Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor's Notes
The issue of drugs legalisation continues unabated. Reviewing contents of Addiction in 2013 I am struck by a truth about human behaviour: the harder it is for people to do things, the less they do them. But do we care enough to put the necessary resources into enforcement and deal with the consequences? If it were illegal to sell alcohol to someone without a 'responsible drinker' licence, or tobacco to someone lacking proof of age, the effect on population health would be substantial. But such a plan would be crazy, surely...? The pages of Addiction in 2014 will help answer this question and others like it.
robert west
A message from Robert West, Editor-in-Chief

Key Findings Archive

December 2012

Randomized controlled trial of a novel cannabis use intervention delivered by telephone

A brief course of motivational interviewing plus cognitive behavioural therapy, all delivered by telephone, can help to reduce cannabis dependence and promote abstinence in the short term. Link to Abstract

Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection among people who inject drugs: an international systematic review and meta-analysis

Among people who inject illicit drugs, ethnic minorities are approximately twice as likely to be HIV seropositive than ethnic majorities. Link to Abstract

Development and preliminary validation of an indirect screener for drug use in the perinatal period

Indirect drug screening of new mothers, which asks questions about non-drug factors that indicate drug use without requiring direct disclosure, may increase the accuracy of mothers\' self-reports of prenatal drug use. Link to Abstract

Acute alcohol effects on impulsivity: associations with drinking and driving behavior

People who report having three or more drinks before driving show evidence of greater impulsivity when under the influence of alcohol than those who do not report heavy drinking before driving. Link to Abstract

Association of alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms and life-style factors with excessive alcohol intake within the Spanish population (EPIC-Spain)

In the Spanish population, genetic factors are associated with level of alcohol intake. Also, heavy drinkers tend to smoke more, eat more meat, eat less fruit, and be less educated than very low drinkers. Link to Abstract

Drinking habits and disability retirement

Poor drinking habits may contribute to retirement because of disability among middle-aged working people in Finland. Link to Abstract

Sequence of alcohol involvement from early onset to young adult alcohol abuse: differential predictors and moderation by family-focused preventive intervention

Children under age 13 with different risk factors for alcohol use, such as impulsive behaviour and parents with drinking problems, tend later on to develop specific forms of alcohol use, such as early onset drinking and alcohol problems, depending on the risk factor. Link to Abstract

Risk adjustment of heroin treatment outcomes for comparative performance assessment in England

There is a high degree of variability in the apparent effectiveness of the treatment for substance use disorders in England in different areas. Link to Abstract

Correlates of benzodiazepine dependence in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

Insomnia, antidepressant use and alcohol dependence may increase the risk of benzodiazepine dependence. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of web-based tailored smoking cessation advice reports (iQuit): a randomized trial

An individually tailored web-based intervention for stopping smoking was found to be no more effective than web-based materials that presented broadly similar non-tailored information. Link to Abstract

High-resolution behavioral economic analysis of cigarette demand to inform tax policy

A $1 tax increase could reduce the economic burden of smoking for a state in the US by an average of $530.6 million and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162%. Link to Abstract

Who is most susceptible to movie smoking effects? Exploring the impacts of race and socio-economic status

In the US, white and Hispanic adolescents appear to be more likely than black adolescents to try smoking as a result of exposure to smoking in movies. Among white adolescents, susceptibility to movie smoking appears to increase with socio-economic status. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of pathological internet use among adolescents in Europe: Demographic and social factors

Across a range of European countries, 4.4% of adolescents appear to show what might be considered 'pathological internet use', or internet addiction. Adolescents lacking emotional and psychological support are at highest risk. Link to Abstract

November 2012

Does it matter who you see to help you stop smoking? Short-term quit rates across specialist stop smoking practitioners in England

Smokers receiving help with quitting from specialist practitioners have very different chances of success depending on which specialist they see. Link to Abstract

How transparent is behavioral intervention research on pathological gambling and other gambling-related disorders? A systematic literature review

Gambling intervention reports need to adhere better to transparency guidelines, which require clear and comprehensive descriptions of experiments and reporting of all outcomes. Link to Abstract

Evidence of HIV epidemics among non-injecting drug users in Iran: a systematic review

Iran is facing a major HIV epidemic among non-injecting illicit drug users. Link to Abstract

Automatic processes in at-risk adolescents: the role of alcohol-approach tendencies and response inhibition in drinking behavior

At-risk adolescents appear to be motivated toward stimuli associated with drinking (e.g. pictures of beer) shortly after they start drinking. These motivations particularly affect the drinking behaviour of adolescents with low inhibition. Link to Abstract

Life-time drinking course of driving-while-impaired offenders

Among people convicted of driving while impaired in the United States, those who start drinking at a young age or combine drinking with substance use are more likely to engage in risky drinking behaviour later in life. Compared with men, women start drinking later in life and are more likely to stop drinking. Link to Abstract

The changing gender gap in substance use disorder: a total population-based study of psychiatric inpatients

Among psychiatric inpatients in Iceland, diagnoses of alcohol use disorder are rising among women and falling among men. The male-to-female ratio of alcohol use disorder decreased from 4.2 in 1993 to 1.5 in 2007. Link to Abstract

Associations between substance use disorders and major depression in parents and late adolescent-emerging adult offspring: an adoption study

While depression in parents appears to increase risk of depression in their children when they reach late adolescence through the way they behave, substance use disorder and cannabis and nicotine use of parents appears to be linked to similar behaviour in children through gene transmission. Link to Abstract

Mediational relations between 12-Step attendance, depression and substance use in patients with comorbid substance dependence and major depression

Attending 12-Step meetings appears to help with depression beyond any effect on substance use. Link to Abstract

Can needle and syringe programmes and opiate substitution therapy achieve substantial reductions in hepatitis C virus prevalence? Model projections for different epidemic settings

Opiate substitution and syringe exchange programmes can reduce hepatitis C prevalence if they are sustained long term. Link to Abstract

Evaluating the impact of community-based treatment options on methamphetamine use: findings from the Methamphetamine Treatment Evaluation Study (MATES)

Methamphetamine use can be reduced for a short time by community residential programmes but simple 'detoxification' programmes do not appear to be effective. Link to Abstract

England\'s legislation on smoking in indoor public places and work-places: impact on the most exposed children

Contrary to what has been predicted by opponents of smoke-free laws, banning smoking in indoor public places and work-places has not increased exposure of children to second-hand smoke at home. Link to Abstract

CHRNB3 is more strongly associated with Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence-based nicotine dependence than cigarettes per day: phenotype definition changes genome-wide association studies results

Genetic factors contribute differently to amount smoked and nicotine dependence. Link to Abstract

Beliefs about the harms of long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy: perceptions of smokers in England

A significant minority of smokers in England believe that using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for one year or more is harmful but this belief does not seem to deter them from using NRT. Link to Abstract

The impact of media campaigns on smoking cessation activity: a structural vector autoregression analysis

Tobacco control campaigns appear to be more effective at getting people to try to quit smoking than pharmaceutical companies' nicotine replacement therapy campaigns. Link to Abstract

October 2012

The combined effect of very low nicotine content cigarettes, used as an adjunct to usual Quitline care (nicotine replacement therapy and behavioural support), on smoking cessation

Combining Quitline smoking cessation support (which uses nicotine replacement therapy and behavioural support) with very low nicotine content cigarettes (to be used whenever quitters had an urge to smoke for up to 6 weeks after the quit date) may help some smokers to quit smoking entirely. Link to Abstract

An analysis of ethical issues in using wastewater analysis to monitor illicit drug use

Using wastewater analysis to monitor illicit drug use in large populations does not raise major ethical concerns because individual drug users are not identifiable. In smaller populations, such as prisons, schools or work-places, wastewater analysis could potentially harm individuals and businesses. Link to Abstract

Does family history of alcohol problems influence college and university drinking or substance use? A meta-analytical review

Students with a family history of alcohol problems do not drink more than other students, but they may be at greater risk for difficulties with alcohol and drugs. Link to Abstract

Alcohol\'s involvement in recurrent child abuse and neglect cases

Children whose carers abuse alcohol or drugs are more likely to experience recurrent abuse and neglect than children whose carers do not abuse alcohol or drugs. Link to Abstract

Hyperactivation of right inferior frontal cortex in young binge drinkers during response inhibition: a follow-up study

Young binge drinkers appear to show abnormal brain activity that may underlie difficulties in impulse control. Link to Abstract

Prospective memory and future event simulation in individuals with alcohol dependence

People who are alcohol dependent may experience impairments in prospective memory (the ability to perform intended actions at an appropriate moment in the future). Link to Abstract

Examination of mortality rates in a retrospective cohort of patients treated with oral or implant naltrexone for problematic opiate use

Treating opioid-dependent patients with implant naltrexone can reduce mortality and opiate overdose during the first four months following treatment compared with patients treated with oral naltrexone. Link to Abstract

Drug treatment and the conditionality of HIV treatment access: a qualitative study in a Russian city

In the Russian city of Ekaterinburg, inadequate drug treatment practices prevent HIV-infected drug users from receiving HIV treatment. Access to HIV treatment appears often to be contingent upon prior drug treatment or evidence of having become 'drug free', yet there is no access to opioid substitution therapy in Russia. Link to Abstract

Medicinal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests

Dronabinol (a synthetic version of the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, used medicinally to treat anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and chronic pain) impairs driving performance in occasional and heavy users. Link to Abstract

The relationship of major depressive disorder and gender to changes in smoking for current and former smokers: longitudinal evaluation in the US population

People with current or lifetime depression have a lower likelihood of quitting smoking, and former smokers with current depression have a greater likelihood of smoking relapse, compared with people who do not have current or lifetime depression. Link to Abstract

