Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor's Notes

Congratulations to Angelos Hatzakis and colleagues for winning the 2016 EMCDDA Scientific Award (Category: Population-based and Epidemiology Research) for their paper, "Design and baseline findings of a large-scale rapid response to an HIV outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme." The paper was published in the September 2015 issue of Addiction and can be accessed here.

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A message from Robert West, Editor-in-Chief

Key Findings Archive

December 2015

Implementation strategies to enhance management of heavy alcohol consumption in primary health care: a meta-analysis

Implementation strategies for alcohol screening and brief interventions should combine patient-, professional- and organizational-orientated approaches and involve mid-level health professionals as well as physicians. Link to Abstract

The effect of alcohol outlets, sales and trading hours on alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments in Perth, Australia, from 2002 to 2010

Regions of Perth, Australia with greater off-premises alcohol sales and numbers of on-premises alcohol outlets, particularly those with extended trading hours, appear to have higher levels of alcohol-related injuries. Link to Abstract

Lay epidemiology and the interpretation of low-risk drinking guidelines by adults in the United Kingdom

Drinking guidelines based solely epidemiological paradigms lack relevance for UK drinkers, who control their alcohol intake according to their own knowledge and risk perceptions derived from experience. Link to Abstract

Shared additive genetic influences on DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence in subjects of European ancestry

Additive genetic effects on DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria overlap; there appear to be common genetic effects across alcohol dependence symptoms. Link to Abstract

Sex and age differences in the early identification and treatment of alcohol use: a population-based study of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

In the UK, prior to alcoholic cirrhosis diagnosis, men are more likely than women to use health-care services and have their alcohol use recorded but women are more likely to receive alcohol brief interventions. Link to Abstract

Potency trends of delta9 THC and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15

The average tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of the most popular herbal cannabis products in the Netherlands has decreased slightly since 2005. Link to Abstract

Cocaine-specific neuroplasticity in the ventral striatum network is linked to delay discounting and drug relapse

Cocaine dependence-related neuroadaptations in the brain may increase impulsivity and increase the rate of cocaine relapse. Link to Abstract

Natural outcome of cannabis use disorder: a 3-year longitudinal follow-up

A substantial level of remission from cannabis use disorders (CUDs), including non-abstinent remission, suggests that the nature of CUDs may be more unstable than reported previously. Link to Abstract

A cost-effectiveness analysis of opioid substitution therapy upon prison release in reducing mortality among people with a history of opioid dependence

Opioid substitution treatment given on release from prison to people with a history of opioid dependence is cost-effective in reducing mortality in the first 6 months of release. Link to Abstract

Variety of gambling activities from adolescence to age 30 and association with gambling problems: a 15-year longitudinal study of a general population sample

Engaging in several different types of gambling in early adulthood appears to be a risk factor for emergence of problem gambling. Link to Abstract

Damage to the insula leads to decreased nicotine withdrawal during abstinence

Smokers who have a stroke in the insular cortex are more likely to quit smoking and experience fewer and less severe withdrawal symptoms than those with strokes in other parts of the brain. Link to Abstract

Self-help educational booklets for the prevention of smoking relapse following smoking cessation treatment: a randomized controlled trial

In people who stopped smoking with behavioural support, a comprehensive self-help educational programme on handling high-risk situations for return to smoking did not reduce relapse. Link to Abstract

Effect of warning statements in e-cigarette advertisements: an experiment with young adults in the United States

Both ingredient-themed and industry-themed warnings on e-cigarette television ads reduce craving and purchase intent similarly similarly but have inconsistent effects on perceived risks. Link to Abstract

Under pressure: Adolescent substance users show exaggerated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli

Adolescents with alcohol and marijuana substance use disorders may be hypersensitive to aversive internally generated stimuli (in the form of restricted breathing), which may lead to drug-seeking behaviour. Link to Abstract

November 2015

How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

The alcohol industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self-regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity. Link to Abstract

Alcohol Attributable Fraction for Injury Morbidity from the Dose-Response Relationship of Acute Alcohol Consumption: Emergency Department Data from 18 Countries

Alcohol-attributable injuries presenting in emergency departments are higher 1) for males than females, 2) for violence-related injuries compared with other types of injury, and 3) for countries with more detrimental drinking patterns compared with those with less detrimental patterns. Link to Abstract

Internet-based brief intervention for young men with unhealthy alcohol use: a randomized controlled trial in a general population sample

An internet-based brief intervention directed at harmful alcohol use among young men led to a reduction in self-reported alcohol consumption and AUDIT scores compared with a control condition involving assessment only. Link to Abstract

Liberal alcohol legislation: does it amplify the effects among Swiss men of person-related risk factors on heavy alcohol use?

Stronger alcohol legislation protects against heavy alcohol use in young Swiss men, but this protective effect is lost in individuals with high levels of sensation-seeking or having an antisocial personality disorder. Link to Abstract

Impacts of New Zealand's lowered minimum purchase age on context-specific drinking and related risks

The 1999 change in New Zealand's minimum purchase age for alcohol from 20 to 18 years appears to have been associated with increased drinking and associated drinking problems among 16 to 19-year-olds. Link to Abstract

Are overdoses treated by ambulance services an opportunity for additional interventions? A prospective cohort study

Mortality risk among people who inject drugs is significantly greater in time-periods after an overdose attendance than outside these time-periods. Link to Abstract

Project QUIT (Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial): A randomized controlled trial of a primary care based multi component brief intervention to reduce risky drug use

A primary-care based, clinician-delivered brief intervention with follow-up coaching calls may decrease risky psychoactive drug use. Link to Abstract

Cannabis use among Swedish men in adolescence and the risk of adverse life course outcomes: results from a 20 year-follow-up study

Heavy cannabis use among Swedish men in late adolescence appears to be associated with unemployment and being in need of social welfare assistance in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Drug use in Australian nightlife settings: estimation of prevalence and validity of self-report

Self-report findings suggest drug use in Australian nightlife is common, although still very much a minority activity. Drug swabs indicate a higher prevalence of use (20%) than self-report (9%). Link to Abstract

Early second-hand smoke exposure and child and adolescent mental health: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort

Prenatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure (e.g. from smoking by the pregnant smoker's partner) appears to be a risk factor for behavioural problems at age 11. Link to Abstract

Changes in the rate of nicotine metabolism across pregnancy: a longitudinal study

Nicotine metabolism appears to be faster during pregnancy; this faster metabolism is apparent from 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy and appears to fall by 4 weeks after childbirth. Link to Abstract

E-cigarettes and expectancies: why do some users keep smoking?

E-cigarette users with positive expectancies of e-cigs have a greater likelihood of having quit smoking but lower likelihood of intention to quit e-cigs. Link to Abstract

Personality and smoking: individual-participant meta-analysis of nine cohort studies

Adult smokers have higher extraversion, higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness personality scores than non-smokers. Link to Abstract

The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption. The Inter99 Study--a randomized controlled trial

A population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention in Denmark had sustained beneficial effects on smoking abstinence and binge drinking 5 years after its discontinuation. Link to Abstract

October 2015

Red flags on pinkwashed drinks: Contradictions and dangers in marketing alcohol to prevent cancer

Some alcohol corporations use pink ribbons and other breast cancer-related media to help promote a product that contributes to cancer disease and early death. Link to Abstract

An experimental investigation of reactivity to ecological momentary assessment frequency among adults trying to quit smoking

In smokers trying to quit, more frequent ecological momentary assessment self-monitoring (real-time reports in subjects' natural environments) results in lower craving, anxiety, anger, hunger and positive affect. Link to Abstract

Reliability of a retrospective decade-based life-course alcohol consumption questionnaire administered in later life

A retrospective decade-based Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) grid administered in older age provides a relatively reliable measure of alcohol consumption across the life course. Link to Abstract

The effects of liquor licensing restriction on alcohol-related violence in NSW, 2008-13

Legislative reforms introduced in New South Wales, Australia between 2008 and 2012 to restrict trading hours and conditions of licensed alcohol premises may have reduced police-recorded incidences of actual bodily harm and grievous bodily harm by 31.27% and 39.70% respectively. Link to Abstract

The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions delivered by community pharmacists: randomized controlled trial

A brief intervention delivered by community pharmacists in London, UK appears to have had no effect in reducing hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Adolescents from affluent city districts drink more alcohol than others

Adolescents in affluent parts of Oslo reported higher levels of alcohol use and more frequent alcohol intoxication than did those in more disadvantaged areas. Link to Abstract

Changes in daily substance use among people experiencing homelessness and mental illness: 24-month outcomes following randomization to Housing First or usual care

Housing First, an intervention to support recovery for homeless people who have co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, did not reduce daily substance use compared with treatment as usual after 12 or 24 months. Link to Abstract

Impact of opioid substitution therapy for Scotland's prisoners on drug-related deaths soon after prisoner release

Prison-based opioid substitution therapy is unlikely to reduce the very high drug-related death risk in the first 2 weeks after prison release. Link to Abstract

Can cannabis use be prevented by targeting personality risk in schools? Twenty-four-month outcome of the adventure trial on cannabis use: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Trained school staff can deliver personality-targeted interventions to delay marijuana use onset aong a subset of high-risk teenagers called sensation-seekers. Link to Abstract

Licit and illicit substance use among people who inject drugs and the association with subsequent suicidal attempt

Among people who inject drugs, use of alcohol, sedative-hypnotics and cannabis, but not cocaine, amphetamine or opioids, appears to be associated with an increased likelihood of later attempted suicide. Link to Abstract

Naloxone--does over-antagonism matter? Evidence of iatrogenic harm after emergency treatment of heroin/opioid overdose

Opiate users in urban Scotland repeatedly report harm caused by naloxone over-antagonism, although this is not evident in observational data. Link to Abstract

Are predictors of making a quit attempt the same as predictors of 3-month abstinence from smoking? Findings from a sample of smokers recruited for a study of computer-tailored smoking cessation advice

While high motivation and determination to quit are necessary to prompt an attempt to quit smoking, demographic factors (marital status, reading level, level of social deprivation) and level of nicotine dependence are more important for maintaining abstinence. Link to Abstract

Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up

Progressively reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may not lead smokers to quit Link to Abstract

Intervention study for smoking cessation in Spanish college students: pragmatic randomized controlled trial

A multi-component intervention tailored to college students and managed by a nurse is effective in helping college students quit smoking. Link to Abstract

September 2015

Healthcare interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

Brief advice from a healthcare worker, telephone helplines, automated text messaging, printed self-help materials, cytisine and nortriptyline are globally affordable healthcare interventions to promote and assist smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Specialty substance use disorder services following brief alcohol intervention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

There is no clear evidence currently that brief alcohol interventions increase uptake of treatment for alcohol use disorder. Link to Abstract

Increased behavioral economic demand and craving for alcohol following a laboratory alcohol challenge

When they are intoxicated with alcohol people say that they would pay more for a drink and consume more drinks if they were free. Link to Abstract

Ecological evidence that affect and perceptions of drink effects depend on alcohol expectancies

Frequent drinkers' expectations that drinking will enhance sociability or reduce tension influence their perceptions of pleasure and relief from drinking. Link to Abstract

Changes in mortality due to major alcohol-related diseases in four Nordic countries, France and Germany between 1980 and 2009: a comparative age-period-cohort analysis

Trends in alcohol-attributable mortality in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Norway and Sweden clearly differed between 1980 and 2009. It appears that country-specific events simultaneously affected all age groups and cohorts in the respective countries. Link to Abstract

Design and baseline findings of a large-scale rapid response to an HIV outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme

In Athens, Greece, the ARISTOTLE intervention for identifying HIV-positive people among people who inject drugs (PWID) facilitated rapid identification of a hidden population experiencing an outbreak. Link to Abstract

Arrhythmia associated with buprenorphine and methadone reported to the Food and Drug Administration

In spontaneously reported adverse events, methadone is associated with disproportionately high reporting of cardiac arrhythmias, whereas buprenorphine is not. Link to Abstract

Changes in health outcomes as a function of abstinence and reduction in illicit psychoactive drug use: a prospective study in primary care

Among primary care patients in the US who use illicit psychoactive drugs, abstinence but not reduction in use appears to be associated with decreased adverse drug use consequences. Link to Abstract

Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England

In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by approximately 80% since 1998. The proportion of children living in a home reported to be smoke-free increased from 63% in 1998 to 87.3% in 2012. Link to Abstract

Distress, race/ethnicity, and smoking cessation in treatment-seekers: implications for disparity elimination

Among smokers in Florida, USA, racial/ethnic differences in distress before starting cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation were eliminated at the end of treatment, driven by improvements among African American and Hispanic people. Tackling distress through CBT may be important in eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health & Morbidity Survey

People who don't respond to health surveys in Denmark have an increased risk of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with respondents. Link to Abstract

Screening for substance misuse in the dental care setting: findings from a nationally representative survey of dentists

While more than three-quarters of US dentists report that they ask their patients about substance misuse, two-thirds do not think it is part of their professional role. Link to Abstract

Social Networks and Substance Use among At-Risk Emerging Adults Living in Disadvantaged Urban Areas in the Southern United States: A Cross-Sectional Naturalistic Study

Social networks appear to be important in both promoting and preventing substance use in disadvantaged young adults in the USA. Link to Abstract

August 2015

Are the Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges likely to improve public health?: An evidence synthesis

England's Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges do not reflect the most effective evidence-based strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. Link to Abstract

Potential bias due to outcome-related loss to follow-up in cohort studies on incidence of drug injection: systematic review and meta-analysis

In cohort studies on drug injection initiation, study participants with higher risk of starting injection drop out at a higher rate than other participants, which can produce a false impression of decline in the incidence of drug injection in studies that use long follow-up periods. Link to Abstract

Pain as a predictor of heavy drinking and any drinking lapses in the COMBINE study and the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial

Among people treated for alcohol use disorder, being in physical pain appears to predict heavy drinking lapses during or after treatment. Link to Abstract

Transition probabilities for four states of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood: what factors matter when?

