin users increases opioid overdose-related knowledge and competence.

Link to Abstract
Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of the IASP study

Treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at a very high risk for additional externalizing disorders such as borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder.

Link to Abstract
Do societal wealth, family affluence and gender account for trends in adolescent cannabis use? A 30 country cross-national study

Among 30 European and North American countries, developing countries and less affluent youth have assumed the former (heavier) cannabis use pattern of richer countries and more affluent youth.

Link to Abstract
Towards a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use disorders

A modification of Kendler's risk factor model for major depression provides a foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders.

Link to Abstract
Prevalence and associations of quetiapine fumarate misuse among an Australian national city sample of people who regularly inject drugs

Quetiapine misuse appears to be common in people who inject drugs in urban Australia.

Link to Abstract
Legal substance use and the development of a DSM-IV cannabis use disorder during adolescence: the TRAILS study

Early-onset and continued tobacco use appear to predict the development of a cannabis use disorder in adolescence, whereas early onset and continued alcohol use do not.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of Extended Cessation Treatment for Older Smokers

It appears to be cost-effective to add extended cognitive behaviour therapy to standard smoking cessation treatment for older smokers.

Link to Abstract
Genetic and environmental influences on the ages of drinking and gambling initiation: evidence for distinct aetiologies and sex differences

Among Australian twins, age at first drink and age at first gambling experience are influenced by distinct unique environmental factors, and the genetic and environmental underpinnings of both phenotypes differ in men and women.

Link to Abstract

March 2014

Intimate partner violence victimization and alcohol consumption in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Among intimate partners, male-to-female violence is linked to drinking away from home and female-to-male violence is linked to drinking at home.

Link to Abstract
Treatment of comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression with cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis

Combining cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing may be beneficial in treating people with alcohol problems and depression.

Link to Abstract
Effects of the local alcohol environment on adolescents' drinking behaviors and beliefs

The local environment in terms of bar density and enforcement practices can influence amount of heavy drinking in adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent predictors and environmental correlates of young adult alcohol use problems

More than two in five young Australian adults suffer from alcohol problems.

Link to Abstract
Ethyl glucuronide in hair and fingernails as a long-term alcohol biomarker

Ethyl glucuronide, especially in fingernails, may be useful for assessing amount of alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
The sales and marketing practices of English-language internet alcohol vendors

Current Internet alcohol vendor practices do not prevent sales to minors.

Link to Abstract
Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial

Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with ADHD and substance dependence.

Link to Abstract
'Not just Methadone Tracy': transformations in service-user identity following the introduction of hepatitis C treatment into Australian opiate substitution settings

Trial introduction of hepatitis C care and treatment in Australian opiate substitution therapy clinics may have encouraged alternative, 'non-addict' identities to rival the stigma of 'the drug user'.

Link to Abstract
Striatum and insula dysfunction during reinforcement learning differentiates abstinent and relapsed methamphetamine-dependent individuals

People suffering from methamphetamine dependence appear to have dysfunctional brain reward pathways.

Link to Abstract
Challenges of surveying wastewater drug loads of small populations and generalizable aspects on optimizing monitoring design

Obtaining annual estimates of population drug use by waste water analysis requires large numbers of samples (more than 50) to be taken with careful selection of sites.

Link to Abstract
Reduced fetal growth in methadone-maintained pregnancies is not fully explained by smoking or socio-economic deprivation

Opiate use in pregnancy may retard fetal growth.

Link to Abstract
Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications

Toxin concentrations in the vapour from major electronic cigarette brands on sale in the United Kingdom are very low.

Link to Abstract
'Real-world' effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study

Smokers in England who try to quit are three times more likely to succeed if they see a trained advisor than if they try by themselves but there appears to be no benefit from using nicotine replacement products such as gum or patches when bought from a shop with no professional support.

Link to Abstract

April 2014

Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

Banning multi-buy promotions for alcohol in Scotland did not reduce alcohol purchasing in the short term.

Link to Abstract
Mortality from diseases, conditions and injuries where alcohol is a necessary cause in the Americas, 2007-09

Almost 80,000 deaths could be directly attributed to alcohol across the Americas between 2007 and 2009. Most of the deaths were in men and were from liver disease.