Contingent incentives reduce cigarette smoking among pregnant, methadone-maintained women: results of an initial feasibility and efficacy randomized clinical trial

Cigarette smoking may be reduced significantly among pregnant, methadone-maintained women by providing incentives for gradual reductions in breath carbon monoxide levels. Link to Abstract

German medical students lack knowledge of how to treat smoking and problem drinking

German medical students receive little training on the treatment of alcohol use disorders and smoking. Link to Abstract

September 2012

Diminished aversive classical conditioning in pathological gamblers

Pathological gamblers may have greater difficulty than others in learning from unpleasant experiences. So they may be less likely to learn from the experience of losing when they bet. Link to Abstract

Predictors of the 2-year recurrence and persistence of alcohol dependence

Among people with alcohol-dependence, the severity of the baseline alcohol problem predicts both the recurrence and persistence of dependence while the severity of their symptoms of depression or anxiety predicts the recurrence of alcohol dependence but not severity. Link to Abstract

Involvement of general practitioners in managing alcohol problems: a randomized controlled trial of a tailored improvement programme

Tailored, multi-faceted programmes aimed at improving general practitioners' management of patients' drinking are difficult to implement and do not show an effect on practitioners' rates of screening or advising their patients on alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Associations between self-reported illness and non-drinking in young adults

Young adults with long-standing illnesses that limit their activities are more likely to be non-drinkers. So part of the link between non-drinking and health problems later in life may be due to people with health problems being less likely to take up drinking rather than moderate drinking being beneficial to health. Link to Abstract

Defining dosing pattern characteristics of successful tapers following methadone maintenance treatment: results from a population-based retrospective cohort study

Very few patients who try to taper off from methadone maintenance treatment succeed. Success is more likely when patients combine tapering with periods of stable methadone use. Link to Abstract

Use of a 'microecological technique' to study crime incidents around methadone maintenance treatment centers

Crime rates are not higher in the vicinity of methadone treatment centres. Link to Abstract

Misconceptions predict dropout and poor adherence prospectively among newly admitted first-time methadone maintenance treatment clients in Guangzhou, China

Misconceptions about methadone are common among opiate addicts in China who are prescribed methadone maintenance therapy for the first time. These misconceptions are associated with poor adherence to the treatment regime and a high rate of dropout. Link to Abstract

Combining cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management to enhance their effects in treating cannabis dependence: less can be more, more or less

A cannabis dependence programme that combines contingency management (CM), which rewards abstinence, and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), which builds skills for maintaining abstinence, does not appear to be more successful than a program that offers only CM or CBT. Link to Abstract

Childhood and adolescent psychopathology and subsequent tobacco smoking in young adults: findings from an Australian birth cohort

Children and adolescents who exhibit aggression, delinquency, and attention problems are more likely to become smokers, while those with anxiety and depression are less likely to become smokers. Link to Abstract

Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational group

Italy's 2005 smoke-free policy did not appear to have a long-term effect on smoking prevalence. Link to Abstract

Evaluation of a drop-in rolling-group model of support to stop smoking

State-funded treatment to help smokers to quit, in very low income areas, can have a substantial reach. Success rates are lower than is typically found in randomised trials but higher than would be expected for smokers trying to stop by themselves. Link to Abstract

Genetic influences on developmental smoking trajectories

Compared with environmental factors, genetic factors play a larger role in the way smoking patterns develop in adolescence. Link to Abstract

Assessment of generalizability, applicability and predictability (GAP) for evaluating external validity in studies of universal family-based prevention of alcohol misuse in young people

Studies evaluating family-based prevention of alcohol misuse in young people often don't include enough information to assess how far the results generalise beyond the study sample. Link to Abstract

August 2012

Clinical correlates of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use: a systematic review

Cannabis users who also smoke tobacco are more dependent on cannabis, have more psychosocial problems, and find it harder to quit using cannabis, compared with cannabis users who do not use tobacco. Link to Abstract

Implicit and explicit alcohol cognitions and observed alcohol consumption: three studies in (semi)naturalistic drinking settings

Among college students drinking with their peers, unconscious positive perceptions about alcohol do not increase drinking. But conscious positive beliefs, like 'drinking is pleasant' or 'drinking increases happiness', do seem to cause increased drinking. Link to Abstract

Identification of behaviour change techniques to reduce excessive alcohol consumption

The most effective piece of advice a doctor can give to a heavy drinker is to encourage the patient to monitor his or her alcohol consumption, typically by keeping a daily record. Link to Abstract

Prevalence and correlates of alcohol use disorders in the Singapore Mental Health Survey

Prevalence of alcohol use disorders, such as alcohol dependence and harmful use, is low in Singapore. But those with alcohol use disorders also have higher odds of depression, nicotine dependence, gastric ulcers, respiratory problems, and chronic pain. Link to Abstract

Women ending marriage to a problem drinking partner decrease their own risk for problem drinking

Women who end marriages to husbands who are problem drinkers may decrease their own risk of alcohol-related problems. Link to Abstract

Health-care service utilization in substance abusers receiving contingency management and standard care treatments

People who start outpatient substance abuse treatment increase their use of general health-care services. Link to Abstract

Assessment of exposure to drugs of abuse during pregnancy by hair analysis in a Mediterranean island

Pregnant women living in Ibiza substantially under-report their illicit drug use. Under-reporting is particularly strong among Spanish nationals. Link to Abstract

Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study

Newborn infants whose mothers are on methadone maintenance treatment during pregnancy are likely to spend less time hospitalized in neonatal units compared with infants whose mothers also use opiates, benzodiazepine, or cocaine during pregnancy. Link to Abstract

Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette

Electronic cigarettes can reduce cravings for traditional cigarettes and appear to have lower potential for abuse compared with traditional cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Comparative dynamics of four smoking withdrawal symptom scales

The urge to smoke is strongly connected with relapse in the first week of quitting smoking. Other withdrawal symptoms such as mood disturbance appear to play on a minor role. Link to Abstract

Preferences for evidence-based practice dissemination in addiction agencies serving women: a discrete-choice conjoint experiment

Clinicians and administrators are more likely to adopt evidence-based practice for treating addiction if the practice is seen as helpful to clients and if it is supported by their co-workers and administrators. Link to Abstract

July 2012

Time pattern of reduction in risk of oesophageal cancer following alcohol cessation--a meta-analysis

Although drinking alcohol increases the risk of cancer of the oesophagus, quitting drinking reduces the risk over time. Link to Abstract

The cardioprotective association of average alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Although low to moderate drinking offers some protection against heart disease, the size of the benefit varies across drinkers. Link to Abstract

Multi-level analysis of alcohol-related injury and drinking pattern: emergency department data from 19 countries

The rate of alcohol-related injuries is higher among people who frequently drink heavily or have occasional heavy-drinking episodes. Link to Abstract

Does alcohol consumption really affect asymmetry perception? A three-armed placebo-controlled experimental study

People under the influence of alcohol are less able to perceive facial assymmetry, a trait associated with physical unattractiveness. Link to Abstract

Beer a no-go: learning to stop responding to alcohol cues reduces alcohol intake

Training people to control the impulse to drink triggered by alcohol-related stimuli (e.g., pictures of beer) reduces excessive drinking by lowering people's implicit positive attitudes towards alcohol Link to Abstract

Co-occurrence of sexual risk behaviors and substance use across emerging adulthood: evidence for state- and trait-level associations

High-risk sexual behaviors during young adulthood seem to be driven both by individual traits, such as sensation seeking or impulsivity, and the state of intoxication brought about by alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Topiramate for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction: a multi-center placebo-controlled trial

The anti-epilepsy drug Topiramate does not help current methamphetamine users to quit but can lower relapse rates among individuals who have already quit using the drug. Link to Abstract

Does smoking cannabis affect work commitment?

The use of cannabis is linked to a reduction in work commitment among adults in Norway. Link to Abstract

The rising prevalence of prescription opioid injection and its association with hepatitis C incidence among street-drug users

The rapidly increasing number of prescription opioid injectors are at high risk for contracting Hepatitis C. Link to Abstract

What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand

A significant minority of menthol cigarettes smokers in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if menthol cigarettes were banned. Link to Abstract

Prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy to cardiovascular disease patients in England

A policy of making nicotine replacement therapy prescribable to patients with cardiovascular disease does not increase prescribing rates among those patients. Link to Abstract

Continuing to wear nicotine patches after smoking lapses promotes recovery of abstinence

Nicotine patches help quitting smokers recover from smoking lapses. Link to Abstract

Predictors of successful short-term tobacco cessation in UK resident female Bangladeshi tobacco chewers

Bangladeshi women in the UK who chew paan with tobacco are more likely to quit if they use nicotine replacement therapy, have relatively low levels of social deprivation and are recruited via the community rather than via primary care practices. Link to Abstract

June 2012

Meta-Analysis of Hepatitis C Seroconversion in Relation to Shared Syringes and Drug Preparation Equipment

People who share drug-preparation equipment have the same risk of Hepatitis C infection as people who share needles. Link to Abstract

Brief opportunistic smoking cessation interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare advice to quit and offer of assistance

Doctors may be more effective in getting their patients to stop smoking by offering assistance to all smokers rather than by advising all smokers to quit and offering assistance only to those who say they want to quit. Link to Abstract

Interactive effects of approach motivational intensity and alcohol cues on the scope of perceptual attention

Showing alcohol-related images to people who are strongly motivated to drink prompts them to focus on the images and ignore peripheral information. It is thus possible that alcohol cues, such as advertisements for alcoholic beverages, can produce a narrow, alcohol-focused mindset that leads to drinking. Link to Abstract

Social demography of alcohol-related harm to children in Australia

In Australia, almost 25% of parents and other child carers report that a child for whom they were responsible has been adversely affected by someone's alcohol consumption in the past year. Link to Abstract

Venous access and care: harnessing pragmatics in harm reduction for people who inject drugs

Focusing on the immediate priorities of people who inject drugs, such as improving access to injectable veins and minimizing the pain and length of injection time, can re-engage injectors who are jaded or confused by hepatitis C prevention messages. Link to Abstract

Collaborative behavioral management among parolees: drug use, crime and re-arrest in the Step\'n Out randomized trial

Collaborative behavioral management, which offers incentives for good behavior, may reduce substance use among prison parolees who primarily use marijuana or other 'non-hard' drugs without increasing the number of reincarcerations. Link to Abstract

Harm reduction interventions for drug injectors or heroin users in Spain: expanding coverage as the storm abates

Spain's expansion of harm reduction services in response to a national epidemic in heroin and injecting drug use was greatly delayed. Medium-level coverage for needle exchange programs and opioid substitution treatment did not occur until 8 years after peak need. Link to Abstract

Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis ...