There is a high degree of stability over time in the drinking patterns of German adolescents and young adults with those who are abstinent at one time being very likely to be abstinent years later, and those with risky drinking patterns maintaining those patterns over time. Link to Abstract

Cocaine-related stimuli impair inhibitory control in cocaine users following short stimulus onset asynchronies

Cocaine-related stimuli appear to decrease inhibitory control in cocaine users at short (100 and 200 ms) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: the amount of time between the start of one stimulus and the start of another stimulus), but not at longer (300, 400 and 500 ms) SOAs. Link to Abstract

Estimating the number of people with hepatitis C virus who have ever injected drugs and have yet to be diagnosed: an evidence synthesis approach for Scotland

The number of undiagnosed hepatitis C virus-infected cases in Scotland appears to be particularly high among those who are over 35 and have injected drugs more than 1 year ago. Link to Abstract

Predictors of participant engagement and naloxone utilization in a community-based naloxone distribution program

Community naloxone distribution programs are capable of reaching sizeable populations of high-risk individuals and facilitating large numbers of overdose reversals. Link to Abstract

The association between speed of transition from initiation to subsequent use of cannabis and later problematic cannabis use, abuse and dependence

Rapid transition (within one week) from first to second use of cannabis is associated with increased likelihood of subsequent daily cannabis use and abuse/dependence. Link to Abstract

Fatal opioid poisoning: a counterfactual model to estimate the preventive effect of treatment for opioid use disorder in England

It is estimated that treatment services for opioid use prevent about 880 fatalities from overdose per year in England. Link to Abstract

Dose-response relationship between methadone dose and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive persons who use illicit opioids

HIV-positive people in methadone maintenance therapy who receive higher doses of methadone are more likely to stick with their antiretroviral therapy than those receiving lower doses. Link to Abstract

Towards a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling

A modification of Kendler's model for major depression provides a foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling. Link to Abstract

E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditions

E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditions that e-cigarette users typically detect and avoid. Link to Abstract

July 2015

A comparison of the efficacy of brief interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption between European and non-European countries

Brief interventions appear to be effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption by hazardous and harmful drinkers at 6 and 12 month follow-up in both primary health care and emergency department trials. Link to Abstract

Educational inequalities in hospitalisation attributable to alcohol: a population-based longitudinal study of changes over the period 2000 to 2007

Lower educational level is markedly associated with increased risk of alcohol-related hospitalisation among men and women in Finland. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: Results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

The alcohol prevention programme Preventure appears to have little or no effect on overall prevalence of binge drinking in adolescents in the Netherlands but may reduce the development of binge drinking over time. Link to Abstract

Parental transmission of risk for cannabis use disorders to offspring

Parental histories of antisocial personality and illicit substance use disorders are associated with increased risk for cannabis use disorder onset in offspring. Link to Abstract

The impact of paying treatment providers for outcomes: Difference-indifferences analysis of the 'payment by results for drugs recovery' pilot

In the first year of the pilot "Payment by Results for Drugs Recovery" scheme in England, linking payments to outcomes reduced the probability of completing drug misuse treatment and increased the proportion service users declining to continue with treatment. Link to Abstract

Economic crisis and changes in drug use in the Spanish economically active population

During a period of economic recession in Spain, heavy drinking decreased and binge drinking increased. Sporadic cannabis use increased among older unemployed men and women. Heavy use of hypnotics/sedatives increased among employed men while older women increased use irrespective of employment status. Link to Abstract

4-Fluoroamphetamine in the Netherlands: more than a one-night stand

The stimulant 4-fluoroamphetamine is increasingly popular in the Netherlands, which might be due to its subjective effects profile, which lies between amphetamine and MDMA. Link to Abstract

The health consequences of injecting tablet preparations: foreign body pulmonary embolization and pulmonary hypertension among deceased injecting drug users

Cases of foreign body pulmonary embolization (resulting from injecting crushed tablets meant for oral use, such as benzodiazepines and pharmaceutical opioids) in Sydney, Australia increased markedly from 1997 to 2013. Link to Abstract

Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland

In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. Link to Abstract

Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up

Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among US young adults: survival analysis using annual national cohorts from 1976 to 2005

Among high school seniors in the United States, taking up occasional and experimental smoking increased from 1976 to 2005. Smoking uptake remained most likely to occur at age 19/20, but prevalence of uptake at older ages increased. Link to Abstract

Abstinence and relapse amongst smokers who use varenicline in a quit attempt - a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials

Varenicline does a better job than placebo at getting smokers to quit after they have failed to stop smoking on their target quit date. Relapse rates from end of treatment to 52 weeks are similar in varenicline and placebo treated smokers. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of treatments for co-occurring substance use disorders and PTSD

Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy may improve drug-related outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sufferers with substance use disorder more than drug focused counseling but probably not by reducing PTSD symptoms to a greater extent. Link to Abstract

June 2015

Global Statistics on Addiction Behaviours: 2014 Status Report

A major new global report on addictive behaviour shows that the harm to society from legal drugs far outweighs the harm from illicit drugs: 240 million people have an alcohol use disorder and more than 1 billion people smoke tobacco. Link to Abstract

The efficacy of acamprosate and naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence, Europe versus the rest of the world: a meta-analysis

Both acamprosate and naltrexone appear to reduce the risk of alcohol-dependent individuals returning to drinking. Link to Abstract

The harmful dysfunction model of alcohol use disorder: revised criteria to improve the validity of diagnosis and prevalence estimates

Diagnostic validity improves when using 'harmful dysfunction' diagnostic criteria compared with standard DSM criteria, partly by reducing misdiagnosis of teenage transient drinkers. Link to Abstract

Heterogeneous dose-response and college student drinking: examining problem risks related to low drinking levels

Among US college students, all drinkers exhibit greater risks for physiological problems related to alcohol use (hangover, nausea, memory loss, etc.) when drinking greater amounts of alcohol, but heavier drinkers exhibit fewer problems for each additional drink consumed than light and moderate drinkers. Link to Abstract

The impact of extended closing times of alcohol outlets on alcohol-related injuries in the nightlife areas of Amsterdam: a controlled before-and-after evaluation

A 1-hour extension of alcohol outlet closing times in some of Amsterdam's nightlife areas was associated with 34% more alcohol-related injuries. Link to Abstract

Is there a link between per capita alcohol consumption and youth drinking? A time-series analysis for Sweden in 1972-2012

Adult and youth drinking in Sweden were synchronized closely during the two last decades of the 20th century, but youth drinking developed an independent trajectory shortly before 2000. Link to Abstract

Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention among injecting drug users: who should we cure first?

When more than half of all exchanged syringes in a population of injecting drug users (IDU) are contaminated by hepatitis C virus, it is most efficient to treat low-risk IDU first. Below this threshold, it is most efficient to treat high-risk IDU first. Link to Abstract

Long-term mortality, remission, criminality and psychiatric comorbidity of heroin dependence: 11-year findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

In an 11-year follow-up of patients undergoing treatment for heroin dependence in Australia, 10.2% had died and almost half were still in treatment. The proportion still using heroin had fallen to a quarter, with major depression being a significant predictor of continued use. Link to Abstract

Mortality among individuals accessing pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence in California, 2006-10

In people with opiate dependence, detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment both independently reduce the immediate risk of death. Link to Abstract

Opioid treatment at release from jail using extended-release naltrexone: a pilot proof-of-concept randomized effectiveness trial

Extended-release naltrexone is associated with significantly lower rates of opioid relapse among men in the United States following release from jail when compared with a no medication treatment-as-usual condition. Link to Abstract

Examining the association between substance use disorder treatment and smoking cessation

Being recently in receipt of substance use disorder treatment is associated with reduced chances of stopping smoking. Link to Abstract

An exploratory short-term double-blind randomized trial of varenicline versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation in women

Varenicline appears to be better at helping women stop smoking than does nicotine patch. Link to Abstract

Craving and Substance Use among Patients with Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis or Heroin Addiction: A Comparison of Substance-specific and Person-specific Cues

Person-specific cues for substance abuse (e.g. places associated with use) appear to be powerful triggers for craving and relapse and to persist for longer than more general cues relating to taking drugs. Link to Abstract

May 2015

Effects of Experimental Negative Affect Manipulations on Ad Lib Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

A review of experimental studies confirms that feeling bad increases intensity of smoking. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of alcohol use disorders in mainland China: a systematic review

Current and lifetime prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence in China measure 2.2% and 3.7%, respectively, approaching those of the Netherlands, USA, and other Western countries. Link to Abstract

Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking

Ability to resist drinking when feeling bad could be what is driving the link between poorer mental health, impulsiveness and tendency to drink alone in adolescents. Link to Abstract

Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

Adolescents who show worsening inattention symptoms as they grow older and delinquency tend to have increased levels of substance use in early adulthood. Link to Abstract

Hepatitis C seroconversion in methadone maintenance treatment programs in Wuhan, China

Methadone maintenance treatment patients in Wuhan, China show a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus at admission (72.1%) and a high rate of seroconversion during treatment (46.3%). Seroconversion is associated with continuing injection drug use. Link to Abstract

US federal cocaine essential ('precursor') chemical regulation impacts on US cocaine availability: an intervention time-series analysis with temporal replication

In the United States, controls of chemicals critical to cocaine manufacture from 1989 to 2006 seemed to be highly effective in reducing cocaine availability. Link to Abstract

Prolonged hypogonadism in males following withdrawal from anabolic-androgenic steroids: an under-recognized problem

Male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid misusers tend to experience prolonged low testosterone levels when they stop using the drugs leading to substantial effects on sexual functioning. Link to Abstract

Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing for reducing injection risk behaviours among persons who inject drugs

A brief motivational interviewing intervention was more effective than a brief educational intervention in reducing some high risk drug injecting behaviours in the 6 months following the intervention. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a statewide representative sample

Using the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD), symptoms related to "giving up other activities," "tolerance" and "withdrawal" seem to be most relevant for diagnosing IGD in German students aged 13-18 years. Link to Abstract

Efficacy of a smoking prevention programme in Catalan secondary schools: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Spain

A school-based educational intervention for secondary school students in Catalonia, Spain was not found to lead to a noticeable reduction of smoking, confirming yet again the limitations of this kind of approach. Link to Abstract

The comparative efficacy of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal

Second-generation e-cigarettes (those involving refillable cartridges and looking less like cigarettes) seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first-generation e-cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers

Among vapor store customers in the US who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer generation devices, and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavoured e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

April 2015

Alcohol consumption in adolescent homicide victims in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a substantial proportion of adolescent homicides in Johannesburg, South Africa, especially among male and older adolescent victims and in victims killed with sharp instruments over the weekends and during the evenings. Link to Abstract

Factors associated with over-serving at drinking establishments

In urban settings in Norway, over-serving of alcohol in drinking establishments appears to occur frequently and increases in the presence of poor lighting, loud music and high intoxication level among patrons. Link to Abstract

Drinking experience uncovers genetic influences on alcohol expectancies across adolescence

In young people, environmental factors explain beliefs about the social and behavioural consequences of alcohol use before they experience drinking for the first time whereas genetic factors explain an increasing proportion of the variance in these beliefs after drinking onset. Link to Abstract

The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening--an event-level analysis

Among young adults in Switzerland, individual alcohol consumption appears to increase with the number of friends in the drinking group. Link to Abstract

A longitudinal study of the association of adolescent polydrug use, alcohol use and high school non-completion

Unsurprisingly, Australian adolescents who use multiple psychoactive drugs or who mainly use alcohol us are less likely to complete school than adolescents who do not use drugs. Link to Abstract

Benzodiazepine use among mothers of small children: a register-based cohort study

In Finland, benzodiazepine use among mothers is reduced during pregnancy and the child's first year, and then increases as the child grows older. Mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric disorders are at particularly high risk of benzodiazepine use. Link to Abstract

A longitudinal comparison of retention in buprenorphine and methadone treatment for opioid dependence in New South Wales, Australia

Although retention rates for buprenorphine treatment have improved in New South Wales, Australia, individuals starting methadone treatment still show higher retention rates. Link to Abstract

Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study

In England, both cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence are associated strongly with subsequent adverse educational outcomes, including low standardised test scores and leaving school with no qualifications. Link to Abstract

First- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes: predictors of choice and effects on urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms

First- and second-generation electronic cigarettes appear to be similarly effective in reducing urges to smoke during abstinence, but second-generation devices appear to be more satisfying to users. Link to Abstract

Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: a single-arm intervention study assessing cessation and gaming

In the UK, pregnant smokers enrolled in an incentive scheme to quit smoking appeared to achieve prolonged cessation rates comparable to those reported in US trials. Link to Abstract

Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students

Adolescents in the UK who notice tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognise a higher number of tobacco brands appear to have an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking. (People who are susceptible to smoking intend to try smoking and are likely to smoke if offered a cigarette.) Link to Abstract

Adolescents' exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos

Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. Link to Abstract

March 2015

DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among young Swiss men

Previous studies suggest the new DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) will increase the apparent prevalence of AUD. However, in a high-risk sample of young Swiss males, prevalence of AUD as diagnosed by DSM-5 was slightly lower than prevalence of DSM-IV diagnosis of dependence plus abuse. Link to Abstract

The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

When examining the association between alcohol taxes and binge drinking, use of more specific tax measures, incorporating both volume-based taxes and value-based taxes, shows stronger associations than generic measures. Link to Abstract

Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality within siblings

The association between educational status and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality is only driven by familial factors to a small degree. Link to Abstract

Genomic influences on alcohol problems in a population-based sample of young adults

Genetic influences on alcohol problems involve genes underpinning both nervous system functioning and physiological functions outside the nervous system. Link to Abstract

Driving under the influence as a turning point? A register-based study on financial and social consequences among first-time male offenders

Among men in Finland, the first drunk-driving conviction constitutes a significant life event that appears to increase the likelihood of financial problems and divorce. Link to Abstract

Drug use, health and social outcomes of hard-to-treat heroin addicts receiving supervised injectable opiate treatment: secondary outcomes from the Randomized Injectable Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT)

In a randomised controlled trial, supervised injectable heroin treatment and supervised injectable methadone treatment showed no benefit over optimized oral methadone in terms of wider drug use, crime, and physical and mental health within a 6-month period, despite achieving a greater reduction in street heroin use. Link to Abstract

Subtyping based on readiness and confidence: the identification of help-seeking profiles for gamblers accessing web-based counselling

Problem gamblers in Australia who seek web-based counselling comprise four distinct subgroups based on self-reported levels of readiness to change, confidence to resist the urge to gamble, and importance of change. Link to Abstract

Smoking and mortality in a prospective cohort study of elderly Chinese in Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the risk of death from smoking appears to be the same for Chinese women as it is for men. Half of all deaths in Chinese smokers aged 65 years and older and a quarter of all deaths in Chinese smokers aged 85 years and older are caused by smoking-attributable diseases. Link to Abstract

Associations between use of pharmacological aids in a smoking cessation attempt and subsequent quitting activity: a population study

Smokers who have tried to quit in the past year are more likely to try to quit again within 6 months regardless of whether they used a pharmacological aid, and they are more likely to re-try aids they had used previously. Link to Abstract

Gender differences in the relationship between affect and adolescent smoking uptake

Low positive affect (low experience of positive feelings or emotions) for females, and high negative affect (high experience of negative feelings or emotions) for both males and females increases the risk of adolescents taking up smoking. Link to Abstract

Examining the role of common genetic variants on alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and illicit drug dependence

At least 20% of the variance in the generalized vulnerability to substance dependence is attributable to common genetic variations. Link to Abstract

February 2015

Familial factors associated with development of alcohol and mental health comorbidity

Maternal smoking and low mother-child warmth may lead to alcohol, mental health and comorbid disorders at age 21. Link to Abstract

Effects of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol problems: evaluating chained mediation through generalized anxiety, depression and drinking motives

Propensity to anxiety appears to lead to alcohol problems in part through drinking to deal with negative emotions. Link to Abstract

Tests of the effects of adolescent early alcohol exposures on adult outcomes

Early alcohol use and intoxication may be partly responsible for adult alcohol- and drug-related problems and antisocial behaviour. Link to Abstract

Relative risk of injury from acute alcohol consumption: modeling the dose-response relationship in emergency department data from 18 countries

Women have a higher risk of injury than men after more than three drinks. Link to Abstract

Interaction effects between the 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype and family conflict on adolescent alcohol use and misuse

Compared with non-carriers, adolescents carrying the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele are more susceptible to the effects of family conflict on alcohol misuse. Link to Abstract

Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 US states: impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density

In the United States, the density of alcohol outlets in a county is positively correlated with alcohol-related suicide, especially among American Indians/Alaska Natives. Link to Abstract

Alcohol in the second half of life: do usual quantity and frequency of drinking to intoxication increase with increased drinking frequency?

Among Norwegian adults in the second half of life, increased drinking frequency appears to be associated with a small reduction in usual quantity, and a small increase in frequency of drinking to intoxication. Link to Abstract

Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs

There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions Link to Abstract

Smoking cessation-related weight gain--beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength and bone health

Weight gain from smoking cessation is caused by an increase in muscle mass and bone density as well as an increase in fat. Link to Abstract

The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands

On current projections, smoking will continue to kill hundreds of thousands of people in Northern Europe each year for the foreseeable future. Link to Abstract

Use of stop-smoking medications in the United States before and after the introduction of varenicline

The introduction of varenicline in the United States coincided with a net increase in attempts to quit smoking and, among these, a net increase in use of stop-smoking medications. Link to Abstract

'Wide-awake drunkenness'? Investigating the association between alcohol intoxication and stimulant use in the night-time economy

Stimulants users are more likely to have prolonged sessions of heavy alcohol consumption and a range of risk-taking behaviours on a night out than those who do not use stimulants. Link to Abstract

January 2015

What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use?