Link to Abstract
Harms to 'others' from alcohol consumption in the minimum unit pricing policy debate: a qualitative content analysis of UK newspapers (2005-12)

The United Kingdom's news focus on youth binge drinkers may be masking the wider issue of alcohol overconsumption across the broader population.

Link to Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to alcohol pictures predicts subsequent transition to heavy drinking in college students

United States college students who show a greater neural response to pictures of alcohol subsequently show larger increases in drinking and alcohol-related problems.

Link to Abstract
Treatment retention, drug use and social functioning outcomes in those receiving 3 months versus 1 month of supervised opioid maintenance treatment

Supervising patients' consumption of opioid maintenance medications (buprenorphine, methadone, etc.) for longer periods doesn't appear to improve patients' opioid use or retention in treatment programs.

Link to Abstract
The association of childhood physical abuse with the onset and extent of drug use among regular injecting drug users

Severe childhood physical abuse is associated with an earlier initiation into drug use. Any level of abuse is associated with more extensive polydrug use.

Link to Abstract
Maintenance treatment for opioid dependence with slow-release oral morphine: a randomized cross-over, non-inferiority study versus methadone

Slow-release oral morphine appears to be at least as effective as methadone in treating people with opioid use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Reasons behind Greek problem drug users' decisions to quit using drugs and engage in treatment of their own volition: Sense of self and the Greek 'filotimo'

Primarily in relation to 'filotimo' (a Greek concept that regulates behaviour towards one's family), the desire to restore one's spoiled identity plays a pivotal role in Greek problem drug users' decisions to stop drug use and seek treatment.

Link to Abstract
Environmental factors selectively impact co-occurrence of problem/pathological gambling with specific drug-use disorders in male twins

Environmental factors appear to play a greater role in the co-occurrence of problem gambling and smoking and cannabis use than the co-occurrence of problem gambling and stimulant use.

Link to Abstract
Children's resistance to parents' smoking in the home and car: a qualitative study

Some children and young people in the United Kingdom, irrespective of socio-economic status, may actively oppose parents' smoking in the home and car, although their influence may be limited by their position in the family and social norms.

Link to Abstract
Personal tobacco pack display before and after the introduction of plain packaging with larger pictorial health warnings in Australia: an observational study of outdoor cafe strips

Following Australia's 2012 policy of plain packaging and larger pictorial health warnings on cigarette and tobacco packs, smoking in outdoor areas of cafés, restaurants, and bars declined, and fewer people made their packs clearly visible on tables.

Link to Abstract
Initial reactions to tobacco and cannabis smoking: a twin study

Initial subjective reactions to tobacco are associated with later nicotine dependence and cannabis use/dependence while initial subjective reactions to cannabis are only associated with cannabis use/dependence. The associations are partly genetic, suggesting common biological underpinnings.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol and tobacco use among maltreated and non-maltreated adolescents in a birth cohort

Children who are maltreated are more likely to smoke as young adolescents. Children who are neglected are more likely to drink and smoke as young adolescents.

Link to Abstract

May 2014

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in restaurants and bars

Smoking bans in restaurants and bars in the United States, South America, Europe, and Australia have on average not had a detectable adverse economic impact on the hospitality industry.

Link to Abstract
Testing a social ecological model of alcohol use: the California 50-city study

Having more bars in a given area is associated with heavier drinking outside the home.

Link to Abstract
Facing temptation in the bar: counteracting the effects of self-control failure on young adults' ad libitum alcohol intake

When mental reserves needed for self-control are reduced, men tend to drink more while women tend to drink less. Raising self-awareness may counteract this effect in men.

Link to Abstract
Disseminating alcohol screening and brief intervention at trauma centers: a policy-relevant cluster randomized effectiveness trial

Training trauma center providers to screen for alcohol problems and deliver brief advice may have a modest beneficial effect on alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
Motivational intervention to enhance post-detoxification 12-Step group affiliation: a randomized controlled trial

A motivational intervention in an inpatient substance use disorder detox ward may increase engagement in 12-Step groups and reduce substance use.

Link to Abstract
Use of Silk Road, the online drug marketplace, in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States

Drug buyers in the UK, USA, and Australia use the Silk Road for the same reasons that many people prefer online commerce (range, quality, convenience, ratings). The appeal of the Silk Road is affected by country-specific deterrents and market characteristics.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a brief cannabis universal prevention program among adolescents in primary care

Among adolescents in urban primary care in the United States, a computer-delivered brief intervention appeared to prevent and reduce cannabis use.