Among cannabis users in Denmark, self-reported cannabis use using the timeline follow-back technique (which uses a visual calendar to enhance recall) is as accurate as blood sampling in determining cannabis consumption. Link to Abstract

Increased incidence of QT interval prolongation in a population receiving lower doses of methadone maintenance therapy

Patients on low daily doses of methadone may show a tendency to prolonged QT intervals, a risk factor for irregular heartbeats and fatal heart attacks. Link to Abstract

Influence of acute bupropion pre-treatment on the effects of intranasal cocaine

The atypical antidepressant bupropion appears to blunt the preference for cocaine over monetary reward but increases how much enjoyment is derived from it. Link to Abstract

Brief motivational feedback and cognitive behavioral interventions for prevention of disordered gambling: a randomized clinical trial

One session of personalized feedback combined with 4-6 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy may help to reduce compulsive and problem gambling among US college students. Link to Abstract

Do larger pictorial health warnings diminish the need for plain packaging of cigarettes?

Plain packaging is probably more effective than larger health warnings in undermining the appeal of cigarette brands and reducing intention to buy cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Associations between maternal stress and smoking: findings from a population-based prospective cohort study

In women who stop smoking during pregnancy, anxiety and depression may be a factor in resumption of smoking both during and after pregnancy. Link to Abstract

Linking substance use with symptoms of subclinical psychosis in a community cohort over 30 years

Excessive cannabis and multi-drug use in adolescence is associated with psychotic experiences in adulthood. Link to Abstract

May 2012

What is the difference between dependence and withdrawal reactions? A comparison of benzodiazepines and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors

Withdrawal reactions to selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs, used as antidepressants) appear similar to those for benzodiazepines. There is therefore no basis for claiming that benzodiazepines cause dependence while SSRIs do not. Link to Abstract

Does minimum pricing reduce alcohol consumption? The experience of a Canadian province

Increasing the minimum price of alcohol can substantially reduce alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Individual psychomotor impairment in relation to zopiclone and ethanol concentrations in blood - a randomized controlled double-blinded trial

Zopiclone, a hypnotic agent used to treat insomnia, can impair psychomotor performance at blood concentrations as low as16 µg/l. Link to Abstract

Twelve-Step attendance trajectories over 7 years among adolescents entering substance use treatment in an integrated health plan

Over a 7-year period, US adolescents with substance abuse disorders who continued to attend 12-step meetings such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous were more likely to stay off alcohol and drugs than those who did not. Link to Abstract

Randomized trial of standard methadone treatment compared to initiating methadone without counseling: 12-month findings

Drug counseling in the first 4 months of treatment is not essential to a achieve benefit from supervised methadone treatment in adults dependent on heroin. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for illicit drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in clients ...

A brief intervention for illicit drug use that is linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is effective, at least in the short term, in Australia, Brazil and India. Link to Abstract

An increased risk of motor vehicle accidents after prescription of methadone

In Norway, men on methadone maintenance treatment appear to have an increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle accidents involving personal injuries compared with men in the general population. Link to Abstract

Abstinence-contingent recovery housing and reinforcement-based treatment following opioid detoxification

People with substance use disorders are more likely to stay off drugs when they have access to drug-free recovery housing and day-treatment programs following detox. Link to Abstract

Smokeless tobacco use related to military deployment, cigarettes and mental health symptoms in a large, prospective cohort study among US service members

Members of the US military service increase their probability of taking up smokeless tobacco when they are deployed, exposed to combat, show symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, start smoking, or return to smoking after quitting. Link to Abstract

Very low rate and light smokers: smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour in England, 2006-11

In England, very low rate smokers (fewer than one cigarette per day) and light smokers (one to nine cigarettes per day) are at least as motivated to quit as heavier smokers. Although very low rate and light smokers are less likely to use prescription medication to help them stop smoking and are more likely to quit successfully, they still fail in quit attempts to a substantial degree. Link to Abstract

Effects of measurement methods on the relationship between smoking and delay reward discounting

Compared with non-smokers, smokers have a greater preference for small, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards. This observation holds true over several methods of measuring this preference. Link to Abstract

April 2012

Interventions to prevent substance use and risky sexual behaviour in young people: a systematic review

There is limited evidence that programs designed to reduce both substance use and sexual risk in school children are effective. The most promising programs address several levels that influence risk behaviour (i.e., individual and peer, family, school, and community). Link to Abstract

Changes in sobriety in the Swedish population over three decades: age, period or cohort effects?

The proportion of people in Sweden who never drink alcohol has increased from 1968 to 2000 primarily because each successive group has more teetotalers, not because people tend to stop drinking as they get older. Link to Abstract

Age and ethnic differences in the onset, persistence and recurrence of alcohol use disorder

Compared with young white men, US-born Hispanics aged 40+ years have a higher risk of developing alcohol use disorder and all younger minority men have an increased risk of developing alcohol dependence. Compared with young white women, older black women and US-born Hispanics have a higher risk of developing alcohol use disorder and alcohol dependence. Link to Abstract

Scheduling of newly emerging drugs: a critical review of decisions over 40 years

In the USA, no more than 7 scheduling decisions with respect to the 63 substances studied might be considered errors, and results for other countries are broadly similar. Link to Abstract

Use of other opioids during methadone therapy: a population-based study

Many patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Ontario, Canada receive overlapping prescriptions for other opioids such as codeine and oxycodone. Many prescriptions may reflect deceitful drug-seeking behavior, either for personal use or for sale to others. Link to Abstract

Comparison of intranasal methamphetamine and d-amphetamine self-administration by humans

It appears that d-amphetamine, a frequently prescribed medication, has a similar potential for abuse as methamphetamine. Link to Abstract

Cognitive and subjective effects of mephedrone and factors influencing use of a 'new legal high'

Despite the health risks, young people who continued to use mephedrone after it became illegal would try a new legal high if it were pure and rated highly by their friends or on the Internet. Link to Abstract

Would vaccination against nicotine be a cost-effective way to prevent smoking uptake in adolescents?

A preventive nicotine vaccination program is unlikely to be a cost-effective way to stop adolescents from becoming smokers. Link to Abstract

Greater prevalence of proposed DSM-5 nicotine use disorder compared to DSM-IV nicotine dependence in treated adolescents and young adults

Proposed changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders would increase the number of young people diagnosed with nicotine use disorder (called 'nicotine dependence' under the current DSM) despite no changes in their smoking habits and would introduce potentially problematic new criteria for diagnosis. Link to Abstract

Academic achievement and smoking initiation in adolescence: a general growth mixture analysis

Adolescents who do well in school are less likely to smoke, suggesting that it would be cost-effective to focus smoking prevention activities on the unstable low achievers who are more likely to begin smoking at an early age. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of stage-matched intervention for smoking cessation in cardiac out-patients

An intervention based on the Stages of Change model to promote smoking cessation in cardiac patients in China was not effective beyond one year. Link to Abstract

Young people\'s beliefs about the harmfulness of alcohol, cannabis and tobacco for mental disorders: findings from two Australian national youth surveys

In Australia, most people aged 15 to 25 are aware that substance use has a negative impact on mental disorders, but a few high-risk groups remain, including males, young adults (18 to 25) of both sexes, and young people with high levels of psychological distress. Link to Abstract

March 2012

How much unsuccessful quitting activity is going on among adult smokers? Data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country cohort survey

Smokers think a lot about quitting and make many unsuccessful attempts to quit, relapsing even after extended periods of nonsmoking. It's important to find ways to translate efforts to quit into long-term abstinence. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policies in Vietnam: the case of personal smoking cessation support

Brief advice from physicians is a cost-effective intervention for tobacco control in Vietnam. Pharmacological therapies are not cost-effective at current prices. Link to Abstract

Evidence of increasing age of onset of cannabis use among younger Australians

Cannabis use has declined in Australia since 1998 and the age of first use among those under 20 has increased. Link to Abstract

Impact of in-patient research participation on subsequent heroin use patterns: implications for ethics and public health

Drug users who voluntarily take drugs as participants in research projects do not show subsequent increased heroin use. Some research participants go on to enter treatment and stop heroin use in the short term. Link to Abstract

Eating patterns among heroin users: a qualitative study with implications for nutritional interventions

Heroin users have dysfunctional eating patterns that are amenable to improvement with help. Link to Abstract

Deep brain stimulation compared with methadone maintenance for the treatment of heroin dependence: a threshold and cost-effectiveness analysis