The epidemiological literature in the past 20 years shows that cannabis use increases the risk of accidents and can produce dependence, and that there are consistent associations between regular cannabis use and poor psychosocial outcomes and mental health in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in the treatment of adolescents and young adults with depression and substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Antidepressant medication has a small overall effect in reducing depression in young patients with combined depressive and substance-use disorders, but does not appear to improve substance use outcomes. Link to Abstract

Patterns of change in implementation of state alcohol control policies in the United States, 1999-2011

Implementation of politically palatable but ineffective state alcohol policies increased during 1999-2011 in the United States, while the most effective policies remained underused. Link to Abstract

Alcohol expectancies in childhood: change with the onset of drinking and ability to predict adolescent drunkenness and binge drinking

Higher childhood alcohol expectations of positive effects predict earlier onset of problem drinking. Onset of alcohol use is followed by an increase in the rate of development of positive expectancies. Link to Abstract

HERMITAGE--a randomized controlled trial to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviors among HIV-infected Russian drinkers

The HERMITAGE HIV risk reduction intervention does not appear to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviours in Russian HIV-infected heavy drinkers compared with simply providing standard care and attention. Link to Abstract

Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men

Stimulating effects of alcohol are common in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but alcohol appears to be less rewarding. Link to Abstract

Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10 365 general population men

In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime. Link to Abstract

Ongoing impact of HIV infection on mortality among people who inject drugs despite free antiretroviral therapy

HIV infection continues to have a persistent association with mortality rates among people who inject drugs in settings with free HIV/AIDS care, although causes of death have shifted markedly from infectious and AIDS-related causes to non-AIDS-related causes. Link to Abstract

High-frequency drug purity and price series as tools for explaining drug trends and harms in Victoria, Australia

Decreases in methamphetamine purity-adjusted price along with the bimodality of crystal methamphetamine purity may account for some of the recent increase in methamphetamine-related harm in Victoria, Australia. For a given amount spent, methamphetamine purchase power has increased and the presence of extreme purity variations may challenge individuals' control of consumption. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of rapid HCV testing and simultaneous rapid HCV and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs

On-site rapid hepatitis C virus and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs is cost-effective at a <$100,000/ quality-adjusted life year threshold in the US. Link to Abstract

Telescoping and gender differences in the time course of disordered gambling: evidence from a general population sample

When assessed at the general population level, female gamblers do not appear to show a telescoped disordered gambling trajectory (showing a later age at initiation of gambling but a shorter time from initiation to disorder) compared with male gamblers. Link to Abstract

The Impact of the Tobacco Retail Outlet Environment on Adult Cessation and Differences by Neighborhood Poverty

In the USA, density of tobacco outlets within 500 meters of the home residence appears to be negatively associated with smoking abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes only in poor areas. Link to Abstract

The association between family affluence and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in 33 European countries, Israel and Canada: the role of national wealth

The difference in smoking prevalence between rich and poor people is greater in more affluent countries. Link to Abstract

Plain cigarette packs do not exert Pavlovian to instrumental transfer of control over tobacco-seeking

Plain packaging may reduce smoking rates in current smokers by reducing the extent to which the package acts as an unconscious trigger for smoking urges. Link to Abstract

December 2014

Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheap products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase), reducing the beneficial impact of tax policies on high-risk drinkers. Link to Abstract

Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study

Among European adolescents, being able to name a favourite alcohol advertisement is associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking in the following year. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

In Estonia in 2008-09 most autopsies of people aged 25-54 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology but the death records failed to capture the scale and nature of those pathologies. Link to Abstract

Genetic influences on alcohol-related hangover

Genes appear to play a significant role in individual differences in the propensity to experience a hangover and of being resistant to hangover at a given level of alcohol use Link to Abstract

Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland

The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales. Link to Abstract

What happens when people discontinue taking medications? Lessons from COMBINE

A patient's decision to stop taking medications during alcohol treatment appears to happen during a weeks-long process of disengagement from treatment. Patients who discontinue medications early in treatment or without medical consultation are typically those who drink more frequently and more heavily. Link to Abstract

The impact of methadone maintenance therapy on hepatitis C incidence among illicit drug users

Participation in methadone maintenance treatment appears to be highly protective against hepatitis C infection among illicit drug users. Link to Abstract

The relationship between years of cocaine use and brain activation to cocaine and response inhibition cues

Years of cocaine use may be more closely related to cocaine cue and response inhibition brain activation than cocaine dependence diagnosis or amount of recent use. Link to Abstract

Recent cocaine use is a significant risk factor for sudden cardiovascular death in 15-49-year-old subjects: a forensic case-control study*

Recent cocaine use is associated with an increased risk for sudden cardiovascular death in people aged 15-49 years. Link to Abstract

Craving Facebook? Behavioral addiction to online social networking and its association with emotion regulation deficits

The use of online social networking sites is potentially addictive. Compulsive online social networking use seems to be connected to poor emotion regulation skills and heightened susceptibility to addiction more generally. Link to Abstract

Country - and individual - level determinants of probable problematic gambling in adolescence: A multilevel cross-national comparison

Family characteristics and expenditure on public health at a national level may play a key role in prevalence of problem gambling among adolescents in Europe. Link to Abstract

Is smoking cessation associated with worse comorbid substance use outcomes among homeless adults?

In homeless smokers, quitting smoking may be associated with reduced alcohol consumption but not with a substantial change in other drug use. Link to Abstract

Smoking cessation in smokers who smoke menthol and non-menthol cigarettes

In the United States, smoking menthol cigarettes appears to be associated with reduced success at quitting smoking, especially in African American women. Link to Abstract

Genetic variation in personality traits explains genetic overlap between borderline personality features and substance use disorders

Both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors contribute to comorbidity between borderline personality features and substance use disorders. A substantial proportion of this comorbidity can be attributed to genetic variation in normal personality traits. Link to Abstract

November 2014

Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit

Allowing electronic cigarettes to compete with cigarettes in the market-place might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating electronic cigarettes as strictly as cigarettes is not warranted on current evidence. Link to Abstract

Do doctors' smoking habits influence their smoking cessation practices? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Doctors who smoke appear to be less likely than non-smoking or ex-smoking doctors to counsel their patients to quit but more likely to refer them to smoking cessation programmes. Link to Abstract

Early age of alcohol initiation is not the cause of alcohol use disorders in adulthood, but is a major indicator of genetic risk. A population-based twin study

The association between early age of alcohol initiation and alcohol use disorders in later life does not reflect a causal relationship, but rather is due almost entirely to common genetic risk factors. Link to Abstract

Autonomy, special offers and routines: a Q methodological study of industry-driven marketing influences on young people's drinking behaviour

Young people share several perspectives regarding industry-driven alcohol marketing, including imperviousness to marketing, responsiveness to price and affordability and responsiveness to marketing that focuses on youth lifestyles. Link to Abstract

Does stage tailoring matter in brief alcohol interventions for job-seekers? A randomized controlled trial

A stage tailored intervention (an intervention tailored to match people's changing motivations to change) appears to be more effective than a non-stage tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use among people with high levels of drinking and low initial motivation to change. Link to Abstract

Adolescent alcohol use: a reflection of national drinking patterns and policy?

High levels of adult drinking and lax national alcohol control policies are associated with high levels of alcohol use among adolescents. Link to Abstract

Efficacy of motivational enhancement therapy on alcohol use disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial

Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) appears to increase alcohol abstinence in patients with chronic hepatitis C, alcohol use disorders and ongoing alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use

Bupropion might reduce methamphetamine use in people who use methamphetamine less than daily, but the evidence remains inconclusive. Link to Abstract

The relationship between US heroin market dynamics and heroin-related overdose, 1992-2008

Decreases in the price of pure heroin in the United States and increases in market concentration of Colombian-source/type heroin are associated with increased hospital admissions for heroin-related overdose. Link to Abstract

Neurofunctional changes in adolescent cannabis users with and without bipolar disorder

Bipolar adolescents with comorbid cannabis use do not exhibit the same over-activation of the regions involved in emotional processing as seen in adolescents with bipolar disorder alone. These individuals may have a unique type of bipolar disorder or cannabis use may alter brain activation uniquely in bipolar disorder patients who use cannabis. Link to Abstract

Longitudinal patterns of problematic computer game use among adolescents and adults--a 2-year panel study

Within a 2-year time-frame, problematic use of computer games appears to be a less stable behaviour than reported previously and not related systematically to negative changes in the gamers' lives. Link to Abstract

The allure of multi-line games in modern slot machines

Multi-line games (in which players can wager on more than one line per spin) appear to be more appealing to gaming machine ('slots') players than single-line games. Multi-line games may be particularly absorbing for people with gambling problems. Link to Abstract

Role of smoking in regional variation in mortality in Poland

Differences in past smoking behaviour may largely explain the regional differences in all-cause mortality existing in 2008-10 in Poland, and its trends since 1991-1993. Link to Abstract

Efficacy of brief motivational interviewing on smoking cessation at tuberculosis clinics in Tshwane, South Africa: a randomized controlled trial

Motivational interviewing by lay counsellors to promote smoking cessation in tuberculosis patients in South Africa approximately doubled sustained smoking abstinence for at least 6 months compared with brief advice alone. Link to Abstract

October 2014

'High' risk? A systematic review of the acute outcomes of mixing alcohol with energy drinks

From surveys it seems that combining 'energy drinks' (containing caffeine) with alcohol increases levels of stimulation and reduces sedation but experimental studies involving relatively low doses have so far not borne this out. Link to Abstract

Association between stricter alcohol advertising regulations and lower hazardous drinking across European countries

Countries with stricter restrictions on alcohol advertising have a lower prevalence of hazardous drinking. Link to Abstract

Alcohol industry sponsorship and hazardous drinking in UK university students who play sport

Alcohol industry sponsorship of sports in the UK seems to be associated with higher levels of hazardous drinking among the university students being sponsored. Link to Abstract

Who under-reports their alcohol consumption in telephone surveys and by how much? An application of the 'yesterday method' in a national Canadian substance use survey

The 'yesterday method' (in which respondents are asked to report alcohol consumption the preceding day) can reduce under-reporting of alcohol consumption in telephone surveys. Using this method in a Canadian survey, younger drinkers and low-risk drinkers underestimated their alcohol consumption more than older drinkers and medium and high-risk drinkers. Link to Abstract

Hazardous birthday drinking among young people: population-based impacts on emergency department and in-patient hospital admissions

There is a significant increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions around the time of people's birthdays. Link to Abstract

Striking subgroup differences in substance-related mortality after release from prison

In Australia, in the first year after release, Indigenous ex-prisoners are more likely to die from alcohol-related causes but less likely to die of drug-related causes than are non-Indigenous ex-prisoners. Link to Abstract

Just say 'know': how do cannabinoid concentrations influence users' estimates of cannabis potency and the amount they roll in joints?

When using their own cannabis in a naturalistic setting, people adjust the amount they roll in joints according to concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not cannabidiol (CBD). Link to Abstract

A prospective study of hepatitis C incidence in Australian prisoners

In Australia, imprisonment appears to be a risk factor for hepatitis C virus transmission. Link to Abstract

On the latent structure of problem gambling: a taxometric analysis

Evidence from problem gambling questionnaires suggests that it may be better viewed as a categorical construct rather than a continuous dimension. Link to Abstract

Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy predicts drug use via externalizing behavior in two community-based samples of adolescents

Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking appears to be associated with a higher probability of experimenting with drugs during adolescence. Link to Abstract

Future orientation and smoking cessation: secondary analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial

'Future orientation' does not seem to be a strong predictor of success at stopping smoking. Link to Abstract

Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

Many smokers in the United States avoid the full impact of state excise tax on the cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. Link to Abstract

Widening educational inequalities in adolescent smoking following national tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003: a time-series analysis

After the introduction of tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003, smoking prevalence rates decreased among all adolescents, but socio-economic inequalities in adolescent smoking increased. Link to Abstract

September 2014

Prize-based contingency management for the treatment of substance abusers: a meta-analysis

Adding prize-based contingency management (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize) to behavioural support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence, but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. Link to Abstract

The declining trend in Swedish youth drinking: collectivity or polarization?

The decrease in youth drinking in Sweden that occurred from 2000-12 occurred at all consumption levels, which is consistent with Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking behaviour. Link to Abstract

The collectivity of changes in alcohol consumption revisited

Drinkers at all levels of consumption appear to move in concert, both up and down the consumption scale, in Finland, Norway and the United States, as predicted by Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking cultures. Link to Abstract

Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance: a Mendelian randomization study

The observation that people who drink alcohol tend to have higher levels of cognitive ability does not appear to be due to any causal association. Link to Abstract

An early evaluation of implementation of brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in the US Veterans Health Administration

Documented brief intervention in the US Veterans Health Administration was not associated with changes in drinking among outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use and repeat alcohol screening. Link to Abstract

The burden of premature opioid-related mortality

Rates of opioid-related deaths are increasing rapidly in Ontario, Canada, and are concentrated among the young. Link to Abstract

Sustained-release methylphenidate in a randomized trial of treatment of methamphetamine use disorder

Methylphenidate may reduce concurrent methamphetamine use when provided as treatment for patients undergoing behavioural support for moderate to severe methamphetamine use disorder. Link to Abstract

Fixation time is a sensitive measure of cocaine cue attentional bias

The amount of time spent fixating on cocaine-related images is a sensitive and stable measure of cocaine cue attentional bias (the tendency to attend more to cocaine-related images than neutral images) in cocaine-using adults. Link to Abstract

Gambling expenditure predicts harm: evidence from a venue-level study

As suggested by the Total Consumption Theory of gambling, aggregate spending by electronic gaming machine users predicts the prevalence of gambling-related harm in gaming venues. Link to Abstract

Reciprocal Associations between Cigarette Consumption and DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence Criteria in Adolescent Smokers

In adolescent smokers, cigarette consumption predicts severity of nicotine dependence as defined by DSM-IV several years later. Link to Abstract

Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study

People attempting to quit smoking without professional help have approximately 60% greater odds of reporting success if they use e-cigarettes than if they use willpower alone or over-the-counter nicotine replacement products. Link to Abstract

Stability of smoking status in the US population: a longitudinal investigation

US smokers showed very little change in their smoking status when followed between 2001 and 2005. Link to Abstract

Varenicline efficacy and safety among methadone maintained smokers: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Varenicline can aid short-term smoking abstinence in methadone-maintained smokers. Link to Abstract

August 2014

Efficacy of the nicotine vaccine 3′-AmNic-rEPA (NicVAX) co-administered with varenicline and counselling for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

The nicotine vaccine NicVAX does not appear to improve the chances of stopping smoking when given in addition to varenicline and behavioural support. Link to Abstract

Treatment with a nicotine vaccine does not lead to changes in brain activity during smoking cue exposure or a working memory task

The nicotine vaccine NicVAX appears to produce no significant effects on brain activity in response to a nicotine challenge. Link to Abstract

Clinical and biological moderators of response to naltrexone in alcohol dependence: a systematic review of the evidence

We don't yet know how to identify alcohol-dependent patients who will respond well to naltrexone, although family history and the genetic mutation OPRM1 Asn40Asp seem to be promising areas of research. Link to Abstract

Sustaining motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis of training studies

On average, three to four feedback/coaching sessions over a 6-month period sustain motivational interviewing skills used for substance use disorder treatment. Link to Abstract

The impact of alcohol on clinical outcomes in established psychosis: a longitudinal study

For people with psychosis, the most detrimental effect of alcohol consumption appears to be its effect on mood. Some of this effect seems to be reversible through drinking reduction. Link to Abstract

The impact of opioid substitution therapy on mortality post-release from prison: retrospective data linkage study

Opioid substitution therapy in prison and post-release could reduce mortality risk in the immediate post-release period. Link to Abstract

The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease 2010 study

Opioid dependence is a substantial contributor to the global disease burden; North America, eastern Europe and southern sub-Saharan Africa are most strongly affected. Link to Abstract

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

Analysis of water in the sewage system can be used to measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than national surveys, and creates estimates where such data do not exist. Link to Abstract

Using cognitive modelling to investigate the psychological processes of the Go/NoGo discrimination task in male abstinent heroin misusers

Male abstinent heroin misusers appear to be more influenced by heroin-related stimuli (pictures of heroin and heroin-related paraphernalia) during decision-making than men with no history of heroin misuse. Link to Abstract

Effects of depressive symptoms on antecedents of lapses during a smoking cessation attempt: an ecological momentary assessment study

Depressive symptoms prior to quitting smoking appear to be associated with negative emotions once the quit attempt has started, which decreases their belief in their ability to quit, increases their urges to smoke, and their probability of lapse back to smoking. Link to Abstract

Youth tobacco use type and associations with substance use disorders

Tobacco use of any kind in adolescence is associated with higher rates of substance use disorders. Link to Abstract

July 2014

Sexual orientation and alcohol problem use among UK adolescents: an indirect link through depressed mood

A higher prevalence of alcohol problem use in adolescents who are gay, lesbian or bisexual is partly explained by increased rates of depression in this group. Link to Abstract

Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low-and Middle-Income Countries?

Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with reduced alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Link to Abstract

Computerized versus in-person brief intervention for drug misuse: a randomized clinical trial

Computerized brief intervention can be an effective alternative to in-person brief intervention for addressing moderate drug use in primary care. Link to Abstract

Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study

Although smokers of strong cannabis alter their smoking behaviour to compensate for the higher strength, they still take in more THC than smokers of lower potency cannabis. Link to Abstract

Catecholamine levels and delay discounting forecast drug use among African American youths

Among young African American men, catecholamine levels (which indicate the degree of life stress) interact positively with delay discounting (the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger postponed rewards) to forecast increases in drug use. Link to Abstract

Unexpected adverse childhood experiences and subsequent drug use disorder: a Swedish population study (1995-2011)

Children under 15 who experience second-hand an extraordinary traumatic event (such as a parent or sibling being assaulted, diagnosed with cancer, or dying) appear to have approximately twice the risk of developing a drug use disorder than those who do not. Link to Abstract

Strategic and non-strategic problem gamblers differ on decision-making under risk and ambiguity

Problem gamblers make poor decisions under conditions of risk and ambiguity. Strategic (e.g. sports betting, poker) and non-strategic (e.g. electronic gaming machines) problem gamblers differed in decision-making and the underlying psychological processes associated with their decisions. Link to Abstract

Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

Smoking, alcohol and cannabis use are influenced by aggregated genetic risk factors shared among these substances. Link to Abstract

Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus

Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use (which has many of the same risk factors as smoking but to a lesser degree). Link to Abstract

Ex-smokers are happier than current smokers among Chinese adults in Hong Kong

Ex-smokers in Hong Kong are happier than current smokers and people who have never smoked. Link to Abstract

Change in physical activity after smoking cessation: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

Smokers who quit have progressively higher levels of physical activity in the years after quitting compared with continuing smokers. Link to Abstract

Randomized controlled trial to assess the short-term effectiveness of tailored web- and text-based facilitation of smoking cessation in primary care (iQuit in Practice)

Tailored self-help messages delivered alongside routine smoking cessation support in primary care may increase long-term abstinence compared with routine cessation support alone. Link to Abstract

Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence

A significant proportion of betel quid users in Asian communities meet the DSM-IV criteria for dependence. Link to Abstract

June 2014

A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol

Large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. Because this kind of alcohol is typically cheaper than licit alcohol, it may contribute to higher rates of heavy drinking. Link to Abstract

Association among different measures of alcohol use across adolescence and emerging adulthood

Among Canadian youth, two indices of alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking and overall quantity) are more strongly correlated with each other into early adulthood than other indices of alcohol use. These two indices also together account for greater variance in alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood than either frequency or quantity alone. Link to Abstract

Heterogeneous population effects of an alcohol excise tax increase on sexually transmitted infections morbidity

Increased alcohol taxes are associated with a reduction in sexually transmitted infections, especially among subpopulations with high disease burden such as non-Hispanic black people. Link to Abstract

Drinking in social groups. Does 'groupdrink' provide safety in numbers when deciding about risk?

Moderate alcohol consumption appears to produce a tendency towards increased risk taking in deciding to drive while intoxicated, which can be mitigated by monitoring processes within small (4 to 6 person) groups. Link to Abstract

Trends in non-drinking among Australian adolescents

The percentage of Australians aged 14-17 who do not drink alcohol increased from almost 33% in 2001 to over 50% in 2010. Link to Abstract

Heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm in young people: a longitudinal cohort study

Data on Norwegian youths show a link between heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm. Link to Abstract

Patterns of cannabis use and prospective associations with health issues among young males

Swiss men appear to settle into steady patterns of cannabis use by their early 20s. The number of symptoms of cannabis use disorder, rather than the frequency of cannabis use, predicts cannabis-related health issues. Link to Abstract

Increasing public support for supervised injection facilities in Ontario, Canada

Support for implementation of supervised drug injection facilities in Ontario, Canada increased between 2003 and 2009, but at both time-points a majority still held mixed opinions. Link to Abstract

Predictors of change in cocaine use in a street-recruited cohort of young cocaine users

A street-recruited group of cocaine users in Spain showed a significant reduction in cocaine use over a period of 12-24 months. High consumption of alcohol and increasing use of other psychoactive drugs decreased the probability of reducing cocaine use. Link to Abstract

Clinical features of methamphetamine-induced paranoia and preliminary genetic association with DBH-1021C→T in a Thai treatment cohort

Among methamphetamine-dependent individuals, paranoia appears to occur increasingly rapidly in the course of a session of methamphetamine use. Severity of methamphetamine dependence and antisocial personality disorder predicts methamphetamine-induced paranoia. A genetic polymorphism in dopamine β-hydroxylase is associated with methamphetamine-induced paranoia. Link to Abstract

Parental monitoring trajectories and gambling among a longitudinal cohort of urban youth

Low and/or declining parental monitoring of children between the ages of 11 and 14 is associated significantly with problem gambling when those children reach young adulthood. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of tobacco control television advertising in changing tobacco use in England: a population-based cross-sectional study

Government-funded tobacco control television advertising shown in England between 2002 and 2010 was associated with reduced smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. Link to Abstract

The freeze on mass media campaigns in England: a natural experiment of the impact of tobacco control campaigns on quitting behaviour

The suspension of tobacco control mass media campaigns in England in 2012 appeared to markedly reduce calls to the quitline, use of the SmokeFree website and use of booklets but not attendance at Stop Smoking Services. Link to Abstract

Time to first cigarette predicts 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in adolescent regular and intermittent smokers, NHANES 2007-10

Time between waking and the first cigarette of the day is correlated in daily and non-daily adolescent smokers with overall nicotine, and therefore carcinogen, intake. Link to Abstract

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure

The association between smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation does not appear to operate through in-utero exposure to tobacco. Link to Abstract

The association between smoking and depression from adolescence to adulthood

The inter-relationship between depression and smoking in adolescence and early adulthood seems to be due to reciprocal causal associations. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

The Healthy School and Drugs programme (a Dutch school-based prevention programme for early adolescents) had no detectable effect on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use. Link to Abstract

May 2014

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in restaurants and bars

Smoking bans in restaurants and bars in the United States, South America, Europe, and Australia have on average not had a detectable adverse economic impact on the hospitality industry. Link to Abstract

Testing a social ecological model of alcohol use: the California 50-city study

Having more bars in a given area is associated with heavier drinking outside the home. Link to Abstract

Facing temptation in the bar: counteracting the effects of self-control failure on young adults' ad libitum alcohol intake

When mental reserves needed for self-control are reduced, men tend to drink more while women tend to drink less. Raising self-awareness may counteract this effect in men. Link to Abstract

Disseminating alcohol screening and brief intervention at trauma centers: a policy-relevant cluster randomized effectiveness trial

Training trauma center providers to screen for alcohol problems and deliver brief advice may have a modest beneficial effect on alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Motivational intervention to enhance post-detoxification 12-Step group affiliation: a randomized controlled trial

A motivational intervention in an inpatient substance use disorder detox ward may increase engagement in 12-Step groups and reduce substance use. Link to Abstract

Use of Silk Road, the online drug marketplace, in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States

Drug buyers in the UK, USA, and Australia use the Silk Road for the same reasons that many people prefer online commerce (range, quality, convenience, ratings). The appeal of the Silk Road is affected by country-specific deterrents and market characteristics. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a brief cannabis universal prevention program among adolescents in primary care

Among adolescents in urban primary care in the United States, a computer-delivered brief intervention appeared to prevent and reduce cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Does methamphetamine use increase violent behaviour? Evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

There is a dose-related increase in violent behaviour during periods of methamphetamine use that cannot be explained by presence of psychotic symptoms. Link to Abstract

Differences between early-onset pathological gambling and later-onset pathological gambling: data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

Individuals with early-onset pathological gambling (PG) are likely to be male, never married, have lower income, belong to younger cohorts, and have a lower prevalence of mood disorders but higher prevalence of cluster B personality disorders than individuals with later-onset PG. Link to Abstract

Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence in African Americans and European Americans

Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence but not general substance dependence in African Americans and European Americans. Link to Abstract

Levels of saliva cotinine in electronic cigarette users

At least some experienced users of electronic cigarettes appear to be able to gain as much nicotine from their products as smokers typically get from cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of proactive quitline counselling for smoking parents recruited through primary schools: results of a randomized controlled trial

Intensive telephone counseling tailored to smoking parents of primary school children can help them quit smoking and promote parenting practices that protect their children from adverse effects of smoking. Link to Abstract

The risk for persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence: the role of childhood maltreatment

A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence. Link to Abstract

April 2014

Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

Banning multi-buy promotions for alcohol in Scotland did not reduce alcohol purchasing in the short term. Link to Abstract

Mortality from diseases, conditions and injuries where alcohol is a necessary cause in the Americas, 2007-09

Almost 80,000 deaths could be directly attributed to alcohol across the Americas between 2007 and 2009. Most of the deaths were in men and were from liver disease. Link to Abstract

Harms to 'others' from alcohol consumption in the minimum unit pricing policy debate: a qualitative content analysis of UK newspapers (2005-12)

The United Kingdom's news focus on youth binge drinkers may be masking the wider issue of alcohol overconsumption across the broader population. Link to Abstract

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to alcohol pictures predicts subsequent transition to heavy drinking in college students

United States college students who show a greater neural response to pictures of alcohol subsequently show larger increases in drinking and alcohol-related problems. Link to Abstract

Treatment retention, drug use and social functioning outcomes in those receiving 3 months versus 1 month of supervised opioid maintenance treatment

Supervising patients' consumption of opioid maintenance medications (buprenorphine, methadone, etc.) for longer periods doesn't appear to improve patients' opioid use or retention in treatment programs. Link to Abstract

The association of childhood physical abuse with the onset and extent of drug use among regular injecting drug users

Severe childhood physical abuse is associated with an earlier initiation into drug use. Any level of abuse is associated with more extensive polydrug use. Link to Abstract

Maintenance treatment for opioid dependence with slow-release oral morphine: a randomized cross-over, non-inferiority study versus methadone

Slow-release oral morphine appears to be at least as effective as methadone in treating people with opioid use disorder. Link to Abstract

Reasons behind Greek problem drug users' decisions to quit using drugs and engage in treatment of their own volition: Sense of self and the Greek 'filotimo'

Primarily in relation to 'filotimo' (a Greek concept that regulates behaviour towards one's family), the desire to restore one's spoiled identity plays a pivotal role in Greek problem drug users' decisions to stop drug use and seek treatment. Link to Abstract

Environmental factors selectively impact co-occurrence of problem/pathological gambling with specific drug-use disorders in male twins

Environmental factors appear to play a greater role in the co-occurrence of problem gambling and smoking and cannabis use than the co-occurrence of problem gambling and stimulant use. Link to Abstract

Children's resistance to parents' smoking in the home and car: a qualitative study

Some children and young people in the United Kingdom, irrespective of socio-economic status, may actively oppose parents' smoking in the home and car, although their influence may be limited by their position in the family and social norms. Link to Abstract

Personal tobacco pack display before and after the introduction of plain packaging with larger pictorial health warnings in Australia: an observational study of outdoor cafe strips

Following Australia's 2012 policy of plain packaging and larger pictorial health warnings on cigarette and tobacco packs, smoking in outdoor areas of cafés, restaurants, and bars declined, and fewer people made their packs clearly visible on tables. Link to Abstract

Initial reactions to tobacco and cannabis smoking: a twin study

Initial subjective reactions to tobacco are associated with later nicotine dependence and cannabis use/dependence while initial subjective reactions to cannabis are only associated with cannabis use/dependence. The associations are partly genetic, suggesting common biological underpinnings. Link to Abstract

Alcohol and tobacco use among maltreated and non-maltreated adolescents in a birth cohort

Children who are maltreated are more likely to smoke as young adolescents. Children who are neglected are more likely to drink and smoke as young adolescents. Link to Abstract

March 2014

Intimate partner violence victimization and alcohol consumption in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Among intimate partners, male-to-female violence is linked to drinking away from home and female-to-male violence is linked to drinking at home. Link to Abstract

Treatment of comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression with cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis

Combining cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing may be beneficial in treating people with alcohol problems and depression. Link to Abstract

Effects of the local alcohol environment on adolescents' drinking behaviors and beliefs

The local environment in terms of bar density and enforcement practices can influence amount of heavy drinking in adolescents. Link to Abstract

Adolescent predictors and environmental correlates of young adult alcohol use problems

More than two in five young Australian adults suffer from alcohol problems. Link to Abstract

Ethyl glucuronide in hair and fingernails as a long-term alcohol biomarker

Ethyl glucuronide, especially in fingernails, may be useful for assessing amount of alcohol use. Link to Abstract

The sales and marketing practices of English-language internet alcohol vendors

Current Internet alcohol vendor practices do not prevent sales to minors. Link to Abstract

Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial

Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with ADHD and substance dependence. Link to Abstract

'Not just Methadone Tracy': transformations in service-user identity following the introduction of hepatitis C treatment into Australian opiate substitution settings

Trial introduction of hepatitis C care and treatment in Australian opiate substitution therapy clinics may have encouraged alternative, 'non-addict' identities to rival the stigma of 'the drug user'. Link to Abstract

Striatum and insula dysfunction during reinforcement learning differentiates abstinent and relapsed methamphetamine-dependent individuals

People suffering from methamphetamine dependence appear to have dysfunctional brain reward pathways. Link to Abstract

Challenges of surveying wastewater drug loads of small populations and generalizable aspects on optimizing monitoring design

Obtaining annual estimates of population drug use by waste water analysis requires large numbers of samples (more than 50) to be taken with careful selection of sites. Link to Abstract

Reduced fetal growth in methadone-maintained pregnancies is not fully explained by smoking or socio-economic deprivation

Opiate use in pregnancy may retard fetal growth. Link to Abstract

Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications

Toxin concentrations in the vapour from major electronic cigarette brands on sale in the United Kingdom are very low. Link to Abstract

'Real-world' effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study

Smokers in England who try to quit are three times more likely to succeed if they see a trained advisor than if they try by themselves but there appears to be no benefit from using nicotine replacement products such as gum or patches when bought from a shop with no professional support. Link to Abstract

February 2014

Trend analysis and modelling of gender-specific age, period and birth cohort effects on alcohol abstention and consumption level for drinkers in Great Britain: General Lifestyle Survey 1984-2009

Rising alcohol consumption among women and progression of higher-consuming birth cohorts through the life course are key drivers of increased per capita alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom. Link to Abstract

Balance--a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of an online intensive self-help alcohol intervention

Balance (an automated online alcohol intervention), added to a brief online screening intervention, may aid reduction in alcohol consumption compared with the screening intervention plus an educational booklet. Link to Abstract

Family transitions and changes in drinking from adolescence through mid-life

From late adolescence to mid-life, women and men in Britain are most at risk for higher levels of alcohol consumption and problem drinking when they are not involved in family roles such as intimate cohabitation, marriage and parenthood. Link to Abstract

Altered cingulate and insular cortex activation during risk-taking in methamphetamine dependence: losses lose impact

Methamphetamine-dependent individuals show disrupted risk-related processing in the brain, which may lead to risk-taking despite experiencing negative consequences. Link to Abstract

Training family members to manage heroin overdose and administer naloxone: randomized trial of effects on knowledge and attitudes

Take-home naloxone training for family members of heroin users increases opioid overdose-related knowledge and competence. Link to Abstract

Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of the IASP study

Treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at a very high risk for additional externalizing disorders such as borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Link to Abstract

Do societal wealth, family affluence and gender account for trends in adolescent cannabis use? A 30 country cross-national study

Among 30 European and North American countries, developing countries and less affluent youth have assumed the former (heavier) cannabis use pattern of richer countries and more affluent youth. Link to Abstract

Towards a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use disorders

A modification of Kendler's risk factor model for major depression provides a foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders. Link to Abstract

Prevalence and associations of quetiapine fumarate misuse among an Australian national city sample of people who regularly inject drugs

Quetiapine misuse appears to be common in people who inject drugs in urban Australia. Link to Abstract

Legal substance use and the development of a DSM-IV cannabis use disorder during adolescence: the TRAILS study

Early-onset and continued tobacco use appear to predict the development of a cannabis use disorder in adolescence, whereas early onset and continued alcohol use do not. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of Extended Cessation Treatment for Older Smokers

It appears to be cost-effective to add extended cognitive behaviour therapy to standard smoking cessation treatment for older smokers. Link to Abstract

Genetic and environmental influences on the ages of drinking and gambling initiation: evidence for distinct aetiologies and sex differences

Among Australian twins, age at first drink and age at first gambling experience are influenced by distinct unique environmental factors, and the genetic and environmental underpinnings of both phenotypes differ in men and women. Link to Abstract