Link to Abstract
Does methamphetamine use increase violent behaviour? Evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

There is a dose-related increase in violent behaviour during periods of methamphetamine use that cannot be explained by presence of psychotic symptoms.

Link to Abstract
Differences between early-onset pathological gambling and later-onset pathological gambling: data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

Individuals with early-onset pathological gambling (PG) are likely to be male, never married, have lower income, belong to younger cohorts, and have a lower prevalence of mood disorders but higher prevalence of cluster B personality disorders than individuals with later-onset PG.

Link to Abstract
Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence in African Americans and European Americans

Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence but not general substance dependence in African Americans and European Americans.

Link to Abstract
Levels of saliva cotinine in electronic cigarette users

At least some experienced users of electronic cigarettes appear to be able to gain as much nicotine from their products as smokers typically get from cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of proactive quitline counselling for smoking parents recruited through primary schools: results of a randomized controlled trial

Intensive telephone counseling tailored to smoking parents of primary school children can help them quit smoking and promote parenting practices that protect their children from adverse effects of smoking.

Link to Abstract
The risk for persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence: the role of childhood maltreatment

A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence.

Link to Abstract

June 2014

A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol

Large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. Because this kind of alcohol is typically cheaper than licit alcohol, it may contribute to higher rates of heavy drinking.

Link to Abstract
Association among different measures of alcohol use across adolescence and emerging adulthood

Among Canadian youth, two indices of alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking and overall quantity) are more strongly correlated with each other into early adulthood than other indices of alcohol use. These two indices also together account for greater variance in alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood than either frequency or quantity alone.

Link to Abstract
Heterogeneous population effects of an alcohol excise tax increase on sexually transmitted infections morbidity

Increased alcohol taxes are associated with a reduction in sexually transmitted infections, especially among subpopulations with high disease burden such as non-Hispanic black people.

Link to Abstract
Drinking in social groups. Does 'groupdrink' provide safety in numbers when deciding about risk?

Moderate alcohol consumption appears to produce a tendency towards increased risk taking in deciding to drive while intoxicated, which can be mitigated by monitoring processes within small (4 to 6 person) groups.

Link to Abstract
Trends in non-drinking among Australian adolescents

The percentage of Australians aged 14-17 who do not drink alcohol increased from almost 33% in 2001 to over 50% in 2010.

Link to Abstract
Heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm in young people: a longitudinal cohort study

Data on Norwegian youths show a link between heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm.

Link to Abstract
Patterns of cannabis use and prospective associations with health issues among young males

Swiss men appear to settle into steady patterns of cannabis use by their early 20s. The number of symptoms of cannabis use disorder, rather than the frequency of cannabis use, predicts cannabis-related health issues.

Link to Abstract
Increasing public support for supervised injection facilities in Ontario, Canada

Support for implementation of supervised drug injection facilities in Ontario, Canada increased between 2003 and 2009, but at both time-points a majority still held mixed opinions.

Link to Abstract
Predictors of change in cocaine use in a street-recruited cohort of young cocaine users

A street-recruited group of cocaine users in Spain showed a significant reduction in cocaine use over a period of 12-24 months. High consumption of alcohol and increasing use of other psychoactive drugs decreased the probability of reducing cocaine use.

Link to Abstract
Clinical features of methamphetamine-induced paranoia and preliminary genetic association with DBH-1021C→T in a Thai treatment cohort

Among methamphetamine-dependent individuals, paranoia appears to occur increasingly rapidly in the course of a session of methamphetamine use. Severity of methamphetamine dependence and antisocial personality disorder predicts methamphetamine-induced paranoia. A genetic polymorphism in dopamine β-hydroxylase is associated with methamphetamine-induced paranoia.

Link to Abstract
Parental monitoring trajectories and gambling among a longitudinal cohort of urban youth

Low and/or declining parental monitoring of children between the ages of 11 and 14 is associated significantly with problem gambling when those children reach young adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of tobacco control television advertising in changing tobacco use in England: a population-based cross-sectional study

Government-funded tobacco control television advertising shown in England between 2002 and 2010 was associated with reduced smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption.