When deep brain stimulation produces 49% of patients remaining heroin-free after 6 months of treatment, it is as cost effective as methadone maintenance treatment in treating opiate addiction. Link to Abstract

The effect of hepatitis C treatment and HIV coinfection on the disease burden of hepatitis C among injecting drug users in Amsterdam

A high mortality rate, particularly caused by HIV infection, has reduced hepatitis C among injecting drug users in Amsterdam. Link to Abstract

Drug use in rural China: A preliminary investigation in Hunan Province

Drug abuse is a substantial problem in both urban and rural areas in China. Link to Abstract

Psychiatric comorbidity and the persistence of drug use disorders in the United States

People with antisocial, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders tend to maintain drug use disorders over a three-year period. Link to Abstract

Transition from first illicit drug use to first injection drug use among rural Appalachian drug users: a cross-sectional comparison and retrospective survival analysis

In Appalachia, in the United States, the prescription opioid OxyContin® is widely used non-medically and users show a higher risk of rapid transition to injection drug use compared with the use of other illicit drugs. Link to Abstract

Seeking Safety Treatment for Male Veterans with a Substance Use Disorder and PTSD Symptomatology

'Seeking Safety', a manualised treatment approach for substance use disorder, shows better drug use outcomes than 'treatment as usual′ in male veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Link to Abstract

The relationship between childhood depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early adolescence: findings from a large longitudinal population-based study. Alcohol problems in depressed boys a

In the UK, problematic alcohol use in girls (but not boys) is associated with prior depressive symptoms. This association may be caused by family and social factors. Link to Abstract

Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music

One in five songs sampled from US popular music has explicit references to alcohol, and one-quarter of these mention a specific alcohol brand. Specific alcohol brand mentions involve a luxury life-style characterized by wealth, sex, partying, and other drugs. Link to Abstract

The association between the incidence of emergency department attendances for alcohol problems and assault incidents attended by police in New South Wales, Australia, 2003-08: a time-series analysis

In Australia, there is a clear short-term temporal relationship between emergency department attendances for acute alcohol problems and assaults reported to police. Link to Abstract

Relationship between personality change and the onset and course of alcohol dependence in young adulthood

Young people who show behavioral disinhibition and negative emotionality before they start using alcohol have an increased risk of developing alcohol use disorders. Development of an alcohol use disorder affects the rate of personality change during emerging adulthood. Link to Abstract

The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities

In Norway, each additional one-hour extension to the opening times of premises selling alcohol is associated with a 16% increase in violent crime. Link to Abstract

Trends in adolescent alcohol use: effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

In the Netherlands, alcohol initiation, frequency, and quantity have increased among adolescents over a 15-year period, but there are no changes in the genetic basis of adolescent alcohol use. Link to Abstract

The effectiveness of opioid maintenance treatment in prison settings: a systematic review

Benefits of opioid maintenance treatment in prison include recruiting problem opioid users into treatment, reducing illicit opioid use and risky behaviours, allowing continuity of treatment as people enter and leave prison, and possibly minimising overdose risks upon release. Link to Abstract

February 2012

A damage/benefit evaluation of addictive product use

When asked for their opinions of the net societal harm caused by major addictive products, French addiction experts appeared to assign more weight to the products' benefits than to their harms. Link to Abstract

Do components of current "hardcore smoker" definitions predict quitting behaviour?

'Hardcore' smoking seems to involve both low motivation to quit and high nicotine dependence. Motivational factors, such as the intention to quit and previous quit attempts, best predict whether a smoker will try to quit in the first place. Measures of sm Link to Abstract

The association between exposure to point-of-sale anti-smoking warnings and smokers' interest in quitting and quit attempts: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

Point-of-sale health warnings about tobacco are more prominent in Australia than the USA, UK, or Canada and appear to have some effect in prompting people decide to quit smoking. Link to Abstract

Delay Discounting by Adolescents Experimenting with Cigarette Smoking

Like regular smokers, and unlike non-smokers, young people who experiment with cigarettes tend to prefer small immediate rewards over large delayed rewards. Link to Abstract

The effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Findings from the Netherlands SimSmoke Tobacco Control Policy Simulation Model

According to a simulation model, in the Netherlands, smoking and smoking-related deaths can be reduced through tax increases, smoke-free legislation, high-intensity media campaigns, stronger advertising bans and health warnings, comprehensive cessation treatment, and youth access laws. Link to Abstract

Examining the predictive validity of low-risk gambling limits with longitudinal data

As may be expected, low-risk gamblers who shift to high-risk gambling are subsequently more likely to experience future gambling-related harms than those who remain low-risk. Link to Abstract

Engagement with opioid maintenance treatment and reductions in crime: a longitudinal national cohort study

Norwegians who are in opioid maintenance treatment appear to commit fewer crimes than when they are not. Link to Abstract

The effect of methadone on emotional reactivity

Methadone use may blunt emotional responses. Link to Abstract

Cannabis use and subclinical positive psychotic experiences in early adolescence: findings from a Dutch survey

Among Dutch school students, there is an association between cannabis use at an early age and psychotic experiences, even after they report having not used cannabis for at least a year. Link to Abstract

Effect of prison-based opioid substitution treatment and post-release retention in treatment on risk of re-incarceration

In New South Wales, Australia, opioid substitution treatment after release from prison appears to have reduced the average risk of being sent back to prison by one-fifth. Link to Abstract

Double-blind placebo-controlled evaluation of the PROMETA™ protocol for methamphetamine dependence

The PROMETA protocol is no more effective than placebo in reducing methamphetamine use, keeping patients in treatment, or reducing methamphetamine cravings. Link to Abstract

Factors associated with injection cessation, relapse and initiation in a community-based cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India

Injection drug users in southern India demonstrate a high rate of quitting, but relapse is common and quitting often coincides with an increase in alcohol use. Link to Abstract

A longitudinal study of substance use and violent victimization in adulthood among a cohort of urban African Americans

Among African Americans, violent victimization appears to drive substance use. African Americans who are not raised in extreme poverty are the most negatively affected by violence. Link to Abstract

Age differences in diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV alcohol dependence among adults with similar drinking behaviour

For a given amount of alcohol consumed, young drinkers are more likely to show alcohol tolerance, drink more than intended, and spend time getting, drinking, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. Older drinkers are more likely to experience alcohol withdrawal symptoms Link to Abstract

Subjective measures of binge drinking and alcohol-specific adverse health outcomes: a prospective cohort study

Drinkers' own reports of being intoxicated, having hangovers and passing out appear to be useful in identifying drinkers at risk for later health problems caused by drinking. Link to Abstract

The relation between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and age of onset of alcohol use

Adolescents who begin drinking at an early age appear to show reduced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress. Link to Abstract

Does sponsorship improve outcomes above Alcoholics Anonymous attendance? A latent class growth curve analyses

Any pattern of AA attendance, even if it declines or is never high for a particular 12-month period, is better than little or no attendance in terms of helping maintain abstinence. Keeping a sponsor over a period of time raises the attendance benefit. Link to Abstract

Determining the relative importance of the mechanisms of behavior change within Alcoholics Anonymous: a multiple mediator analysis

Alcoholics Anonymous helps people recover at least in part by changing its members' social networks and boosting self-belief in high risk social contexts. Link to Abstract

Psychosocial therapeutic interventions for volatile substance use: a systematic review

There are no proven treatments to help people stop volatile substance use but three types of intervention merit further study: family therapy, activity-based programmes and some residential approaches. Link to Abstract

January 2012

Mortality among Substance-using Mothers in California: A 10-year Prospective Study

In the United States, substance-using mothers have 8.4 times the mortality of non-substance-using women because of more severe problems of employment, physical health, and psychiatric health. Link to Abstract

Psychological dysregulation, white matter disorganization and substance use disorders in adolescence

In adolescents, substance use disorder and psychological dysregulation appear to be associated with reduced frontoparietal network white matter maturation, which is commonly found among adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. Link to Abstract

Cessation assistance reported by smokers in 15 countries participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) policy evaluation surveys

There is wide variation across countries in rates of attempts to stop smoking and use of assistance to quit, with medication being more popular than behavioural support. Link to Abstract

Cigarette price, affordability and smoking prevalence in the European Union

Higher cost of smoking does not appear to have affected smoking prevalence in the European Union in recent years. Link to Abstract

Genetic variants in the serotonin transporter influence the efficacy of bupropion and nortriptyline in smoking cessation

In the Netherlands, antidepressant therapy seems to be more effective in aiding smoking cessation among people with high-activity variants of a gene that promotes release of serotonin. Link to Abstract

The association between seeing retail displays of tobacco and tobacco smoking and purchase: findings from a diary style survey

Among Australian smokers, exposure to retail displays of tobacco increases the probability of smoking and leads to higher levels of smoking. Link to Abstract

Childhood impulsive behaviour and problem gambling by adulthood: A 30-year prospective community-based study

Children who exhibit impulsive behaviour at age seven are more likely to report problem gambling in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Positive impact of HCV treatment on ART adherence in HIV-HCV coinfected patients: one more argument for expanded access to HCV treatment for IDUs

People who are co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis C who also engage in treatment for Hepatitis C show high adherence to anti-retroviral treatment for HIV. Link to Abstract

A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Acceptability and Safety Study of Direct Buprenorphine/Naloxone Induction in Heroin-Dependent Individuals

Direct buprenorphine/naloxone (BNX) induction is a safe and effective strategy for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Link to Abstract

Sertraline Delays Relapse in Recently Abstinent Cocaine-Dependent Patients with Depressive Symptoms

Cocaine-dependent patients who achieve at least two weeks of abstinence and are then given sertraline take longer to relapse than similar patients given placebo. Link to Abstract

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among pregnant women using injecting drugs in Ukraine, 2000-2010

Pregnant HIV-infected injecting drug users (IDUs) in Ukraine have worse clinical status, poorer access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), more adverse pregnancy outcomes, and higher risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) than Ukrainian women who do not inject drugs. Link to Abstract

Women's Alcohol Consumption and Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in Russia

Russian women substantially reduce drinking after they know they are pregnant. Russian women who know they might become pregnant or are trying to conceive show no reductions in drinking prior to knowing they have become pregnant. Link to Abstract

Alcohol consumption, problem drinking, abstention and disability pension award. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

In Norway, problem drinkers and those who do not drink alcohol at all are at increased risk of eventually needing disability pensions. Link to Abstract

IQ in adolescence and later risk of alcohol-related hospital admissions and deaths - 37 year follow-up of Swedish conscripts

In Swedish men there is an association between low IQ measured in adolescence and later risk of alcohol-related disease and death Link to Abstract

Working hours and alcohol problems in early adulthood

In New Zealand, longer work hours appear to be associated with higher rates of alcohol-related problems, including more frequent alcohol use, higher rates of alcohol abuse/dependence, and a greater number of alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Link to Abstract

Alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and subsequent problems among adolescents in 23 European countries: does the prevention paradox apply?