January 2014

Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

Legalizing Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages in some US states during the period 1990 to 2007 was associated with a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Retention of participants in medication-assisted programs in low- and middle-income countries: an international systematic review

Medication-assisted treatment programs for opiate use in low- and middle-income countries achieve an average 50% retention rate after 12 months, with little difference between those using buprenorphine or methadone. Link to Abstract

A systematic review of studies assessing the association between adherence to smoking cessation medication and treatment success

There is modest evidence that lack of adherence to nicotine replacement therapy regimens undermines treatment effectiveness in clinical studies. Link to Abstract

Acute alcohol-related dysfunction as a predictor of employment status in a longitudinal study of working-age men in Izhevsk, Russia

Alcohol-related dysfunction rather than total alcohol consumption appears to underlie the effects of non-beverage alcohol use on loss of employment in Russia. Link to Abstract

Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with all-cause and liver-related mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems

Hepatitis C virus infection is associated independently with all-cause and liver-related mortality in HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems, even when accounting for alcohol and other drug use. Link to Abstract

Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: Results from the ROAD study

Of all routinely used indirect markers for chronic alcohol consumption, percentage of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) is the major predictor of repeat drunk driving. Link to Abstract

Treatment retention among patients randomized to buprenorphine/naloxone compared to methadone in a multi-site trial

Treatment with methadone appears to be associated with better retention in treatment for opioid dependence than buprenorphine, as does higher doses of both medications. Treatment with buprenorphine is associated with lower continued use of illicit opioids. Link to Abstract

Causes of death in a cohort treated for opioid dependence between 1985 and 2005

In a cohort of opioid-dependent people in New South Wales from 1985 to 2005, almost 9 in 10 deaths were avoidable. Link to Abstract

Non-medical use of prescription opioids during the transition to adulthood: a multi-cohort national longitudinal study

Approximately one-third of a sample of 18-year-olds in the United States reporting non-medical use of prescription opioids appears to continue use beyond age 18 and have elevated odds of other substance use behaviors at ages 23/24. Link to Abstract

The relationship between cannabis outcome expectancies and cannabis refusal self-efficacy in a treatment population

A person's belief that he or she can abstain from cannabis use underlies at least part of the association between perceived consequences of cannabis use and actual cannabis use. Link to Abstract

A closer look at the evidence for sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on gambling in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health: from disordered to ordered gambling

Family environment appears to play a role in whether young adults in general start to gamble for both men and women. Link to Abstract

Pharmacotherapy effects on smoking cessation vary with nicotine metabolism gene (CYP2A6)

Nicotine replacement therapy may be more effective among individuals with faster CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. Link to Abstract

Impact of the 2009 Taiwan Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act on Smoking Cessation

The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in 2009 in Taiwan, which combined smoke-free legislation with a tobacco tax increase, graphic health warning labels and a total ban on tobacco advertisements, was associated with increases in quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate. Link to Abstract

Did hardening occur among smokers in England from 2000 to 2010?

The proportion of smokers in England with both low motivation to quit and high dependence appears to have increased between 2000 and 2010, suggesting that 'hardening' may be occurring in this smoker population. Link to Abstract

Tobacco Use Disorder and the Risk of Suicide Mortality

Tobacco use disorder is associated with a modest increased risk of suicide. Link to Abstract

December 2013

Influence of affective manipulations on cigarette craving: a meta-analysis

Laboratory studies indicate that adverse emotional states increase craving to smoke among dependent smokers, but positive emotional states do not consistently reduce craving to smoke. Link to Abstract

Availability of convenience stores and adolescent alcohol use in Taiwan: a multi-level analysis of national surveys

Greater availability of convenience stores near a school is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use among adolescents over the previous 6 months. Link to Abstract

Predicting persistency of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder and examining drinking patterns of recently remitted individuals: a prospective general population study

Only a minority of people in the Netherlands with alcohol use disorder as defined by DSM-5 still have the disorder 3 years later. Risk factors for persistence of alcohol use disorder include younger age, a higher number of weekly drinks and a comorbid anxiety disorder. A substantial number of people recently in diagnostic remission still drink above the maximum recommended level. Link to Abstract

Drinking context-specific associations between intimate partner violence and frequency and volume of alcohol consumption

The social context in which drinking occurs appears to play a role in violence against partners, with male violence being linked to drinking away from home and female violence being linked to drinking at home. Link to Abstract

The impact of a national alcohol policy on deaths due to transport accidents in Russia

The implementation of the suite of 2006 Russian alcohol control policies is partially responsible for saving more than 2400 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to traffic accidents. Link to Abstract

Cumulative and recent psychiatric symptoms as predictors of substance use onset: does timing matter?

Timing is significant in the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and substance use onset in childhood and adolescence, and the psychiatric predictors of onset are substance-specific. Link to Abstract

Childhood conduct disorder trajectories, prior risk factors and cannabis use at age 16: birth cohort study

Maternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Buprenorphine implants for treatment of opioid dependence: randomized comparison to placebo and sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone

Compared with placebo, buprenorphine implants result in significantly less frequent opioid use and are at least as effective as sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablets. Link to Abstract

Engagement with the criminal justice system among opioid-dependent people: a retrospective cohort study

Among opioid-dependent people in Australia, a minority account for the majority of the criminal justice contact. Levels of offending are not consistent over time, sex or age. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness analysis of Recovery Management Checkups (RMC) for adults with chronic substance use disorders: evidence from a 4-year randomized trial

Recovery Management Checkups are a cost-effective and potentially cost-saving strategy for promoting abstinence and reducing substance use-related problems among chronic substance users. Link to Abstract

Deviant smooth pursuit in preschool children exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco affects integrative visuomotor capabilities

Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally could inhibit the development of some cognitive functions in later life. Link to Abstract

An increase in primary care prescriptions of stop-smoking medication as a result of health insurance coverage in the Netherlands: population based study

Full health insurance coverage for smoking cessation treatment in the Netherlands was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of dispensed prescriptions of stop-smoking medication and a decrease in smoking prevalence. Link to Abstract

Randomized trial of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion and NRT plus bupropion for smoking cessation: effectiveness in clinical practice

There is no difference in smoking cessation effectiveness among bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy and their combination when used with behavioural support in clinical practice. There is some evidence that bupropion is more beneficial than nicotine replacement therapy for smokers with a history of depression. Link to Abstract

Influence of a dopamine pathway additive genetic efficacy score on smoking cessation: results from two randomized clinical trials of bupropion

A score based on functional polymorphisms relating to dopamine pathways appears to predict lapse to smoking following a quit attempt. That association is reduced in smokers using bupropion. Link to Abstract

'No-one actually goes to a shop and buys them do they?': attitudes and behaviours regarding illicit tobacco in a multiply disadvantaged community in England

National strategies to reduce illicit tobacco may have limited impact in communities during a recession and where illicit trade is part of the local culture and economy. It may be possible to reduce illicit tobacco use by building on cultural unease about selling to children. Link to Abstract

November 2013

The impact of hazardous drinking on suicide among working-age Russian males: an individual-level analysis

Hazardous drinking substantially increases the risk of suicide among working-age Russian males, with nearly half of all suicides attributed to this drinking pattern. Link to Abstract

Is the alcohol industry delaying government action on alcohol health warning labels in Australia?

Campaigning by some parts of the alcohol industry appears to have been instrumental in the Australian Government's decision to delay the introduction of mandatory alcohol health warning labels. Link to Abstract

Alcohol consumption and self-reported (SF12) physical and mental health among working-aged men in a typical Russian city: a cross-sectional study

Among working-aged male adults in Russia, hazardous patterns of alcohol drinking are associated with poorer self-reported physical and mental health. Physical health appears to be lower in those reporting complete abstinence compared with those drinking 10-19 litres per year. Link to Abstract

Multiple behavioural impulsivity tasks predict prospective alcohol involvement in adolescents

Several measures of impulsivity predict escalation in alcohol involvement (consumption, drunkenness and problems) in young adolescents, but alcohol use does not appear to alter impulsivity. Link to Abstract

Predicting steep escalations in alcohol use over the teenage years: age-related variations in key social influences

Among adolescents, parental disapproval of alcohol use before transition to high school, low school commitment at transition to high school, and sibling and peer alcohol use during adolescence are associated with a higher risk of steep escalations in alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Managing psychiatric comorbidity within versus outside of methadone treatment settings: a randomized and controlled evaluation

On-site and integrated psychiatric and substance misuse services in a methadone treatment setting might produce better psychiatric outcomes than off-site and non-integrated substance misuse and psychiatric care. Link to Abstract

Driving under the influence (DUI) among patients in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT): a registry-based national cohort study

In Norway, patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) have reduced convictions for driving under the influence (DUI) compared with their pre-treatment levels. Being male and having a previous history of several convictions for DUI are important risk factors for convictions for DUI during OMT. Link to Abstract

Sensitivity and specificity of a procedure for early human screening of novel smoking cessation medications

Assessing days abstinent during 1 week of use of medication versus placebo in a cross-over design could be a useful early Phase 2 clinical trial study design for assessing usefulness of medications that aid smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Effects of reward and punishment on brain activations associated with inhibitory control in cigarette smokers

Compared with non-smokers, smokers show increased brain activity when resisting immediately rewarding stimuli and may be less sensitive to punishment as a strategy to increase control over rewarding stimuli. Link to Abstract

Association between smoking cessation and short-term health-care use: results from an international prospective cohort study (ATTEMPT)

Smoking cessation does not appear to be associated with a substantial short-term increase or decrease in health-care use. Link to Abstract

The prevalence, predictors and associated health outcomes of high nicotine dependence using three measures among US smokers

High nicotine dependence is associated with lower quality of life, lower work productivity and higher health-care use. Link to Abstract

Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England

Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements in England used the most effective strategies: negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. Link to Abstract

Homelessness, cigarette smoking and desire to quit: results from a US national study

Among patients in US health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker. But homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. Link to Abstract

Snus use and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HUNT3 study

Norwegians who use snus extensively have a mixed profile of cardiovascular risk: slightly higher waist circumference and systolic blood pressure but also higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Link to Abstract

October 2013

Efficacy of interventions to combat tobacco addiction: Cochrane update of 2012 reviews

Cochrane Reviews are a gold standard in establishing what works in clinical practice. Reviews published in 2012 found good evidence that behavioural interventions improve smokers' chances of stopping over and above use of stop-smoking medicines; that cytisine is effective in helping smokers to stop; that automated text messaging programmes can help smokers to stop and that training health professionals in smoking cessation improves their effectiveness in encouraging smokers to stop. Link to Abstract

The epidemiology of substance use among street children in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Street children from resource-constrained settings report high life-time substance use. Inhalants are the predominant substances used, followed by tobacco, alcohol and marijuana. Link to Abstract

Cravings as a mediator and moderator of drinking outcomes in the COMBINE study

Combining naltrexone with a behavioral intervention to treat alcoholism may not be more beneficial than either therapy on its own because craving reduction is a common mechanism of both. Link to Abstract

Drinking motives moderate the impact of pre-drinking on heavy drinking on a given evening and related adverse consequences--an event-level study

Among young adults in Switzerland, heavy weekend drinking and the related consequences seem to result from the combination of pre-drinking, level of negative reinforcement drinking for women (drinking to fit in or forget problems) and positive reinforcement drinking for men (drinking to be sociable or have fun). Link to Abstract

Alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency make distinct contributions to dysregulated drinking behaviour

Selective attention to alcohol (automatically orientating towards alcohol-related information over other stimuli) and an approach-alcohol action tendency (an automatic inclination to approach and consume alcohol) appear to be distinct mechanisms that contribute independently to difficulty regulating alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Measurement invariance of DSM-IV alcohol, marijuana and cocaine dependence between community-sampled and clinically overselected studies

DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence seem to be equally appropriate for describing substance dependence across clinical and community samples. Link to Abstract

Pain is associated with heroin use over time in HIV-infected Russian drinkers

HIV-infected Russian drinkers who report pain are more likely to use heroin over time than HIV-infected Russian drinkers who do not report pain. Link to Abstract

Comparison of behavioral treatment conditions in buprenorphine maintenance

There remains no clear evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy and contingency management reduce opiate use when added to buprenorphine and medical management in opiate users seeking treatment. Link to Abstract

Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study

Self-report measures relating to cannabis use are at best weakly associated with objective measures. Of the self-report measures, number of joints per gram, cannabis price and subjective potency have at least some validity. Link to Abstract

Young adults' recreational social environment as a predictor of ecstasy use initiation: findings of a population-based prospective study

In Australia, young adults appear to start using ecstasy mainly because of social environmental factors (ecstasy-using social contacts and attendance at dance music events), and less as a result of psychological distress and early cannabis use. Link to Abstract

CHRNA5-A3-B4 genetic variants alter nicotine intake and interact with tobacco use to influence body weight in Alaska Native tobacco users

Variants in the gene cluster CHRNA5-A3-B4 alter nicotine intake and body mass index in a population of Alaska Native people with a distinct haplotype structure, smoking behaviors, and prevalence of obesity. Link to Abstract

Impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Taiwan

The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in Taiwan in 2009 was associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking, particularly among adolescents in earlier stages of smoking and those living in non-urban areas. Link to Abstract

Effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone on smoking and related behaviors in smokers preparing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

Naltrexone taken in the week before an attempt to quit smoking reduces cigarette consumption, urges to smoke and alcohol consumption relative to placebo. Link to Abstract

Perceived pubertal timing and recent substance use among adolescents: a longitudinal perspective

Adolescents who believe they are more advanced in puberty than their peers are more likely to have used cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana recently than adolescents who believe they are on-time or late developing. Link to Abstract

Concurrent use of khat and tobacco is associated with verbal learning and delayed recall deficits

Khat users who smoke cigarettes have a lower rate of verbal learning and delayed recall of previously learned verbal material than khat users who do not smoke cigarettes. Link to Abstract

September 2013

Alcohol use disorders and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mortality in people with alcohol use disorder is markedly higher than thought previously. Women, younger people, and people undergoing treatment for the condition have higher mortality risks than other people with alcohol use disorders. Link to Abstract

Comparative performance of biomarkers of alcohol consumption in a population sample of working-aged men in Russia: the Izhevsk Family Study

Among Russians, blood concentration of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a better biomarker for detecting ethanol consumption above 40 g/day than blood concentration of gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, or aspartate aminotransferase, or mean cell volume of erythrocytes. Link to Abstract

Impacts of the minimum legal drinking age legislation on in-patient morbidity in Canada, 1997-2007: a regression-discontinuity approach

Based on data from 1997-2007, removing minimum legal drinking age restrictions in Canada would likely cause substantial increases in hospital admissions among young adults for alcohol-use disorders/poisoning and other serious injuries, especially among men. Link to Abstract

Alcohol-selling outlets and mortality in Switzerland: The Swiss National Cohort

In Switzerland, alcohol-related mortality is associated with the density of alcohol outlets around the place of residence. Link to Abstract

The collectivity of drinking cultures: is the theory applicable to African settings?

Although the theory of collective drinking predicts that alcohol consumption patterns in African countries will differ from industrialized countries, in fact African alcohol consumption shows the same distribution patterns as industrialized countries. Link to Abstract

Shared risk: who engages in substance use with American homeless youth?