Link to Abstract
The freeze on mass media campaigns in England: a natural experiment of the impact of tobacco control campaigns on quitting behaviour

The suspension of tobacco control mass media campaigns in England in 2012 appeared to markedly reduce calls to the quitline, use of the SmokeFree website and use of booklets but not attendance at Stop Smoking Services.

Link to Abstract
Time to first cigarette predicts 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in adolescent regular and intermittent smokers, NHANES 2007-10

Time between waking and the first cigarette of the day is correlated in daily and non-daily adolescent smokers with overall nicotine, and therefore carcinogen, intake.

Link to Abstract
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure

The association between smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation does not appear to operate through in-utero exposure to tobacco.

Link to Abstract
The association between smoking and depression from adolescence to adulthood

The inter-relationship between depression and smoking in adolescence and early adulthood seems to be due to reciprocal causal associations.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

The Healthy School and Drugs programme (a Dutch school-based prevention programme for early adolescents) had no detectable effect on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use.

Link to Abstract

July 2014

Sexual orientation and alcohol problem use among UK adolescents: an indirect link through depressed mood

A higher prevalence of alcohol problem use in adolescents who are gay, lesbian or bisexual is partly explained by increased rates of depression in this group.

Link to Abstract
Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low-and Middle-Income Countries?

Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with reduced alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries.

Link to Abstract
Computerized versus in-person brief intervention for drug misuse: a randomized clinical trial

Computerized brief intervention can be an effective alternative to in-person brief intervention for addressing moderate drug use in primary care.

Link to Abstract
Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study

Although smokers of strong cannabis alter their smoking behaviour to compensate for the higher strength, they still take in more THC than smokers of lower potency cannabis.

Link to Abstract
Catecholamine levels and delay discounting forecast drug use among African American youths

Among young African American men, catecholamine levels (which indicate the degree of life stress) interact positively with delay discounting (the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger postponed rewards) to forecast increases in drug use.

Link to Abstract
Unexpected adverse childhood experiences and subsequent drug use disorder: a Swedish population study (1995-2011)

Children under 15 who experience second-hand an extraordinary traumatic event (such as a parent or sibling being assaulted, diagnosed with cancer, or dying) appear to have approximately twice the risk of developing a drug use disorder than those who do not.

Link to Abstract
Strategic and non-strategic problem gamblers differ on decision-making under risk and ambiguity

Problem gamblers make poor decisions under conditions of risk and ambiguity. Strategic (e.g. sports betting, poker) and non-strategic (e.g. electronic gaming machines) problem gamblers differed in decision-making and the underlying psychological processes associated with their decisions.

Link to Abstract
Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

Smoking, alcohol and cannabis use are influenced by aggregated genetic risk factors shared among these substances.

Link to Abstract
Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus

Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use (which has many of the same risk factors as smoking but to a lesser degree).

Link to Abstract
Ex-smokers are happier than current smokers among Chinese adults in Hong Kong

Ex-smokers in Hong Kong are happier than current smokers and people who have never smoked.

Link to Abstract
Change in physical activity after smoking cessation: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

Smokers who quit have progressively higher levels of physical activity in the years after quitting compared with continuing smokers.

Link to Abstract
Randomized controlled trial to assess the short-term effectiveness of tailored web- and text-based facilitation of smoking cessation in primary care (iQuit in Practice)

Tailored self-help messages delivered alongside routine smoking cessation support in primary care may increase long-term abstinence compared with routine cessation support alone.

Link to Abstract
Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence

A significant proportion of betel quid users in Asian communities meet the DSM-IV criteria for dependence.

Link to Abstract

August 2014

Efficacy of the nicotine vaccine 3′-AmNic-rEPA (NicVAX) co-administered with varenicline and counselling for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

The nicotine vaccine NicVAX does not appear to improve the chances of stopping smoking when given in addition to varenicline and behavioural support.

Link to Abstract
Treatment with a nicotine vaccine does not lead to changes in brain activity during smoking cue exposure or a working memory task

The nicotine vaccine NicVAX appears to produce no significant effects on brain activity in response to a nicotine challenge.