The prevention paradox, which holds that a majority of alcohol-related problems in a population can be attributed to low and moderate drinkers, seems to be valid among adolescent European boys and girls. Link to Abstract

The Distribution of Alcohol Consumption and the Prevention Paradox in Brazil

Most drinking problems in Brazil are associated with low or moderate drinkers. Binge drinking better accounts for the distribution of alcohol problems than total volume consumed. Link to Abstract

Alcohol consumption and the intention to engage in unprotected sex: systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

Alcohol consumption increases a person's intention to have unsafe sex. Link to Abstract

The Effectiveness of Interventions for Reducing Stigma Related to Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review

Stigma associated with substance use disorder can be reduced by a range of interventions including Acceptance Commitment Therapy and communicating positive stories of people with this disorder. Link to Abstract

Ketamine use: a review

Chronic, frequent use of ketamine is associated with ulcerative cystitis, neurocognitive impairment, and deficits in working and episodic memory. Link to Abstract

December 2011

A randomized experiment to examine unintended consequences of dietary supplement use among daily smokers: taking supplements reduces self-regulation of smoking

The use of dietary supplements may lead smokers to smoke more cigarettes under the false belief that the vitamins mitigate the risk. Link to Abstract

'Closet' quit attempts: prevalence, correlates and association with outcome

Keeping quiet about the fact that one is trying to stop smoking is very common and does not appear to hinder the chances of success. Link to Abstract

Impact of the removal of misleading terms on cigarette pack on smokers' beliefs about 'light/mild' cigarettes: cross-country comparisons

Despite the removal of "light/mild" labels from cigarette packaging, alternative labels such as "smooth" and "fine" and design features such as lighter colours are enough to maintain the belief that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular ones. Link to Abstract

Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort

Stopping regular cannabis use appears to improve the ability to remember information that has just been learned. Link to Abstract

The increasing mortality burden of liver disease among opioid-dependent people: cohort study

In the 30 years since first entering treatment, liver disease has been found to be the most common cause of death among opioid-dependent people in Australia. Link to Abstract

Co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance use disorder in the general population

Individuals diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder are more likely to suffer from substance use disorder than those diagnosed with non-obsessive-compulsive psychological disorders; this is particularly true of men. Link to Abstract

Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, decreases in impulsivity and drinking and psychosocial outcomes over 16 years: moderated-mediation from a developmental perspective

Among people attending Alcoholics Anonymous, a decrease in impulsivity is associated with fewer alcohol-related problems. Link to Abstract

Treatment outcomes of a stage 1 cognitive-behavioral trial to reduce alcohol use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected out-patients in western Kenya

Cognitive-behavioural therapy, delivered by paraprofessional counsellors, appears to be effective in reducing alcohol use among HIV- infected Kenyan out-patients. Link to Abstract

Non-medical prescription use increases the risk for the onset and recurrence of psychopathology: results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

The non-medical use of prescription medications that affect the central nervous system increases the risk for the onset and recurrence of psychopathology. Link to Abstract

The Örebro prevention programme revisited: a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of programme effects on youth drinking

The "Örebro prevention programme", as currently delivered in Sweden, does not appear to reduce or delay youth drunkenness. Link to Abstract

Reducing the legal blood alcohol concentration limit for driving in developing countries: a time for change? Results and implications derived from a time-series analysis (2001-10) conducted in Brazil&

When Brazil reduced the legal limit for blood alcohol when driving it reduced the numbers of deaths caused by traffic accidents Link to Abstract

November 2011

The timing of smoking onset, prolonged abstinence and relapse in men: a prospective study from ages 18 to 32 years 

Even after long periods of abstinence from smoking, relapses continue to erode quit success. Starting to smoke early in adolescence appears to be linked to lower likelihood of quitting later in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacy

E-cigarettes are used both as an aid to reducing and quitting smoking and by former smokers to avoid relapse, in much the same way that people use nicotine replacement therapy. Link to Abstract

Planned quit attempts among Ontario smokers: impact on abstinence

Among smokers in Ontario, most quit attempts are planned and planners are more likely to use quit aids; however, planning does not appear to increase the likelihood of success. Link to Abstract

Long-term effects of a community-based intervention: 5-year follow-up of 'Clubs against Drugs'

The 'Clubs against Drugs' community-based intervention programme, a systems approach to prevention, appears to increase the frequency and effectiveness of club doormen's interventions to tackle obviously drug-intoxicated guests.  Link to Abstract

Mephedrone: use, subjective effects and health risks

Mephedrone has a high abuse and health risk liability, with increased tolerance, impaired control and a compulsion to use being the predominant reported dependence symptoms. Link to Abstract

The impact of needle and syringe provision and opiate substitution therapy on the incidence of hepatitis C virus in injecting drug users: pooling of UK evidence

In the UK, opiate substitution therapy and a high coverage of needle and syringe programmes appears to have substantially reduced the risk of hepatitis C virus transmission among injecting drug users. Link to Abstract

The effect of neighborhood deprivation and residential relocation on long-term injection cessation among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, Maryland

Living in a deprived neighbourhood appears to undermine attempts to stop injecting illicit drugs. Relocating out of these neighbourhoods appears to be helpful in promoting behaviour change. Link to Abstract

The role of alcohol in the Russian mortality crisis

Much of the 1990 to 1994 rise in Russian mortality appears to have been due to the increase in population alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Drinking behaviour among men and women in China: the 2007 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance

Excessive drinking, frequent drinking and binge drinking behaviour have reached epidemic proportions among current drinkers in China. Link to Abstract

DSM-IV to DSM-5: the impact of proposed revisions on diagnosis of alcohol use disorders

The proposed DSM-5 revisions to diagnosis of alcohol use disorders would exclude as cases individuals who drink at hazardous levels but show no other signs of dependence or alcohol problems but include individuals with relatively low levels of dependence Link to Abstract

Housewife or working mum--each to her own? The relevance of societal factors in the association between social roles and alcohol use among mothers in 16 industrialized countries

In countries with relatively high gender-income equality, the combination of motherhood, paid labour and partnership appears to be associated with decreased alcohol consumption; in countries with lower gender-income equality, this role combination does not appear to have the same effect. Link to Abstract

October 2011

Substance use and exercise participation among young adults: parallel trajectories in a national cohort-sequential study

Increased participation in sports, athletics or exercising is related to significantly lower substance use at age 18 and into early adulthood. Link to Abstract

Examining gender differences in emerging tobacco use using the adolescents' need for smoking scale

Canadian girls score higher than boys on measures of emotional dependence and social attitudes associated with tobacco smoking. Link to Abstract

The dynamics of the urge-to-smoke following smoking cessation via pharmacotherapy

The chances of success of quit attempts appear to be influenced not only by the strength of urges to smoke but by the way that they change over time Link to Abstract

The impact of the introduction of smoke-free legislation on prescribing of stop-smoking medications in England

While prescriptions of all smoking cessation medications in England increased in the months leading up to the introduction of smoke-free legislation, this increase was not sustained afterwards. Link to Abstract

Cost effectiveness of interventions to reduce relapse to smoking following smoking cessation

Treatments aimed at preventing relapse to smoking after a quit attempt (such as nicotine replacement therapy) appear cost effective when used in routine clinical care. Link to Abstract

Cocaine-related attentional bias following trauma cue exposure among cocaine dependent in-patients with and without post-traumatic stress disorder

Cocaine appears to serve an emotion-regulating function among post-traumatic stress disorder patients. Link to Abstract

Effects of a randomized contingency management intervention on opiate abstinence and retention in methadone maintenance treatment in China

In China, "contingency management" - the use of motivational incentives - appears to improve opiate abstinence and treatment retention in methadone maintenance treatment clinics. Link to Abstract

The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976-2007

Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Link to Abstract

Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiate users with concurrent sexual partnerships: an egocentric network study in Yunnan, China

In China, concurrent sexual partnerships are common among both injection drug users and non-injection drug users; these concurrent sexual partnerships may serve as a bridging group to transmit HIV from high-risk populations to the general population. Link to Abstract

Access to alcohol outlets and harmful alcohol consumption: a multi-level study in Melbourne, Australia

In Australia, an increased number of off-premises alcohol outlets in an area is associated with a greater risk of harmful alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Extended telephone-based continuing care for alcohol dependence: 24-month outcomes and subgroup analyses