Homeless young people in the United States are more likely to drink or use drugs when they are with peers who engage in multiple risk behaviours (e.g., drug use plus risky sex; intoxication plus risky sex) and who occupy influential social roles (e.g., popular people, opinion leaders, support providers, sex partners). Link to Abstract

Injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid dependence: long-term safety and effectiveness

During a 1-year open-label extension phase of injectable intramuscular injectable extended-release naltrexone for the prevention of relapse in opioid dependence, 62.3% of patients stayed in the program for the full year and 50.9% were abstinent from opioids. Link to Abstract

Ecstasy and the use of sleep medications in a general community sample: a 4-year follow-up

The use of ecstasy appears to be associated with the use of sleeping medications, but this association can be accounted for by other factors, suggesting that the extent of sleep disruption for ecstasy users is not severe. Link to Abstract

The effects of cannabis use expectancies on self-initiated cannabis cessation

In the USA, anticipated positive effects of cannabis use appear to be strongly linked to cannabis use and failure to quit. Link to Abstract

The impact of cigarette pack shape, size and opening: evidence from tobacco company documents

Consumer research by the tobacco industry between 1973 and 2002 found that variations in packaging shape, size and opening method could influence brand appeal and risk perceptions and thereby increase cigarette sales. Link to Abstract

Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes

The nicotine content of electronic cigarette refill bottles is close to what is stated on the label. Impurities detectable in several brands are below the level where they are likely to cause harm. Link to Abstract

How does rate of smoking cessation vary by age, gender and social grade? Findings from a population survey in England

Among smokers in England, those under 30 and over 50 years of age seem to have higher quit rates than middle-aged smokers, women seem to have higher quit rates than men, and young adults in higher social grades seem to have higher quit rates than those in lower social grades. Link to Abstract

August 2013

Randomized clinical trial examining the incremental efficacy of a 90-minute motivational alcohol intervention as an adjunct to standard batterer intervention for men

Men with a history of hazaradous drinking and violence against their intimate partner who receive a combined batterer and alcohol intervention show temporary reductions in drinking and violence. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of alcohol treatment interventions integrated into routine tuberculosis care in Tomsk, Russia

In Tomsk Oblast, Russia, tuberculosis patients with severe alcohol use disorders and past attempts to quit drinking show improved tuberculosis outcomes when alcohol interventions are integrated into tuberculosis care. Link to Abstract

Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders

Individuals with severe coexisting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) can benefit from cognitive behaviour therapy targeting AUD, with greater benefits associated with exposure for PTSD. Link to Abstract

Characteristics, circumstances and toxicology of sudden or unnatural deaths involving very high-range alcohol concentrations

In Sydney, Australia, middle-aged men with long histories of alcohol problems are at greatest risk of unnatural deaths involving very high blood alcohol levels. Link to Abstract

Increased risk of alcohol and drug use among children from deployed military families

Children of deployed military personnel are at higher risk for substance use than children of non-military citizens. Link to Abstract

Patterns of drug use in fatal crashes

Fatal single-vehicle crashes involving drugs are less common than those involving alcohol. The characteristics of drug-involved crashes differ depending upon drug class and whether alcohol is present. Link to Abstract

Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study

Swedish children who fail at school and have a low socio-economic status are more likely to engage in illicit drug abuse as youths and young adults. Link to Abstract

Incidence trends of cannabis and cocaine use from periodic Spanish general population surveys: effect of standardizing results by age structure

An apparently decreasing trend in both cannabis and cocaine use in Spain from 2000 disappears when the rates are standardized to account for changes in the age structure of the population. Link to Abstract

Mental health differences between frequent cannabis users with and without dependence and the general population

Dependent frequent cannabis users have worse mental health than both non-dependent frequent cannabis users and the general population. Link to Abstract

A survey of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines in 121 countries

More than half of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have not yet developed national tobacco treatment guidelines. Link to Abstract

A survey of tobacco dependence treatment services in 121 countries

Most Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, especially low- and middle-income countries, have not yet developed national tobacco treatment services. Link to Abstract

The delivery of smoking cessation interventions to primary care patients with mental health problems

The total proportion of smokers with poor mental health who are prescribed a smoking cessation medication is low: one in ten is prescribed a smoking cessation medication and only half are advised to quit. Link to Abstract

Fifty-two-week continuous abstinence rates of smokers being treated with varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy

Smokers in the same behavioural support programme who use varenicline appear more likely to achieve long-term abstinence than those using nicotine replacement therapy. Link to Abstract

Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study

Children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are at risk for psychoactive substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in adolescence. Link to Abstract

July 2013

Internet addiction assessment tools: dimensional structure and methodological status

Questionnaires assessing internet addiction should cover compulsive use, negative outcome and salience. Link to Abstract

Drink driving in Hong Kong: the competing effects of random breath testing and alcohol tax reductions

Hong Kong's current anti-drink driving strategy appears to reduce drink driving in men and prevent increased levels of drink driving among women. Link to Abstract

Reducing heavy drinking in HIV primary care: a randomized trial of brief intervention, with and without technological enhancement

For alcohol-dependent HIV patients, enhancing motivational interviewing with HealthCall (an automated telephone service that provides personalized feedback) may offer additional benefit without requiring extensive additional staff. Link to Abstract

The contributions of value-based decision-making and attentional bias to alcohol-seeking following devaluation

Value-based decision-making (making decisions based on subjective desires or beliefs) may be a more important determinant of drinking behaviour among student social drinkers than attentional bias (the tendency to pay attention to emotionally dominant stimuli). Link to Abstract

Self-reported alcohol abuse in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: a better predictor of HIV virological rebound than physician\'s perceptions (HEPAVIH ARNS CO13 cohort)

In France, in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C, self-reported alcohol abuse seems to provide a better predictor of HIV viral rebound than physicians' perceptions of alcohol abuse in their patients. Link to Abstract

Characterizing the longitudinal patterns of substance use among individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness after psychiatric hospitalization

Substance use is frequent and associated with poor recovery in patients with serious mental illness recently discharged from psychiatric hospitalization. Addiction treatments personalized by diagnosis and gender may improve outcomes. Link to Abstract

'It\'s more about the heroin': injection drug users\' response to an overdose warning campaign in a Canadian setting

Among heroin injectors in British Columbia, a 2011 overdose warning campaign appeared to be of limited effectiveness and produced unintended negative consequences that exacerbated overdose risk. Link to Abstract

Extended-release methylphenidate for treatment of amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Methylphenidate may improve retention of amphetamine/methamphetamine users in substance misuse treatment but any effect on substance misuse remains unproven. Link to Abstract

Micromorphological changes in cardiac tissue of drug-related deaths with emphasis on chronic illicit opioid abuse

There is a long-term risk of cardiac dysfunction following chronic illicit opioid abuse. Link to Abstract

Low incidence of hepatitis C virus among prisoners in Scotland

The low incidence of hepatitis C virus infections in Scottish prisons is probably due to the low occurrence of in-prison injecting and the high coverage of opiate substitution treatment. Link to Abstract

A life-course perspective on economic stress and tobacco smoking: a population-based study

In Sweden, downward social mobility and economic stress in both childhood and adulthood appear to be risk factors for smoking over the life-course. Link to Abstract

Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

The tobacco industry in the United Kingdom keeps the price of its cheapest cigarettes virtually static despite annual increases in tobacco taxes, circumventing the UK's public health policy to reduce smoking through higher prices. Link to Abstract

Psychological predictors of male smokeless tobacco use initiation and cessation: a 16-year longitudinal study

Male youths in the United States who are rebellious, thrill-seeking and follow their friends' leads appear to be much more likely to start using smokeless tobacco than other male youths. Link to Abstract

Use of varenicline versus bupropion and risk of psychiatric adverse events

Compared with bupropion use, varenicline use does not significantly increase the risk of psychiatric adverse events such as psychotic symptoms, hostility, homicidal ideation, or suicide attempt. Link to Abstract

June 2013

Are the 1976-1985 birth cohorts heavier drinkers? Age-period-cohort analyses of the National Alcohol Surveys 1979-2010

In the USA, men born between 1976 and 1985, and women born between 1981 and 1985 drink more heavily than those born earlier or later. Link to Abstract

Population drinking and drink driving in Norway and Sweden: an analysis of historical data 1957-89

In Norway and Sweden, as the total population level of alcohol consumption increases or decreases, so does drink driving. Link to Abstract

The relationship between minimum alcohol prices, outlet densities and alcohol-attributable deaths in British Columbia, 2002-09

In British Columbia, Canada, between 2002 and 2009, increases in the minimum price of alcohol were associated with decreased alcohol-attributable mortality, while increases in the density of private liquor stores was associated with increased alcohol-attributable mortality. Link to Abstract

Decline in incidence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users in Amsterdam; evidence for harm reduction?

Marked decreases in HIV and HCV incidence in Amsterdam since 1990 could be attributable largely to changes in the population of injecting drug users arising from HIV-related deaths. Link to Abstract

A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of venlafaxine-extended release for co-occurring cannabis dependence and depressive disorders

For depressed, cannabis-dependent patients, the extended release form of the antidepressant venlafaxine does not appear to reduce depression and may increase cannabis use. Link to Abstract

A comparison among tapentadol tamper-resistant formulations (TRF) and OxyContin (non-TRF) in prescription opioid abusers

Tamper-resistant forms of taptentadol (pain relief) tablets do not appear to be well-liked by people who tamper regularly with extended-release oxycodone tablets. Link to Abstract

A prospective study of neurocognitive changes 15 years after chronic inhalant abuse

Some inhalant abusers experience severe and persistent neurological impairments, suggesting permanent damage possibly attributable to lead poisoning. Link to Abstract

'Vaping' profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette users

E-cigarettes are used primarily for smoking cessation, but for a longer duration than nicotine replacement therapy, and users believe them to be safer than smoking. Link to Abstract

Tobacco Dependence Diagnosis and Treatment in Veterans Health Administration Residential Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs

Most veterans in Veterans Health Administration substance use disorders residential treatment programs appear to use tobacco, yet only one in ten receives a documented ICD-9 tobacco dependence diagnosis and pharmacotherapy while in treatment. Link to Abstract

Motivational interviewing to enhance nicotine patch treatment for smoking cessation among homeless smokers: a randomized controlled trial

Adding motivational interviewing counselling to nicotine patches does not significantly increase smoking rates among homeless smokers at 26-week follow-up. Link to Abstract

Which elements of improvement collaboratives are most effective? A cluster-randomized trial

Clinic-level coaching appears to improve waiting time and increase the number of new patients in outpatient addiction clinics in the United States. Link to Abstract

May 2013

Efficacy combined with specified ingredients: a new direction for empirically supported addiction treatment

We are moving to a phase in the science of addiction where it is not enough to know whether an intervention is effective; it is essential to be able to identify its ingredients to build our understanding of why it works or does not so that its generalisability can be assessed and interventions can be improved upon Link to Abstract

Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities

In New Zealand, the adoption of local policies to reduce alcohol-related harm can be helped by 1) competitive local government elections around alcohol issues, 2) preventing 'gate-keepers' from setting the policy agenda, and 3) fewer legislative restrictions by central government. Link to Abstract

A randomized study of cellphone technology to reinforce alcohol abstinence in the natural environment

Cellphone technology may be useful for applying contingency management (which uses tangible incentives to reinforce abstinence) to treatment for alcohol problems. Link to Abstract

Global alcohol exposure estimates by country, territory and region for 2005--a contribution to the Comparative Risk Assessment for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study

About 40% of the world\'s adult population consumes alcohol, and the average consumption per drinker is 17.1 litres per year. Eastern Europe and Southern sub-Saharan Africa had the most detrimental pattern of drinking scores in 2005, while drinkers in Eastern and Central Europe and Southern and West sub-Saharan Africa consumed the most alcohol. Link to Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among illicit psychostimulant users: a hidden disorder?

Undiagnosed attention deficit disorder may be common in psychostimulant users. Link to Abstract

The dynamic relationship between social norms and behaviors: the results of an HIV prevention network intervention for injection drug users

Peer-based social network interventions can change injection drug users' injection risk behaviours. Link to Abstract

High rates of midazolam injection and associated harms in Bangkok, Thailand

Misuse of midazolam, a benzodiazepine often used as a premedication for sedation, is increasing among injecting drug users in Bangkok and appears to be used primarily as a substitute for heroin. Link to Abstract

The D2/3 dopamine receptor in pathological gambling: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin and [11C]raclopride

There does not appear to be a link between low levels of D2/D3 dopamine receptors and pathological gambling. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention conducted among prisoners

Adding the antidepressant nortriptyline to stop-smoking behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy does not appear to improve long-term abstinence rates in male prisoners. Link to Abstract

Investigating the impact of nicotine on executive functions using a novel virtual reality assessment

Nicotine gum enhances some aspects of cognitive performance in smokers who have abstained for as little as 2 hours. Link to Abstract

Think abstractly, smoke less: a brief construal-level intervention can promote self-control, leading to reduced cigarette consumption among current smokers

Reminding smokers to think about health, even just in general terms, may help them improve self-control and smoke fewer cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Childhood sexual abuse and early substance use in adolescent girls: the role of familial influences

A history of childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for use of cigarettes and cannabis and a very strong predictor of starting to drink at an early age. Link to Abstract

April 2013

Development of dependence following treatment with opioid analgesics for pain relief: a systematic review

From studies available in the literature, use of prescribed opioid medications for chronic pain conditions appears only rarely to be associated with development of addiction. Link to Abstract

Alcohol intoxication in the context of major public holidays, sporting and social events: a time-series analysis in Melbourne, Australia, 2000-2009

In Melbourne, acute alcohol intoxication cases requiring ambulance, emergency department and hospital in-patient treatment increase substantially on the day before public holidays and other major social events. Link to Abstract

Prospective Correlates of Drinking Cessation: Variation across the Life Course

Among US adults, factors associated with giving up drinking appear to change over the life course. Link to Abstract

A randomised controlled trial of motivational interviewing to prevent risk for an alcohol exposed pregnancy in the Western Cape, South Africa.

Among rural women in South Africa, a motivational interviewing intervention reduced the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy through risky drinking, ineffective contraception, or both. Link to Abstract

Cannabis use and vulnerability for psychosis in early adolescence--a TRAILS study

Cannabis use predicts psychosis vulnerability among Dutch adolescents, and vice versa. Link to Abstract

Early life influences on the risk of injecting drug use: case control study based on the Edinburgh Addiction Cohort

In Scotland, injection drug use in adults is associated strongly with markers of prior childhood adversity, particularly not living with both parents as well as early conduct problems such as exclusion from school and criminal behaviour. Link to Abstract

Aripiprazole for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Compared with placebo, aripiprazole does not significantly reduce methamphetamine use among actively using, methamphetamine-dependent adults in the USA. Link to Abstract

Methadone Dosing and Prescribed Medication Use in a Prospective Cohort of Opioid-Dependent Pregnant Women

In the Irish health service, decreasing methadone doses for pregnant, opioid-dependent women does not appear to reduce neonatal abstinence syndrome in their babies. Link to Abstract

Increased reflection impulsivity in patients with ephedrone induced Parkinsonism

Ephedrone patients may have similar deficits in information gathering and decision making to opiate dependent patients, with no corresponding deficits in working memory and risk taking. Link to Abstract

Impulsivity trajectories and gambling in adolescence among urban male youth

Among urban male youth in Maryland, USA, development in impulsivity is associated strongly with problem and at-risk gambling in adolescence. Link to Abstract

Subtypes of disordered gamblers: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

In the USA, three subtypes of disordered gambling can be identified, ranging from low to high levels of gambling severity and psychopathology. Link to Abstract

Income, income inequality and youth smoking in low- and middle-income countries

In low- and middle-income countries, a 10% increase in gross domestic product per capita appears to increase the odds of a young person being a current smoker by at least 2.5%. Link to Abstract

ESCAPE: a randomised controlled trial of computer-tailored smoking cessation advice in primary care

ESCAPE, a brief, tailored stop-smoking intervention delivered by post in the UK, appears to increase the rate at which smokers try to quit but abstinence rates do not seem to be increased. Link to Abstract

Graphic imagery is not sufficient for increased attention to cigarette warnings: the role of text captions

In the UK, graphic imagery on cigarette packets increases the attention paid to the accompanying text message about health risks. Link to Abstract

March 2013

The mediating role of alcohol-related memory associations on the relation between perceived parental drinking and the onset of adolescents\' alcohol use

Non-drinking adolescents who watch their parents drink appear to form memory associations about alcohol, which in turn appear able to trigger them to start drinking. Link to Abstract

Prospects for scaling-up supervised injection facilities in Canada: the role of evidence in legal and political decision-making

Despite the Supreme Court of Canada's recent support of North America\'s first supervised injection facility (Insite), additional court action may be required to establish a stable legal and policy basis for similar facilities in Canada. Link to Abstract

Transportation into narrative worlds: implications for entertainment media influences on tobacco use

Individuals who are more highly transported into stories seem to show greater attitude, belief and behavior change, which may affect how they react to tobacco use in movies. Link to Abstract

A systematic review of the relationships between family functioning, pubertal timing and adolescent substance use

Adolescents who have poor relationships with their parents and reach puberty early may be at risk for greater substance use than adolescents who have good parental relationships and mature on time or late. Link to Abstract

Motivational typologies of drinkers: do enhancement and coping drinkers form two distinct groups?