Link to Abstract
Clinical and biological moderators of response to naltrexone in alcohol dependence: a systematic review of the evidence

We don't yet know how to identify alcohol-dependent patients who will respond well to naltrexone, although family history and the genetic mutation OPRM1 Asn40Asp seem to be promising areas of research.

Link to Abstract
Sustaining motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis of training studies

On average, three to four feedback/coaching sessions over a 6-month period sustain motivational interviewing skills used for substance use disorder treatment.

Link to Abstract
The impact of alcohol on clinical outcomes in established psychosis: a longitudinal study

For people with psychosis, the most detrimental effect of alcohol consumption appears to be its effect on mood. Some of this effect seems to be reversible through drinking reduction.

Link to Abstract
The impact of opioid substitution therapy on mortality post-release from prison: retrospective data linkage study

Opioid substitution therapy in prison and post-release could reduce mortality risk in the immediate post-release period.

Link to Abstract
The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease 2010 study

Opioid dependence is a substantial contributor to the global disease burden; North America, eastern Europe and southern sub-Saharan Africa are most strongly affected.

Link to Abstract
Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

Analysis of water in the sewage system can be used to measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than national surveys, and creates estimates where such data do not exist.

Link to Abstract
Using cognitive modelling to investigate the psychological processes of the Go/NoGo discrimination task in male abstinent heroin misusers

Male abstinent heroin misusers appear to be more influenced by heroin-related stimuli (pictures of heroin and heroin-related paraphernalia) during decision-making than men with no history of heroin misuse.

Link to Abstract
Effects of depressive symptoms on antecedents of lapses during a smoking cessation attempt: an ecological momentary assessment study

Depressive symptoms prior to quitting smoking appear to be associated with negative emotions once the quit attempt has started, which decreases their belief in their ability to quit, increases their urges to smoke, and their probability of lapse back to smoking.

Link to Abstract
Youth tobacco use type and associations with substance use disorders

Tobacco use of any kind in adolescence is associated with higher rates of substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract

September 2014

Prize-based contingency management for the treatment of substance abusers: a meta-analysis

Adding prize-based contingency management (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize) to behavioural support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence, but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months.

Link to Abstract
The declining trend in Swedish youth drinking: collectivity or polarization?

The decrease in youth drinking in Sweden that occurred from 2000-12 occurred at all consumption levels, which is consistent with Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking behaviour.

Link to Abstract
The collectivity of changes in alcohol consumption revisited

Drinkers at all levels of consumption appear to move in concert, both up and down the consumption scale, in Finland, Norway and the United States, as predicted by Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking cultures.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance: a Mendelian randomization study

The observation that people who drink alcohol tend to have higher levels of cognitive ability does not appear to be due to any causal association.

Link to Abstract
An early evaluation of implementation of brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in the US Veterans Health Administration

Documented brief intervention in the US Veterans Health Administration was not associated with changes in drinking among outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use and repeat alcohol screening.

Link to Abstract
The burden of premature opioid-related mortality

Rates of opioid-related deaths are increasing rapidly in Ontario, Canada, and are concentrated among the young.

Link to Abstract
Sustained-release methylphenidate in a randomized trial of treatment of methamphetamine use disorder

Methylphenidate may reduce concurrent methamphetamine use when provided as treatment for patients undergoing behavioural support for moderate to severe methamphetamine use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Fixation time is a sensitive measure of cocaine cue attentional bias

The amount of time spent fixating on cocaine-related images is a sensitive and stable measure of cocaine cue attentional bias (the tendency to attend more to cocaine-related images than neutral images) in cocaine-using adults.

Link to Abstract
Gambling expenditure predicts harm: evidence from a venue-level study

As suggested by the Total Consumption Theory of gambling, aggregate spending by electronic gaming machine users predicts the prevalence of gambling-related harm in gaming venues.

Link to Abstract
Reciprocal Associations between Cigarette Consumption and DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence Criteria in Adolescent Smokers

In adolescent smokers, cigarette consumption predicts severity of nicotine dependence as defined by DSM-IV several years later.

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Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study

People attempting to quit smoking without professional help have approximately 60% greater odds of reporting success if they use e-cigarettes than if they use willpower alone or over-the-counter nicotine replacement products.

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Stability of smoking status in the US population: a longitudinal investigation

US smokers showed very little change in their smoking status when followed between 2001 and 2005.