The benefits of an extended telephone-based continuing care programme to treat alcohol dependence did not persist after the end of the intervention. Link to Abstract

Brief interventions in routine health care: a population-based study of conversations about alcohol in Sweden

In Sweden, brief interventions to reduce alcohol consumption are more effective when conversations with health-care professionals are longer and include advice on how to cut down on drinking. Link to Abstract

September 2011

Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention: cluster randomized clinical trial (ISTAPS study) 

In primary care settings, a "stepped" smoking cessation intervention appears to significantly increase smoking abstinence, compared with a brief intervention. Link to Abstract

Australian smokers' and recent quitters' responses to the increasing price of cigarettes in the context of a tobacco tax increase

In Australia, an increase in cigarette prices does not appear to result in smokers moving to cheaper cigarette products. Instead, the majority of smokers indicate a positive change in their smoking-related thoughts and behaviours as a result of the prices increase. Link to Abstract

Nicotine dependence, abuse and craving: dimensionality in an Israeli sample

The various criteria conventionally applied to define dependence on nicotine, such as craving and experience of withdrawal symptoms, appear to be sufficiently closely related to each other as to be regarded as a single underlying condition that varies in severity. Link to Abstract

Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

Heavy cannabis users appear to have an automatically triggered tendency to approach rather than avoid cannabis-related stimuli; those with stronger tendencies to approach are more likely to increase cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Age moderates non-genetic influences on the initiation of cannabis use: a twin-sibling study in Dutch adolescents and young adults

Familial similarities in the initiation of cannabis use appear to be influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, with the influence of environmental factors increasing - and genetic factors decreasing - from early adolescence to young adulthood. Link to Abstract

Physical and mental health in severe opioid-dependent patients within a randomized controlled maintenance treatment trial

Both heroin-assisted and methadone maintenance treatments appear to improve physical and mental health among severe opioid-dependent patients, with heroin-assisted treatment producing the best results. Link to Abstract

Cannabis and social welfare assistance: a longitudinal study

In Norway, the use of cannabis is linked with subsequent receipt of social welfare assistance, although it is unclear whether this welfare assistance is a consequence of cannabis use or of cultural factors and the illegal status of the cannabis. Link to Abstract

Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey

In Australia, alcohol use at work appears to be widespread, with more than one in twenty workers admitting to having worked under the influence of alcohol. Link to Abstract

The relationship between serious injury and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in fatal motor vehicle accidents: BAC=0.01% is associated with significantly more dangerous accidents than BAC

In the US, the severity of life-threatening motor vehicle accidents increases significantly at blood alcohol concentrations that are far lower than the current legal limit of 0.08 percent. Link to Abstract

Surveying the range and magnitude of alcohol's harm to others in Australia

Seventy percent of Australians report being negatively affected by other people's drinking; these negative effects range from noise and fear to physical abuse, sexual coercion and social isolation. Link to Abstract

August 2011

Social gradient in initiation and transition to daily use of tobacco and cannabis during adolescence: a retrospective cohort study

Although adolescents from high socio-economic backgrounds are at risk of tobacco and cannabis experimentation, they are less likely to engage in daily use than adolescents from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Link to Abstract

Prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy to adolescents in England

Despite the recent inclusion of 12-17 year olds in the marketing licence for nicotine replacement therapy in England, prescriptions to adolescents remain low. Link to Abstract

Plain packaging increases visual attention to health warnings on cigarette packs in non-smokers and weekly smokers but not daily smokers

Among non-smokers and non-daily cigarette smokers, plain packaging appears to increase visual attention towards health warning information and away from brand information. Link to Abstract

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to social stress and adolescent cannabis use: the TRAILS study

Among adolescents, low levels of reactivity to social stress are associated with repeated and lifetime cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Methamphetamine users show greater than normal age-related cortical gray matter loss

Age-related cortical gray matter loss is greater than normal in methamphetamine users, suggesting the possibility of an accelerated decline in their mental functioning. Link to Abstract

The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of intranasal crushed buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone tablets in opioid abusers

The abuse potential of crushed buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone tablets - used in the treatment of opioid dependence - taken by the intranasal route appears low. Link to Abstract

Socio-economic determinants of drugged driving - a register-based study

In Finland, a disadvantaged socio-economic background increases the likelihood of driving while under the influence of drugs for all substance use groups. Low education, unemployment and receiving a disability pension are particularly strong predictors. Link to Abstract

Mortality among a cohort of drug users after their release from prison: an evaluation of the effectiveness of a harm reduction program in Taiwan

Among ex-prisoners in Taiwan with a history of opiate injecting, enrolment and continued participation in methadone maintenance treatment is associated with substantially lower mortality. Link to Abstract

Gender differences in the impact of families on alcohol use: a lagged longitudinal study of early adolescents

Family environment appears to impact differently upon the alcohol use of male versus female adolescents. While an emotionally close relationship to mothers is associated with less frequent drinking in females, parental disapproval of alcohol is a better predictor of reduced drinking in males. Link to Abstract

Similar profile of cognitive impairment and recovery for Aboriginal Australians in treatment for episodic or chronic alcohol use

Among Aboriginal Australians, episodic or "binge" drinking is associated with similar patterns of cognitive impairment and recovery as chronic alcohol use. Link to Abstract

July 2011

Does the introduction of comprehensive smoke-free legislation lead to a decrease in population smoking prevalence?

Across Canada and the US, smoke-free legislation does not appear to have had an impact on existing smoking trends, although it has increased the decline of smoking prevalence is some regions. Link to Abstract

Prospective predictors of quitting behaviours among adult smokers in six cities in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey

Contrary to findings in other South East Asian countries, neither low nicotine dependence nor high-self efficacy appear to predict successful smoking cessation in China. Link to Abstract

Relative performance of common biochemical indicators in detecting cigarette smoking

In areas with strong smoke-free laws, a breath carbon monoxide level of 5 parts per million or more is effective at identifying someone as a cigarette smoker. Link to Abstract

Prescribing of smoking cessation medication in England since the introduction of varenicline

Since its introduction in England, varenicline has become the most commonly prescribed smoking cessation medication after nicotine replacement therapy. Despite this popularity, varenicline has not led to an increase in the overall prescription rates for smoking cessation medication. Link to Abstract

Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to depot naltrexone in unemployed opioid-dependent adults: a randomized controlled trial

Employment-based reinforcement appears to increase adherence to depot naltrexone, a drug that blocks the effects of opioids, among unemployed opioid-dependent adults. Link to Abstract

Deviant socialization mediates transmissible and contextual risk on cannabis use disorder development: a prospective study

Deviant socialization resulting from transmissible risk (genetic or parental upbringing risk factors) and poor parent-child relationships is integral to the development of cannabis use disorder in young adulthood. Link to Abstract

Pill content, dose and resulting plasma concentrations of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in recreational 'ecstasy' users

Among ecstasy users in Australia, the use of multiple ecstasy pills in one session is common, likely resulting in a greater exposure of the brain to MDMA than is predicted in single-dose studies. Link to Abstract

Drug violations and aviation accidents: findings from the US mandatory drug testing programs

Although rare, illegal drug use among aviation employees is associated with a significantly increased risk of involvement in an aviation accident. Link to Abstract

Effects of major depression on crack use and arrests among women in drug court

Among women attending drug court, current major depression, but not past major depression, appears to increase the risk of crack cocaine use. Link to Abstract

Associations between drinking motives and changes in adolescents' alcohol consumption: a full cross-lagged panel study

In the Netherlands, adolescents who are motivated to drink alcohol for social reasons - such as "fitting in" and "having fun" - appear more likely to drink heavily after a year than adolescents who drank to enhance their mood or cope with negative emotion Link to Abstract

Does readiness to change predict in-session motivational language? Correspondence between two conceptualizations of client motivation

The use of motivational language by patients during counselling for excessive alcohol consumption does not appear to be a good predictor of their actual readiness to change their drinking behaviour. Link to Abstract

The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among night-time weekend drivers

The majority of drunk drivers on US roads during weekend evenings and nights do not suffer from alcohol use disorders, but can be considered heavy drinkers. Link to Abstract

Alcohol-related discussions in health care--a population view

Despite reporting positive feelings about alcohol-related discussions in healthcare settings, relatively few people in Finland are asked about alcohol consumption by healthcare professionals, and even fewer are offered advice. Link to Abstract

June 2011

Does improved access and greater choice of nicotine replacement therapy affect smoking cessation success? Findings from a randomized controlled trial

Offering smokers who want to quit a wide range of nicotine replacement therapy does not appear to produce better results than offering a narrower selection of reduced cost nicotine replacement therapy. Link to Abstract

Beyond light and mild: cigarette brand descriptors and perceptions of risk in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

Although the words 'light' and 'mild' are banned, smokers in western countries continue to believe that some cigarette brands are less harmful than others. These beliefs are based on the descriptive words and designs used in cigarette marketing. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of a smoking reduction plus nicotine replacement therapy intervention for smokers not willing to quit smoking

In smokers with no immediate plans to quit, smoking reduction programmes with behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy are more effective than brief advice to quit Link to Abstract

Empirically derived subtypes of opioid use and related behaviours

There are five distinct categories of opioid use and related behaviour, with each category - particularly the most severe, early-onset category - revealing significant genetic influences on the characteristics of an individual's opioid use. Link to Abstract

The validity of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence criteria in adolescents and the value of additional cannabis use indicators

DSM's current distinction between cannabis abuse and cannabis dependence has limited use for diagnosing adolescents. The two sets of criteria do not reflect two distinct aspects of cannabis-related problems, but instead constitute a single underlying diso Link to Abstract