Coping drinkers (people who drink to reduce negative moods) and enhancement drinkers (people who drink to increase positive moods) do not appear to form two distinct groups. Link to Abstract

Working memory ability predicts trajectories of early alcohol use in adolescents: the mediational role of impulsivity

Weakness in working memory, the brain function that allows us to deliberate before acting, predicts both the initiation and the escalation of alcohol use in adolescents ages 10 to 15. Link to Abstract

Early life socio-economic position and later alcohol use: birth cohort study

Children from higher-income households in England appear to be at greater risk of some types of adolescent alcohol problems than children in lower-income households. Link to Abstract

Acute toxicity due to the confirmed consumption of synthetic cannabinoids: clinical and laboratory findings

In Germany, there appears to be an increase in use of some extremely potent synthetic cannabinoids. Acute toxic symptoms associated with their use include agitation, seizures, hypertension, vomiting, and low blood potassium. Link to Abstract

Gender differences in the presence of drugs in violent deaths

In Colorado, USA, drugs associated with homicide (marijuana, cocaine and amphetamines) have a stronger association among males, while drugs associated with suicide (antidepressants and opiates) have a stronger association among females. Link to Abstract

Profiles of illicit drug use during annual key holiday and control periods in Australia: wastewater analysis in an urban, a semi-rural and a vacation area

While the peak holiday season in Australia is perceived as a period of increased drug use, the increase in use is not uniform for all drugs and geographical areas. Link to Abstract

Deficits in social perception in opioid maintenance patients, abstinent opioid users and non-opioid users

People in opioid maintenance treatment may have trouble reading social situations and recognising other people's emotions. Link to Abstract

An empirical evaluation of proposed changes for gambling diagnosis in the DSM-5

Pathological gambling can be diagnosed without requiring the patient to have committed illegal acts. Thus reducing the threshold for diagnosis from five to four criteria results in more consistent diagnoses relative to the current classification system. Link to Abstract

Egocentric social network analysis of pathological gambling

Compared with non-pathological gamblers, pathological gamblers have more gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks, and have closer relationships with other gamblers. These social networks may reinforce addictive behaviour. Link to Abstract

Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults

Gaming addiction does not appear to be widespread among adolescents and adults in Germany. Link to Abstract

Population impact of reimbursement for smoking cessation: a natural experiment in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands, providing stop-smoking treatments for free seems to get more people to try to quit smoking and improves public health. Link to Abstract

Racial differences in the relationship between tobacco dependence and nicotine and carcinogen exposure

At levels of low tobacco dependence, black smokers seem to take in more nicotine and carcinogens per individual cigarette than white smokers. Link to Abstract

Population-level effects of automated smoking cessation help programs: a randomized controlled trial

Smokers interested in quitting who are assigned to an internet- or mobile phone-based quit-smoking program may be more likely to quit for at least 6 months than those directed to an information website. Link to Abstract

Social relationships and subsequent health-related behaviours: linkages between adolescent peer status and levels of adult smoking in a Stockholm cohort

Swedish adolescents with low status among peers are more likely to become smokers by the time they reach adulthood. Link to Abstract

Dating and substance use in adolescent peer networks: a replication and extension

Among adolescents in the USA, smokers tend to date and make friends with other smokers. Link to Abstract

February 2013

Smoking and absence from work: systematic review and meta-analysis of occupational studies

Smoking increases number of days off work because of illness far more than previously thought. Link to Abstract

Meta-analysis of naltrexone and acamprosate for treating alcohol use disorders: when are these medications most helpful?

Acamprosate seems to be more effective than naltrexone in promoting alcohol abstinence. Naltrexone seems to be more effective than acamprosate in reducing heavy drinking and craving. Both medications appear to work better when participants are detoxified and abstinent when treatment begins. Link to Abstract

Past major depression and smoking cessation outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis update

People with a history of major depression have a harder time staying off cigarettes after smoking cessation treatment than people without this history. Link to Abstract

Living in proximity of a bar and risky alcohol behaviours: a longitudinal study

Living close to a bar appears to increase risky alcohol behaviour. Link to Abstract

Web-based alcohol intervention for Māori university students: double-blind, multi-site randomized controlled trial

A web-based screening and brief intervention programme reduced hazardous and harmful drinking among Māori students. Link to Abstract

Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the United States

U.S. states that have a monopoly over liquor sales (via state-operated alcohol stores) appear to have slightly higher liquor prices than states that sell alcohol via privately owned licensed retailers. Link to Abstract

Missed and inconsistent classification of current drinkers: results from the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey

People in the U.S. who are asked about their drinking during the past 12 months, rather than the past 30 days, provide higher estimates of current alcohol use. The 30-day measure may underestimate national drinking patterns and fail to identify individuals who would benefit from alcohol misuse services. Link to Abstract

An intervention targeting service providers and clients for methadone maintenance treatment in China: a cluster-randomized trial

Among methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) clinics in Sichuan, China, the MMT CARE intervention, which trains MMT service providers, can improve providers\' treatment knowledge and their success with clients. Link to Abstract

Prescription drug use among pregnant women in Opioid Maintenance Treatment

In Norway, women in opioid maintenance treatment use more prescription drugs before and during pregnancy than do women in the general population. Link to Abstract

A record-linkage study of drug-related death and suicide after hospital discharge among drug-treatment clients in Scotland, 1996-2006

Among people receiving treatment for drug dependence, hospital discharge marks the start of a period of higher vulnerability to drug-related death. Link to Abstract

Twenty-five years of volatile substance abuse mortality: a national mortality surveillance programme

In the United Kingdom between 1983 and 2007, the number of deaths associated with volatile substance abuse peaked in the early 1990s and fell to its lowest level in the mid-2000s. Age at death increased over the time period, deaths involving glues decreased, and deaths involving gas fuels rose. Link to Abstract

Randomized trial of the effectiveness of combined behavioral/pharmacological smoking cessation treatment in Syrian primary care clinics

When given alongside behavioural counselling, nicotine patches may not help smokers in certain low-income countries to quit. Link to Abstract

Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers

Adolescent smokers whose bodies clear nicotine slowly smoke more cigarettes per day and show greater nicotine dependence than those with faster nicotine metabolism. Link to Abstract

Visual attention to health warnings on plain tobacco packaging in adolescent smokers and non-smokers

Removing brand imagery from cigarette packets may increase visual attention to health warnings among occasional and experimental adolescent smokers, but not among daily adolescent smokers. Link to Abstract

Exposure to second-hand smoke damages everyday prospective memory

Non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke may suffer impairment in ability to recall plans they have made. Link to Abstract

January 2013

Treating alcoholism reduces financial burden on care-givers and increases quality-adjusted life years

Treating a family member for alcohol dependence substantially reduces the financial burden of that disease on the rest of the family. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of stop-smoking medications: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

Contrary to what has been claimed by some tobacco control researchers, use of stop-smoking medicines such as varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy is associated with a higher probability of quitting in the general population compared with trying to quit unaided - once important confounding factors such as level of nicotine dependence are accounted for. Link to Abstract

The acute effects of physical activity on cigarette cravings: systematic review and meta-analysis with individual participant data

There is strong evidence that physical activity acutely reduces cigarette craving. Link to Abstract

A test of proposed new tobacco withdrawal symptoms

Mood swings, improved senses of smell and taste, and reduced sore throat can be added to the list of effects reliably observbed following smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Affordability of alcohol as a key driver of alcohol demand in New Zealand: a co-integration analysis

Changes in price of alcohol relative to income are more important in determining population levels of alcohol consumption than price relative to other goods and service Link to Abstract

Impaired processing of emotion in music, faces and voices supports a generalized emotional decoding deficit in alcoholism

People with alcohol use disorder appear to have trouble recognizing emotions conveyed by faces, voices and music. Link to Abstract

Effects of a multi-component responsible beverage service programme on violent assaults in Sweden

Programmes that address serving of alcohol to intoxicated customers are effecvtive in reducing alcohol-related assaults. Link to Abstract

Risk of injury after alcohol consumption from case-crossover studies in five countries from the Americas

As in other countries, drinking alcohol is an important cause of injury in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua and Panama. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of alcohol and other drugs in fatally injured drivers

More than half of fatally injured drivers in the United States between 2005 and 2009 had been using alcohol and/or other drugs, and approximately 20% had been using two or more drugs at one time. Link to Abstract

Effects of independent and substance-induced major depressive disorder on remission and relapse of alcohol, cocaine and heroin dependence

Depression from whatever cause appears to increase vulnerability to relapse in people recovering from substance use disorder. Link to Abstract

The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood

Cannabis use in adolescence is associated with anxiety and depression persisting in late adulthood irrespective of whether cannabis use also persists. Link to Abstract

A prospective study of learning, memory, and executive function in new MDMA users

Even new users of ecstasy show some impairments in memory. Link to Abstract

Prospective effects of traumatic event re-exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder in syringe exchange participants

Injecting drug users who are re-exposed to traumatic events tend to increase their cocaine use and become more interested in receiving treatment for their substance use disorder. Link to Abstract

Neurodevelopmental investigation of the mirror neurone system in children of women receiving opioid maintenance therapy during pregnancy

Use of opioid maintenance therapy during pregnancy appears to impair goal-directed eye movements in 4-year-old offspring. Link to Abstract

Factors associated with pathways toward concurrent sex work and injection drug use among female sex workers who inject drugs in northern Mexico

Being subject to physical abuse when young and level of education are related to the order in which women in Mexican cities starting injecting drugs and become sex workers. Link to Abstract

Initiation with menthol cigarettes and youth smoking uptake

In the US, young people who start by smoking menthol cigarettes appear to have a greater risk of going on to become nicotine dependent. Link to Abstract

Predictors of abstinence among smokers recruited actively to quitline support

Actively recruiting smokers into quit attempts by telephone helplines appears to engage a significant number of smokers who had not been intending to stop in the near future and many of these go on to quit. Link to Abstract

The role of time preference in smoking cessation: a longitudinal analysis of data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia survey, 2001-08

Smokers whose thinking is more directed toward the future rather than the present appear to be more likely to stop smoking. Link to Abstract

Neuropsychiatric events in varenicline and nicotine replacement patch users in the Military Health System

Concerns that use of the stop-smoking medicine varenicline may increase serious neuropsychiatric symptoms do not appear to be borne out. Link to Abstract

Self-harm, substance use and psychological distress in the Australian general population

Smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use are associated with a greater incidence of self-harm in young and middle-aged Australian adults. Link to Abstract

December 2012

Randomized controlled trial of a novel cannabis use intervention delivered by telephone

A brief course of motivational interviewing plus cognitive behavioural therapy, all delivered by telephone, can help to reduce cannabis dependence and promote abstinence in the short term. Link to Abstract

Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection among people who inject drugs: an international systematic review and meta-analysis

Among people who inject illicit drugs, ethnic minorities are approximately twice as likely to be HIV seropositive than ethnic majorities. Link to Abstract

Development and preliminary validation of an indirect screener for drug use in the perinatal period

Indirect drug screening of new mothers, which asks questions about non-drug factors that indicate drug use without requiring direct disclosure, may increase the accuracy of mothers\' self-reports of prenatal drug use. Link to Abstract

Acute alcohol effects on impulsivity: associations with drinking and driving behavior

People who report having three or more drinks before driving show evidence of greater impulsivity when under the influence of alcohol than those who do not report heavy drinking before driving. Link to Abstract

Association of alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms and life-style factors with excessive alcohol intake within the Spanish population (EPIC-Spain)

In the Spanish population, genetic factors are associated with level of alcohol intake. Also, heavy drinkers tend to smoke more, eat more meat, eat less fruit, and be less educated than very low drinkers. Link to Abstract

Drinking habits and disability retirement

Poor drinking habits may contribute to retirement because of disability among middle-aged working people in Finland. Link to Abstract

Sequence of alcohol involvement from early onset to young adult alcohol abuse: differential predictors and moderation by family-focused preventive intervention

Children under age 13 with different risk factors for alcohol use, such as impulsive behaviour and parents with drinking problems, tend later on to develop specific forms of alcohol use, such as early onset drinking and alcohol problems, depending on the risk factor. Link to Abstract

Risk adjustment of heroin treatment outcomes for comparative performance assessment in England

There is a high degree of variability in the apparent effectiveness of the treatment for substance use disorders in England in different areas. Link to Abstract

Correlates of benzodiazepine dependence in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

Insomnia, antidepressant use and alcohol dependence may increase the risk of benzodiazepine dependence. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of web-based tailored smoking cessation advice reports (iQuit): a randomized trial

An individually tailored web-based intervention for stopping smoking was found to be no more effective than web-based materials that presented broadly similar non-tailored information. Link to Abstract

High-resolution behavioral economic analysis of cigarette demand to inform tax policy

A $1 tax increase could reduce the economic burden of smoking for a state in the US by an average of $530.6 million and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162%. Link to Abstract

Who is most susceptible to movie smoking effects? Exploring the impacts of race and socio-economic status

In the US, white and Hispanic adolescents appear to be more likely than black adolescents to try smoking as a result of exposure to smoking in movies. Among white adolescents, susceptibility to movie smoking appears to increase with socio-economic status. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of pathological internet use among adolescents in Europe: Demographic and social factors

Across a range of European countries, 4.4% of adolescents appear to show what might be considered 'pathological internet use', or internet addiction. Adolescents lacking emotional and psychological support are at highest risk. Link to Abstract

November 2012

Does it matter who you see to help you stop smoking? Short-term quit rates across specialist stop smoking practitioners in England

Smokers receiving help with quitting from specialist practitioners have very different chances of success depending on which specialist they see. Link to Abstract

How transparent is behavioral intervention research on pathological gambling and other gambling-related disorders? A systematic literature review

Gambling intervention reports need to adhere better to transparency guidelines, which require clear and comprehensive descriptions of experiments and reporting of all outcomes. Link to Abstract

Evidence of HIV epidemics among non-injecting drug users in Iran: a systematic review

Iran is facing a major HIV epidemic among non-injecting illicit drug users. Link to Abstract

Automatic processes in at-risk adolescents: the role of alcohol-approach tendencies and response inhibition in drinking behavior

At-risk adolescents appear to be motivated toward stimuli associated with drinking (e.g. pictures of beer) shortly after they start drinking. These motivations particularly affect the drinking behaviour of adolescents with low inhibition. Link to Abstract

Life-time drinking course of driving-while-impaired offenders

Among people convicted of driving while impaired in the United States, those who start drinking at a young age or combine drinking with substance use are more likely to engage in risky drinking behaviour later in life. Compared with men, women start drinking later in life and are more likely to stop drinking. Link to Abstract

The changing gender gap in substance use disorder: a total population-based study of psychiatric inpatients

Among psychiatric inpatients in Iceland, diagnoses of alcohol use disorder are rising among women and falling among men. The male-to-female ratio of alcohol use disorder decreased from 4.2 in 1993 to 1.5 in 2007. Link to Abstract

Associations between substance use disorders and major depression in parents and late adolescent-emerging adult offspring: an adoption study

While depression in parents appears to increase risk of depression in their children when they reach late adolescence through the way they behave, substance use disorder and cannabis and nicotine use of parents appears to be linked to similar behaviour in children through gene transmission. Link to Abstract

Mediational relations between 12-Step attendance, depression and substance use in patients with comorbid substance dependence and major depression

Attending 12-Step meetings appears to help with depression beyond any effect on substance use. Link to Abstract

Can needle and syringe programmes and opiate substitution therapy achieve substantial reductions in hepatitis C virus prevalence? Model projections for different epidemic settings

Opiate substitution and syringe exchange programmes can reduce hepatitis C prevalence if they are sustained long term. Link to Abstract

Evaluating the impact of community-based treatment options on methamphetamine use: findings from the Methamphetamine Treatment Evaluation Study (MATES)

Methamphetamine use can be reduced for a short time by community residential programmes but simple 'detoxification' programmes do not appear to be effective. Link to Abstract

England\'s legislation on smoking in indoor public places and work-places: impact on the most exposed children

Contrary to what has been predicted by opponents of smoke-free laws, banning smoking in indoor public places and work-places has not increased exposure of children to second-hand smoke at home. Link to Abstract

CHRNB3 is more strongly associated with Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence-based nicotine dependence than cigarettes per day: phenotype definition changes genome-wide association studies results

Genetic factors contribute differently to amount smoked and nicotine dependence. Link to Abstract

Beliefs about the harms of long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy: perceptions of smokers in England

A significant minority of smokers in England believe that using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for one year or more is harmful but this belief does not seem to deter them from using NRT. Link to Abstract

The impact of media campaigns on smoking cessation activity: a structural vector autoregression analysis