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Varenicline efficacy and safety among methadone maintained smokers: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Varenicline can aid short-term smoking abstinence in methadone-maintained smokers.

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October 2014

'High' risk? A systematic review of the acute outcomes of mixing alcohol with energy drinks

From surveys it seems that combining 'energy drinks' (containing caffeine) with alcohol increases levels of stimulation and reduces sedation but experimental studies involving relatively low doses have so far not borne this out.

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Association between stricter alcohol advertising regulations and lower hazardous drinking across European countries

Countries with stricter restrictions on alcohol advertising have a lower prevalence of hazardous drinking.

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Alcohol industry sponsorship and hazardous drinking in UK university students who play sport

Alcohol industry sponsorship of sports in the UK seems to be associated with higher levels of hazardous drinking among the university students being sponsored.

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Who under-reports their alcohol consumption in telephone surveys and by how much? An application of the 'yesterday method' in a national Canadian substance use survey

The 'yesterday method' (in which respondents are asked to report alcohol consumption the preceding day) can reduce under-reporting of alcohol consumption in telephone surveys. Using this method in a Canadian survey, younger drinkers and low-risk drinkers underestimated their alcohol consumption more than older drinkers and medium and high-risk drinkers.

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Hazardous birthday drinking among young people: population-based impacts on emergency department and in-patient hospital admissions

There is a significant increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions around the time of people's birthdays.

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Striking subgroup differences in substance-related mortality after release from prison

In Australia, in the first year after release, Indigenous ex-prisoners are more likely to die from alcohol-related causes but less likely to die of drug-related causes than are non-Indigenous ex-prisoners.

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Just say 'know': how do cannabinoid concentrations influence users' estimates of cannabis potency and the amount they roll in joints?

When using their own cannabis in a naturalistic setting, people adjust the amount they roll in joints according to concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not cannabidiol (CBD).

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A prospective study of hepatitis C incidence in Australian prisoners

In Australia, imprisonment appears to be a risk factor for hepatitis C virus transmission.

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On the latent structure of problem gambling: a taxometric analysis

Evidence from problem gambling questionnaires suggests that it may be better viewed as a categorical construct rather than a continuous dimension.

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Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy predicts drug use via externalizing behavior in two community-based samples of adolescents

Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking appears to be associated with a higher probability of experimenting with drugs during adolescence.

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Future orientation and smoking cessation: secondary analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial

'Future orientation' does not seem to be a strong predictor of success at stopping smoking.

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Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

Many smokers in the United States avoid the full impact of state excise tax on the cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations.

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Widening educational inequalities in adolescent smoking following national tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003: a time-series analysis

After the introduction of tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003, smoking prevalence rates decreased among all adolescents, but socio-economic inequalities in adolescent smoking increased.

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November 2014

Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit

Allowing electronic cigarettes to compete with cigarettes in the market-place might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating electronic cigarettes as strictly as cigarettes is not warranted on current evidence.

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Do doctors' smoking habits influence their smoking cessation practices? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Doctors who smoke appear to be less likely than non-smoking or ex-smoking doctors to counsel their patients to quit but more likely to refer them to smoking cessation programmes.

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Early age of alcohol initiation is not the cause of alcohol use disorders in adulthood, but is a major indicator of genetic risk. A population-based twin study

The association between early age of alcohol initiation and alcohol use disorders in later life does not reflect a causal relationship, but rather is due almost entirely to common genetic risk factors.

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Autonomy, special offers and routines: a Q methodological study of industry-driven marketing influences on young people's drinking behaviour

Young people share several perspectives regarding industry-driven alcohol marketing, including imperviousness to marketing, responsiveness to price and affordability and responsiveness to marketing that focuses on youth lifestyles.

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Does stage tailoring matter in brief alcohol interventions for job-seekers? A randomized controlled trial

A stage tailored intervention (an intervention tailored to match people's changing motivations to change) appears to be more effective than a non-stage tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use among people with high levels of drinking and low initial motivation to change.

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Adolescent alcohol use: a reflection of national drinking patterns and policy?

High levels of adult drinking and lax national alcohol control policies are associated with high levels of alcohol use among adolescents.

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Efficacy of motivational enhancement therapy on alcohol use disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial

Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) appears to increase alcohol abstinence in patients with chronic hepatitis C, alcohol use disorders and ongoing alcohol use.