Affective disorders and anxiety disorders predict the risk of drug harmful use and dependence

Patients with affective disorders and anxiety disorders have an increased risk of developing substance abuse problems, although it is unclear whether these disorders lead to substance abuse problems, or whether both are symptoms of a common cause. Link to Abstract

Staff regard towards working with substance users: a European multi-centre study

In Europe, health professionals - particularly those in primary care - appear to have a lower regard for treating substance users than for treating patients with other chronic conditions. Link to Abstract

The role of person-environment interactions in increased alcohol use in the transition to college

In the transition from high school to college, sensation seeking students from protective high school environments experience more alcohol-related problems than those from less protective environments. Link to Abstract

Alcohol expectancy moderates attentional bias for alcohol cues in light drinkers

While light drinkers only show increased attention to pictures that are alcohol-related when they are expecting alcohol, heavy drinkers show a preference for alcohol-related pictures regardless of whether they are expecting alcohol. Link to Abstract

Alcohol's harm to others: reduced wellbeing and health status for those with heavy drinkers in their lives

As is widely believed, heavy drinking adversely affects the health and personal well-being of others who are close to the heavy drinker. Link to Abstract

May 2011

Comorbid psychiatric disorders and nicotine dependence in adolescence

Psychiatric disorders have a stronger influence on the onset of nicotine dependence in adolescents than nicotine dependence has on the onset of psychiatric disorders. Disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be a particularly important precursor and consequence of nicotine dependence. Link to Abstract

Influence of traditional tobacco use on smoking cessation among American Indians

When compared with other racial/ethnic groups, American Indians appear to have a low awareness of the use of pharmacotherapy - such as nicotine replacement therapy - to aid smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Genetics of the association between intelligence and nicotine dependence: a study of male Swedish twins

Nicotine dependence and intelligence are only weakly associated. This association does not appear to be due to common genetic factors. Link to Abstract

Associations of CYP2A6 genotype with smoking behaviors in southern China

Among Chinese smokers, a variant of the CYP2A6 gene leading to reduced rate of nicotine metabolism is associated with later smoking initiation, fewer cigarettes smoked per day, shorter smoking duration but reduced likelihood of smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Clinical experience with the treatment of hepatitis C infection in patients on opioid pharmacotherapy

Treatment for Hepatitis C infection can be successful in patients on opioid substitution therapy, even if they are active injectors, and is not associated with any major safety concerns. Link to Abstract

Outreach screening of drug users for cirrhosis with transient elastography

'Transient elastography' - a non-invasive procedure - has the capacity to identify severe liver fibrosis in a significant proportion of drug users with hepatitis C infections, making it a feasible screening tool for cirrhosis among drug users. Link to Abstract

Employment-based abstinence reinforcement as a maintenance intervention for the treatment of cocaine dependence: post-intervention outcomes

Although abstinence-contingent employment appears to reduce cocaine use in cocaine dependent patients, there is a high rate of relapse once the abstinence contingency of their employment is discontinued. Link to Abstract

Impaired conditional reasoning in alcoholics: a negative impact on social interactions and risky behaviors?

The capacity for 'conditional reasoning' (using if-then rules) of patients being treated for alcohol dependence, including reasoning about social contracts and emotional intelligence, appears to be impaired. Link to Abstract

An evaluation of the proposed DSM-5 alcohol use disorder criteria using Australian national data

Alcohol use disorders have a low correlation with the 'substance-related legal problems' criterion used in the DSM diagnosis, supporting the removal of the criterion. Although alcohol use disorders have a high correlation with the proposed 'craving' crite Link to Abstract

Randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in hospitalized Taiwanese men

In Taiwan, a brief in-hospital interventions has been found to reduce alcohol consumption among hospitalised men who drink heavily or have been diagnosed with alcohol use disorders. Link to Abstract

A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and domestic violence

Rates of domestic violence appear to correlate positively with the density of alcohol outlets in the local area, particularly those with off premise alcohol licenses. Link to Abstract

April 2011

The role of desire, duty and intention in predicting attempts to quit smoking

Although 'duty' - the belief that one ought to quit smoking - appears to be the most commonly reported motive for quitting, both 'desire' and 'intention' to quit are better predictors of quit attempts, with 'duty' even appearing to mitigate their effects. Link to Abstract

Adjustment of nicotine replacement therapies according to saliva cotinine concentration: the ADONIS trial--a randomized study in smokers with medical comorbidities

Among smokers with smoking-related illnesses, tailoring nicotine replacement therapy according to the concentration of cotinine - a biomarker for tobacco smoke exposure - in the patient's saliva does not appear more effective than standard nicotine replac Link to Abstract

Treating heavy smokers in primary care with the nicotine nasal spray: randomized placebo-controlled trial

Treating heavy smokers in primary care with nicotine nasal spray compared with a placebo, significantly increases the rate of successful quit attempts, and is particularly effective among those highly dependent on nicotine. Link to Abstract

The population impact of smoke-free workplace and hospitality industry legislation on smoking behaviour. Findings from a national population survey

In the Netherlands, a workplace ban on smoking appears to have been more effective than a hospitality ban in reducing the prevalence of smoking and increasing the rate of successful quit attempts. Link to Abstract

Increasing US mortality due to accidental poisoning: the role of the baby boom cohort

Over the past decade there has been a sharp increase in accidental poisoning deaths in the US. While a baby boom cohort effect is likely responsible for this increase among black Americans, among white Americans it appears that a historical period effect - possibly the rise in non-medical pharmaceutical drug use - has contributed to this rise in deaths. Link to Abstract

Modelling the adverse effects associated with ecstasy use

Long-term ecstasy use increases the likelihood of adverse effects, such as paranoia, poor general health and irritability, particularly when the drug is consumed with alcohol. These adverse effects decrease with the period of abstinence from the drug. Link to Abstract

The association between spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis for personal use and earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand

In New Zealand there is a positive correlation between earnings from property crime and levels of both methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis use. While this relationship also exists between methamphetamine/amphetamine use and drug dealing, earnings from drug dealing are negatively associated to levels of cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Residual neurocognitive features of long-term ecstasy users with minimal exposure to other drugs

In contrast to previous findings, there is little evidence of decreased cognitive performance in long-term ecstasy users. Link to Abstract

Impact on alcohol-related mortality of a rapid rise in the density of private liquor outlets in British Columbia: a local area multi-level analysis

The large increase in numbers of privately owned liquor stores in British Columbia between 2003 and 2008 was associated with a significant local-area increase in alcohol-related deaths. Link to Abstract

The effects of a large reduction in alcohol prices on hospitalizations related to alcohol: a population-based natural experiment

In Finland, a reduction in the price of alcohol in 2004 was associated with an increase in chronic hospitalization rates among 50-69 year olds. This increase was largely due to a rise in alcohol-related mental and behavioural disorders. Link to Abstract

Types of drinkers and drinking settings: an application of a mathematical model

The level of social interaction between light, moderate and heavy drinkers and the traffic between low-risk and high-risk drinking venues are important determinants of changes in drinking patterns among US college students. Link to Abstract

Inverse association of the obesity predisposing FTO rs9939609 genotype with alcohol consumption and risk for alcohol dependence

The genotype which predisposes to obesity is also associated with protection from alcohol dependence, lower alcohol consumption and less intense cigarette smoking. Link to Abstract

The price of a drink: levels of consumption and price paid per unit of alcohol by Edinburgh's ill drinkers with a comparison to wider alcohol sales in Scotland

Drinkers in Edinburgh with alcohol-related illnesses pay an average of £0.29 less per unit of alcohol than the general Scottish population, with those paying the lowest prices consuming the greatest amounts of alcohol. Link to Abstract

Interventions for disorder and severe intoxication in and around licensed premises, 1989-2009

Server training appeared to be successful at reducing alcohol-related violence in and around licensed premises. However, there is limited evidence that premises level interventions are effective at reducing intoxication or related disorder. Link to Abstract

March 2011

Probability and predictors of remission from life-time nicotine, alcohol, cannabis or cocaine dependence: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

The vast majority of nicotine, alcohol, cannabis or cocaine dependent individuals achieve remission at some point in their lives, with males, Blacks and those with personality disorders exhibiting the lowest rates of remission. Link to Abstract

Effect of compliance with nicotine gum dosing on weight gained during a quit attempt

During the first 30 days of a quit attempt, smokers who use more pieces of nicotine gum experience less weight gain. This relationship is not seen for smokers on nicotine-free placebo gum. Link to Abstract

An Ecological Momentary Assessment analysis of relations among coping, affect and smoking during a quit attempt

Although stress coping responses during a quit attempt may be effective at lowering stress, they do not appear to protect against smoking or increase the likelihood of quit success. Link to Abstract

Strength of urges to smoke as a measure of severity of cigarette dependence: comparison with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and its components

Among English smokers, a simple 'strength of urges' rating appears to be a good predictor of short-term quit success. Link to Abstract

Cigarette tax and public health: what are the implications of financially stressed smokers for the effects of price increases on smoking prevalence?

Although price increases may reduce smoking prevalence among smokers as a whole, financial stress appears to limit the efficacy of price increases among low-income smokers. Link to Abstract

Do cigarette prices motivate smokers to quit? New evidence from the ITC survey

Smokers living in areas with higher cigarette prices and taxes were significantly more motivated to quit and had an increased likelihood of actual quitting. Link to Abstract

Predictors and correlates of reduced frequency or cessation of injection drug use during a randomized HIV prevention intervention trial

HIV prevention interventions that encourage injection drug users to take on the role of peer educator may have the additional benefit of increasing the likelihood of injection cessation. Link to Abstract

Opioid dependence latent structure: two classes with differing severity?