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Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use

Bupropion might reduce methamphetamine use in people who use methamphetamine less than daily, but the evidence remains inconclusive.

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The relationship between US heroin market dynamics and heroin-related overdose, 1992-2008

Decreases in the price of pure heroin in the United States and increases in market concentration of Colombian-source/type heroin are associated with increased hospital admissions for heroin-related overdose.

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Neurofunctional changes in adolescent cannabis users with and without bipolar disorder

Bipolar adolescents with comorbid cannabis use do not exhibit the same over-activation of the regions involved in emotional processing as seen in adolescents with bipolar disorder alone. These individuals may have a unique type of bipolar disorder or cannabis use may alter brain activation uniquely in bipolar disorder patients who use cannabis.

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Longitudinal patterns of problematic computer game use among adolescents and adults--a 2-year panel study

Within a 2-year time-frame, problematic use of computer games appears to be a less stable behaviour than reported previously and not related systematically to negative changes in the gamers' lives.

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The allure of multi-line games in modern slot machines

Multi-line games (in which players can wager on more than one line per spin) appear to be more appealing to gaming machine ('slots') players than single-line games. Multi-line games may be particularly absorbing for people with gambling problems.

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Role of smoking in regional variation in mortality in Poland

Differences in past smoking behaviour may largely explain the regional differences in all-cause mortality existing in 2008-10 in Poland, and its trends since 1991-1993.

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Efficacy of brief motivational interviewing on smoking cessation at tuberculosis clinics in Tshwane, South Africa: a randomized controlled trial

Motivational interviewing by lay counsellors to promote smoking cessation in tuberculosis patients in South Africa approximately doubled sustained smoking abstinence for at least 6 months compared with brief advice alone.

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December 2014

Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheap products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase), reducing the beneficial impact of tax policies on high-risk drinkers.

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Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study

Among European adolescents, being able to name a favourite alcohol advertisement is associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking in the following year.

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Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

In Estonia in 2008-09 most autopsies of people aged 25-54 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology but the death records failed to capture the scale and nature of those pathologies.

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Genetic influences on alcohol-related hangover

Genes appear to play a significant role in individual differences in the propensity to experience a hangover and of being resistant to hangover at a given level of alcohol use

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Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland

The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales.

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What happens when people discontinue taking medications? Lessons from COMBINE

A patient's decision to stop taking medications during alcohol treatment appears to happen during a weeks-long process of disengagement from treatment. Patients who discontinue medications early in treatment or without medical consultation are typically those who drink more frequently and more heavily.

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The impact of methadone maintenance therapy on hepatitis C incidence among illicit drug users

Participation in methadone maintenance treatment appears to be highly protective against hepatitis C infection among illicit drug users.

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The relationship between years of cocaine use and brain activation to cocaine and response inhibition cues

Years of cocaine use may be more closely related to cocaine cue and response inhibition brain activation than cocaine dependence diagnosis or amount of recent use.

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Recent cocaine use is a significant risk factor for sudden cardiovascular death in 15-49-year-old subjects: a forensic case-control study*

Recent cocaine use is associated with an increased risk for sudden cardiovascular death in people aged 15-49 years.

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Craving Facebook? Behavioral addiction to online social networking and its association with emotion regulation deficits

The use of online social networking sites is potentially addictive. Compulsive online social networking use seems to be connected to poor emotion regulation skills and heightened susceptibility to addiction more generally.

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Country - and individual - level determinants of probable problematic gambling in adolescence: A multilevel cross-national comparison

Family characteristics and expenditure on public health at a national level may play a key role in prevalence of problem gambling among adolescents in Europe.

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Is smoking cessation associated with worse comorbid substance use outcomes among homeless adults?

In homeless smokers, quitting smoking may be associated with reduced alcohol consumption but not with a substantial change in other drug use.

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Smoking cessation in smokers who smoke menthol and non-menthol cigarettes

In the United States, smoking menthol cigarettes appears to be associated with reduced success at quitting smoking, especially in African American women.

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Genetic variation in personality traits explains genetic overlap between borderline personality features and substance use disorders

Both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors contribute to comorbidity between borderline personality features and substance use disorders. A substantial proportion of this comorbidity can be attributed to genetic variation in normal personality traits.

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