Among in-treatment opioid users, there appears to be two separate classes of individuals, exhibiting distinct patterns of opioid dependence, other substance use and mental health disorders. Link to Abstract

Mortality and HIV transmission among male Vietnamese injection drug users

The mortality rate of male Vietnamese injection drug users is 13 times higher than that of the general population and substantially higher than the mortality rate of injection drug users studied in developed countries. Link to Abstract

Revised dose schema of sublingual buprenorphine in the treatment of the neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome

Administering Buprenorphine to infants was demonstrated to be both safe and effective in the treatment of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, with indications of a therapeutic advantage over morphine. Link to Abstract

Neural correlates of verbal learning in adolescent alcohol and marijuana users

While adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana displayed no difference from non-users in their performance on a verbal encoding task, both binge drinkers and combined marijuana and alcohol users did exhibit different brain response patterns. No main effects of marijuana use alone were found. Link to Abstract

Exploring the emergence of alcohol use disorder symptoms in the two years after onset of drinking: findings from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health

Despite steadily increasing during the first nine months of alcohol use, the emergence of clinical features of alcohol use disorder then appear to plateau or fluctuate during the second year. Link to Abstract

Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

The portrayal of alcohol consumption in movies appears to increase the alcohol consumption of young males while they are viewing the movie, but not that of female viewers. Link to Abstract

Why target early adolescents and parents in alcohol prevention? The mediating effects of self-control, rules and attitudes about alcohol use

An intervention targeting both young adolescents and their parents appears to be effective in delaying the onset of weekly alcohol use by developing adolescent self-control as well as parental rule-setting. Link to Abstract

Brief alcohol interventions for mandated college students: comparison of face-to-face counseling and computer-delivered interventions

Among American college students who had violated alcohol policies, face-to-face counselling reduced alcohol consumption and related problems more than computer-delivered interventions, particularly in female students. Link to Abstract

Alcohol as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Alcohol consumption in parents may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. However, it is unclear whether this is due to alcohol impairing parental capacity, or alcohol being a proxy for other risk factors, such as smoking. Link to Abstract

February 2011

Teaching community program clinicians motivational interviewing using expert and train-the-trainer strategies

Both 'expert-led' and 'train-the-trainer' approaches to training clinicians in addiction treatment appear to be more successful than a self-study approach. Link to Abstract

Anxiety diagnoses in smokers seeking cessation treatment: relations with tobacco dependence, withdrawal, outcome and response to treatment

Anxiety diagnoses are common among smokers attempting to quit, and appear to be related to an impaired ability to quit. Link to Abstract

Does extinction of responses to cigarette cues occur during smoking cessation?

For smokers attempting to quit, exposure to available cigarettes is a risk factor for lapsing. However, this risk can be reduced by repeated exposures to available cigarettes without smoking. Link to Abstract

The relationship between addiction and reward bundling: an experiment comparing smokers and non-smokers

Smokers appear to be more likely than non-smokers to prefer small short-term rewards over larger delayed rewards. Link to Abstract

Dizziness and the genetic influences on subjective experiences to initial cigarette use

An individual's initial smoking experience appears to be affected by heritable factors, particularly the experience of dizziness which may be caused by a heritable sensitivity to the chemicals contained in cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

Dopamine release appears to be associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gamblers, regardless of their performance in a gambling task. Link to Abstract

Cessation of groin injecting behaviour among patients on oral opioid substitution treatment

Although oral opioid substitution therapy can reduce groin injecting in some patients, groin injecting usually persists despite both treatment and severe health complications. Link to Abstract

The STEP into Action study: a peer-based, personal risk network-focused HIV prevention intervention with injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland

'STEP into Action', a peer-based training program using the influence of social networks, appeared to reduce behaviour with a high risk of HIV transmission among active injection drug users. Link to Abstract

The roles of law, client race and program visibility in shaping police interference with the operation of US syringe exchange programs

Police interference in American syringe exchange programs is inconsistent, with programs predominantly serving non-white drug users reporting higher levels of police interference. Link to Abstract

Decreased bone density in men on methadone maintenance therapy

Bone density appears to be lower than normal in men, but not women, taking methadone maintenance therapy. Link to Abstract

The course of substance use disorders in patients with borderline personality disorder and Axis II comparison subjects: a 10-year follow-up study

Substance use disorders appear more prevalent among patients also suffering from borderline personality disorder, although remissions in drug use appear common and relatively stable. Link to Abstract

The acute effects of caffeinated versus non-caffeinated alcoholic beverage on driving performance and attention/reaction time

Despite the common belief among young drinkers that caffeinated alcoholic drinks enhance alertness, when compared to non-caffeinated alcoholic drinks they do not appear to improve either driving performance or attention/reaction times. Link to Abstract

Personal, family and social functioning among older couples concordant and discordant for high-risk alcohol consumption

In couples over 65, high-risk drinking and differences in alcohol consumption do not appear to have a negative effect on the quality of marital relationships or family functioning, as they appear to in younger couples. Link to Abstract

Per capita alcohol consumption and ischemic heart disease mortality in a panel of US states from 1950 to 2002

In US adults, consumption of alcohol, and particularly spirits, appears to be associated with an increased rate of ischemic heart disease mortality while beer consumption appears have a protective effect. Link to Abstract

Effects of restricting pub closing times on night-time assaults in an Australian city

Effects of restricting pub closing times on night-time assaults in an Australian city Link to Abstract

Can stand-alone computer-based interventions reduce alcohol consumption? A systematic review

Computer-based interventions appear to be effective at reducing alcohol consumption in both student and non-student populations. Link to Abstract

January 2011

Common and drug-specific genetic influences on subjective effects to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use

Individual responses to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use appear to share common genetic influences; drug-specific genetic influences appear to contribute to individual differences in drug response Link to Abstract

Online video game addiction: identification of addicted adolescent gamers

In the Netherlands, approximately 1.5% of all 13-16 year olds can be considered addicted online gamers. Despite addiction-like problems, an association between addictive online gaming and decreased psychosocial health is not evident. Link to Abstract

Use of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction and during enforced temporary abstinence: a national survey of English smokers

The use of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction and temporary abstinence does not appear to reduce the number of cigarettes consumed, when compared with those attempting reduction and temporary abstinence without nicotine replacement therapy. Link to Abstract

Associations between weight change over 8 years and baseline body mass index in a cohort of continuing and quitting smokers

Smokers who quit smoking gain more weight than those who continue smoking; the association between quitting and weight gain is particularly pronounced in those who are already obese. Link to Abstract

Declining alternative reinforcers link depression to young adult smoking

The observed association between depressive symptoms and smoking in young adults may be influenced by a decline in the presence of alternative sources of personal reward in depressive young adults. Link to Abstract

Evening types are more often current smokers and nicotine-dependent--a study of Finnish adult twins

Compared to 'morning types', 'evening types' are more likely to be current smokers and highly nicotine dependent; 'evening types' also have a lower likelihood of quitting smoking. Link to Abstract

The association between use of snus and quit rates for smoking: results from seven Norwegian cross-sectional studies

Consistent with Swedish studies, Norwegian data shows that snus use is associated with an increased probability of being a former compared with a current smoker, suggesting that in Norway snus may have a role in smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Mephedrone, new kid for the chop?

A study of users of a UK-based dance and clubbing website suggests that mephedrone use is common, particularly among males with the preferred route being intranasal. Link to Abstract

Hepatitis C virus among non-injecting cocaine users (NICUs) in South America: can injectors be a bridge?

Non-injecting cocaine users in South America are vulnerable to Hepatitis C infection, particularly those in an intimate relationship with an intravenous drug using, or HIV positive, partner. Link to Abstract

Impact of jail sanctions during drug court participation upon substance abuse treatment completion

A jail sanction for non-adherence to substance abuse treatment is more likely to achieve successful results in individuals not already acclimatized to incarceration. Link to Abstract

Paternal incarceration and trajectories of marijuana and other illegal drug use from adolescence into young adulthood: evidence from longitudinal panels of males and females in the United States

Paternal incarceration is associated with an increase in marijuana use and the risk of other illegal drug use among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Link to Abstract

Primary care-based intervention to reduce at-risk drinking in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

Although there is evidence to show that interventions reduce unhealthy alcohol use in primary care populations, a multi-component intervention among older adults in primary care did not reduce at-risk drinking, despite reducing alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

'Alcohol, less is better' project: outcomes of an Italian community-based prevention programme on reducing per-capita alcohol consumption

The 'Alcohol, less is better' project, which is aimed at changing attitudes to alcohol through the involvement of community leaders, appears to reduce alcohol consumption in participants, particularly women Link to Abstract

High alcohol consumption in middle-aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socio-economic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

High alcohol consumption is associated with poor cognitive performance among low socio-economic grou Link to Abstract

Area of residence and alcohol-related mortality risk: a five-year follow-up study

Whilst alcohol-related mortality is higher in the more deprived areas of Northern Ireland, this appears to be due to the characteristics of individuals within the areas, rather than an independent effect of area deprivation. Link to Abstract

Reduction in alcohol consumption and health status

A deterioration in health appears to be an important motive for reducing or stopping alcohol consumption; this may at least partly explain the apparently increased risk of ill health in people who abstain from drinking. Link to Abstract

A meta-analysis of alcohol toxicology study findings among homicide victims

A third of homicide victims appear to have been intoxicated with alcohol at the time of their death but this figure has decreased over time. Link to Abstract

Mortality among regular or dependent users of heroin and other opioids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

Although mortality in opioid-dependent users varies between countries, overdose is the most common cause of death. Link to Abstract