Tobacco control campaigns appear to be more effective at getting people to try to quit smoking than pharmaceutical companies' nicotine replacement therapy campaigns. Link to Abstract

October 2012

The combined effect of very low nicotine content cigarettes, used as an adjunct to usual Quitline care (nicotine replacement therapy and behavioural support), on smoking cessation

Combining Quitline smoking cessation support (which uses nicotine replacement therapy and behavioural support) with very low nicotine content cigarettes (to be used whenever quitters had an urge to smoke for up to 6 weeks after the quit date) may help some smokers to quit smoking entirely. Link to Abstract

An analysis of ethical issues in using wastewater analysis to monitor illicit drug use

Using wastewater analysis to monitor illicit drug use in large populations does not raise major ethical concerns because individual drug users are not identifiable. In smaller populations, such as prisons, schools or work-places, wastewater analysis could potentially harm individuals and businesses. Link to Abstract

Does family history of alcohol problems influence college and university drinking or substance use? A meta-analytical review

Students with a family history of alcohol problems do not drink more than other students, but they may be at greater risk for difficulties with alcohol and drugs. Link to Abstract

Alcohol\'s involvement in recurrent child abuse and neglect cases

Children whose carers abuse alcohol or drugs are more likely to experience recurrent abuse and neglect than children whose carers do not abuse alcohol or drugs. Link to Abstract

Hyperactivation of right inferior frontal cortex in young binge drinkers during response inhibition: a follow-up study

Young binge drinkers appear to show abnormal brain activity that may underlie difficulties in impulse control. Link to Abstract

Prospective memory and future event simulation in individuals with alcohol dependence

People who are alcohol dependent may experience impairments in prospective memory (the ability to perform intended actions at an appropriate moment in the future). Link to Abstract

Examination of mortality rates in a retrospective cohort of patients treated with oral or implant naltrexone for problematic opiate use

Treating opioid-dependent patients with implant naltrexone can reduce mortality and opiate overdose during the first four months following treatment compared with patients treated with oral naltrexone. Link to Abstract

Drug treatment and the conditionality of HIV treatment access: a qualitative study in a Russian city

In the Russian city of Ekaterinburg, inadequate drug treatment practices prevent HIV-infected drug users from receiving HIV treatment. Access to HIV treatment appears often to be contingent upon prior drug treatment or evidence of having become 'drug free', yet there is no access to opioid substitution therapy in Russia. Link to Abstract

Medicinal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests

Dronabinol (a synthetic version of the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, used medicinally to treat anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and chronic pain) impairs driving performance in occasional and heavy users. Link to Abstract

The relationship of major depressive disorder and gender to changes in smoking for current and former smokers: longitudinal evaluation in the US population

People with current or lifetime depression have a lower likelihood of quitting smoking, and former smokers with current depression have a greater likelihood of smoking relapse, compared with people who do not have current or lifetime depression. Link to Abstract

Contingent incentives reduce cigarette smoking among pregnant, methadone-maintained women: results of an initial feasibility and efficacy randomized clinical trial

Cigarette smoking may be reduced significantly among pregnant, methadone-maintained women by providing incentives for gradual reductions in breath carbon monoxide levels. Link to Abstract

German medical students lack knowledge of how to treat smoking and problem drinking

German medical students receive little training on the treatment of alcohol use disorders and smoking. Link to Abstract

September 2012

Diminished aversive classical conditioning in pathological gamblers

Pathological gamblers may have greater difficulty than others in learning from unpleasant experiences. So they may be less likely to learn from the experience of losing when they bet. Link to Abstract

Predictors of the 2-year recurrence and persistence of alcohol dependence

Among people with alcohol-dependence, the severity of the baseline alcohol problem predicts both the recurrence and persistence of dependence while the severity of their symptoms of depression or anxiety predicts the recurrence of alcohol dependence but not severity. Link to Abstract

Involvement of general practitioners in managing alcohol problems: a randomized controlled trial of a tailored improvement programme

Tailored, multi-faceted programmes aimed at improving general practitioners' management of patients' drinking are difficult to implement and do not show an effect on practitioners' rates of screening or advising their patients on alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Associations between self-reported illness and non-drinking in young adults

Young adults with long-standing illnesses that limit their activities are more likely to be non-drinkers. So part of the link between non-drinking and health problems later in life may be due to people with health problems being less likely to take up drinking rather than moderate drinking being beneficial to health. Link to Abstract

Defining dosing pattern characteristics of successful tapers following methadone maintenance treatment: results from a population-based retrospective cohort study

Very few patients who try to taper off from methadone maintenance treatment succeed. Success is more likely when patients combine tapering with periods of stable methadone use. Link to Abstract

Use of a 'microecological technique' to study crime incidents around methadone maintenance treatment centers

Crime rates are not higher in the vicinity of methadone treatment centres. Link to Abstract

Misconceptions predict dropout and poor adherence prospectively among newly admitted first-time methadone maintenance treatment clients in Guangzhou, China

Misconceptions about methadone are common among opiate addicts in China who are prescribed methadone maintenance therapy for the first time. These misconceptions are associated with poor adherence to the treatment regime and a high rate of dropout. Link to Abstract

Combining cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management to enhance their effects in treating cannabis dependence: less can be more, more or less

A cannabis dependence programme that combines contingency management (CM), which rewards abstinence, and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), which builds skills for maintaining abstinence, does not appear to be more successful than a program that offers only CM or CBT. Link to Abstract

Childhood and adolescent psychopathology and subsequent tobacco smoking in young adults: findings from an Australian birth cohort

Children and adolescents who exhibit aggression, delinquency, and attention problems are more likely to become smokers, while those with anxiety and depression are less likely to become smokers. Link to Abstract

Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational group

Italy's 2005 smoke-free policy did not appear to have a long-term effect on smoking prevalence. Link to Abstract

Evaluation of a drop-in rolling-group model of support to stop smoking

State-funded treatment to help smokers to quit, in very low income areas, can have a substantial reach. Success rates are lower than is typically found in randomised trials but higher than would be expected for smokers trying to stop by themselves. Link to Abstract

Genetic influences on developmental smoking trajectories

Compared with environmental factors, genetic factors play a larger role in the way smoking patterns develop in adolescence. Link to Abstract

Assessment of generalizability, applicability and predictability (GAP) for evaluating external validity in studies of universal family-based prevention of alcohol misuse in young people

Studies evaluating family-based prevention of alcohol misuse in young people often don't include enough information to assess how far the results generalise beyond the study sample. Link to Abstract

August 2012

Clinical correlates of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use: a systematic review

Cannabis users who also smoke tobacco are more dependent on cannabis, have more psychosocial problems, and find it harder to quit using cannabis, compared with cannabis users who do not use tobacco. Link to Abstract

Implicit and explicit alcohol cognitions and observed alcohol consumption: three studies in (semi)naturalistic drinking settings

Among college students drinking with their peers, unconscious positive perceptions about alcohol do not increase drinking. But conscious positive beliefs, like 'drinking is pleasant' or 'drinking increases happiness', do seem to cause increased drinking. Link to Abstract

Identification of behaviour change techniques to reduce excessive alcohol consumption

The most effective piece of advice a doctor can give to a heavy drinker is to encourage the patient to monitor his or her alcohol consumption, typically by keeping a daily record. Link to Abstract

Prevalence and correlates of alcohol use disorders in the Singapore Mental Health Survey

Prevalence of alcohol use disorders, such as alcohol dependence and harmful use, is low in Singapore. But those with alcohol use disorders also have higher odds of depression, nicotine dependence, gastric ulcers, respiratory problems, and chronic pain. Link to Abstract

Women ending marriage to a problem drinking partner decrease their own risk for problem drinking

Women who end marriages to husbands who are problem drinkers may decrease their own risk of alcohol-related problems. Link to Abstract

Health-care service utilization in substance abusers receiving contingency management and standard care treatments

People who start outpatient substance abuse treatment increase their use of general health-care services. Link to Abstract

Assessment of exposure to drugs of abuse during pregnancy by hair analysis in a Mediterranean island

Pregnant women living in Ibiza substantially under-report their illicit drug use. Under-reporting is particularly strong among Spanish nationals. Link to Abstract

Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study

Newborn infants whose mothers are on methadone maintenance treatment during pregnancy are likely to spend less time hospitalized in neonatal units compared with infants whose mothers also use opiates, benzodiazepine, or cocaine during pregnancy. Link to Abstract

Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette

Electronic cigarettes can reduce cravings for traditional cigarettes and appear to have lower potential for abuse compared with traditional cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Comparative dynamics of four smoking withdrawal symptom scales

The urge to smoke is strongly connected with relapse in the first week of quitting smoking. Other withdrawal symptoms such as mood disturbance appear to play on a minor role. Link to Abstract

Preferences for evidence-based practice dissemination in addiction agencies serving women: a discrete-choice conjoint experiment

Clinicians and administrators are more likely to adopt evidence-based practice for treating addiction if the practice is seen as helpful to clients and if it is supported by their co-workers and administrators. Link to Abstract

July 2012

Time pattern of reduction in risk of oesophageal cancer following alcohol cessation--a meta-analysis

Although drinking alcohol increases the risk of cancer of the oesophagus, quitting drinking reduces the risk over time. Link to Abstract

The cardioprotective association of average alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Although low to moderate drinking offers some protection against heart disease, the size of the benefit varies across drinkers. Link to Abstract

Multi-level analysis of alcohol-related injury and drinking pattern: emergency department data from 19 countries

The rate of alcohol-related injuries is higher among people who frequently drink heavily or have occasional heavy-drinking episodes. Link to Abstract

Does alcohol consumption really affect asymmetry perception? A three-armed placebo-controlled experimental study

People under the influence of alcohol are less able to perceive facial assymmetry, a trait associated with physical unattractiveness. Link to Abstract

Beer a no-go: learning to stop responding to alcohol cues reduces alcohol intake

Training people to control the impulse to drink triggered by alcohol-related stimuli (e.g., pictures of beer) reduces excessive drinking by lowering people's implicit positive attitudes towards alcohol Link to Abstract

Co-occurrence of sexual risk behaviors and substance use across emerging adulthood: evidence for state- and trait-level associations

High-risk sexual behaviors during young adulthood seem to be driven both by individual traits, such as sensation seeking or impulsivity, and the state of intoxication brought about by alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Topiramate for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction: a multi-center placebo-controlled trial

The anti-epilepsy drug Topiramate does not help current methamphetamine users to quit but can lower relapse rates among individuals who have already quit using the drug. Link to Abstract

Does smoking cannabis affect work commitment?

The use of cannabis is linked to a reduction in work commitment among adults in Norway. Link to Abstract

The rising prevalence of prescription opioid injection and its association with hepatitis C incidence among street-drug users

The rapidly increasing number of prescription opioid injectors are at high risk for contracting Hepatitis C. Link to Abstract

What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand

A significant minority of menthol cigarettes smokers in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if menthol cigarettes were banned. Link to Abstract

Prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy to cardiovascular disease patients in England

A policy of making nicotine replacement therapy prescribable to patients with cardiovascular disease does not increase prescribing rates among those patients. Link to Abstract

Continuing to wear nicotine patches after smoking lapses promotes recovery of abstinence

Nicotine patches help quitting smokers recover from smoking lapses. Link to Abstract

Predictors of successful short-term tobacco cessation in UK resident female Bangladeshi tobacco chewers

Bangladeshi women in the UK who chew paan with tobacco are more likely to quit if they use nicotine replacement therapy, have relatively low levels of social deprivation and are recruited via the community rather than via primary care practices. Link to Abstract

June 2012

Meta-Analysis of Hepatitis C Seroconversion in Relation to Shared Syringes and Drug Preparation Equipment

People who share drug-preparation equipment have the same risk of Hepatitis C infection as people who share needles. Link to Abstract

Brief opportunistic smoking cessation interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare advice to quit and offer of assistance

Doctors may be more effective in getting their patients to stop smoking by offering assistance to all smokers rather than by advising all smokers to quit and offering assistance only to those who say they want to quit. Link to Abstract

Interactive effects of approach motivational intensity and alcohol cues on the scope of perceptual attention

Showing alcohol-related images to people who are strongly motivated to drink prompts them to focus on the images and ignore peripheral information. It is thus possible that alcohol cues, such as advertisements for alcoholic beverages, can produce a narrow, alcohol-focused mindset that leads to drinking. Link to Abstract

Social demography of alcohol-related harm to children in Australia

In Australia, almost 25% of parents and other child carers report that a child for whom they were responsible has been adversely affected by someone's alcohol consumption in the past year. Link to Abstract

Venous access and care: harnessing pragmatics in harm reduction for people who inject drugs

Focusing on the immediate priorities of people who inject drugs, such as improving access to injectable veins and minimizing the pain and length of injection time, can re-engage injectors who are jaded or confused by hepatitis C prevention messages. Link to Abstract

Collaborative behavioral management among parolees: drug use, crime and re-arrest in the Step\'n Out randomized trial

Collaborative behavioral management, which offers incentives for good behavior, may reduce substance use among prison parolees who primarily use marijuana or other 'non-hard' drugs without increasing the number of reincarcerations. Link to Abstract

Harm reduction interventions for drug injectors or heroin users in Spain: expanding coverage as the storm abates

Spain's expansion of harm reduction services in response to a national epidemic in heroin and injecting drug use was greatly delayed. Medium-level coverage for needle exchange programs and opioid substitution treatment did not occur until 8 years after peak need. Link to Abstract

Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis ...

Among cannabis users in Denmark, self-reported cannabis use using the timeline follow-back technique (which uses a visual calendar to enhance recall) is as accurate as blood sampling in determining cannabis consumption. Link to Abstract

Increased incidence of QT interval prolongation in a population receiving lower doses of methadone maintenance therapy

Patients on low daily doses of methadone may show a tendency to prolonged QT intervals, a risk factor for irregular heartbeats and fatal heart attacks. Link to Abstract

Influence of acute bupropion pre-treatment on the effects of intranasal cocaine

The atypical antidepressant bupropion appears to blunt the preference for cocaine over monetary reward but increases how much enjoyment is derived from it. Link to Abstract

Brief motivational feedback and cognitive behavioral interventions for prevention of disordered gambling: a randomized clinical trial

One session of personalized feedback combined with 4-6 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy may help to reduce compulsive and problem gambling among US college students. Link to Abstract

Do larger pictorial health warnings diminish the need for plain packaging of cigarettes?

Plain packaging is probably more effective than larger health warnings in undermining the appeal of cigarette brands and reducing intention to buy cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Associations between maternal stress and smoking: findings from a population-based prospective cohort study

In women who stop smoking during pregnancy, anxiety and depression may be a factor in resumption of smoking both during and after pregnancy. Link to Abstract

Linking substance use with symptoms of subclinical psychosis in a community cohort over 30 years

Excessive cannabis and multi-drug use in adolescence is associated with psychotic experiences in adulthood. Link to Abstract

May 2012

What is the difference between dependence and withdrawal reactions? A comparison of benzodiazepines and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors

Withdrawal reactions to selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs, used as antidepressants) appear similar to those for benzodiazepines. There is therefore no basis for claiming that benzodiazepines cause dependence while SSRIs do not. Link to Abstract

Does minimum pricing reduce alcohol consumption? The experience of a Canadian province

Increasing the minimum price of alcohol can substantially reduce alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Individual psychomotor impairment in relation to zopiclone and ethanol concentrations in blood - a randomized controlled double-blinded trial

Zopiclone, a hypnotic agent used to treat insomnia, can impair psychomotor performance at blood concentrations as low as16 µg/l. Link to Abstract

Twelve-Step attendance trajectories over 7 years among adolescents entering substance use treatment in an integrated health plan

Over a 7-year period, US adolescents with substance abuse disorders who continued to attend 12-step meetings such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous were more likely to stay off alcohol and drugs than those who did not. Link to Abstract

Randomized trial of standard methadone treatment compared to initiating methadone without counseling: 12-month findings

Drug counseling in the first 4 months of treatment is not essential to a achieve benefit from supervised methadone treatment in adults dependent on heroin. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for illicit drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in clients ...

A brief intervention for illicit drug use that is linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is effective, at least in the short term, in Australia, Brazil and India. Link to Abstract

An increased risk of motor vehicle accidents after prescription of methadone

In Norway, men on methadone maintenance treatment appear to have an increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle accidents involving personal injuries compared with men in the general population. Link to Abstract

Abstinence-contingent recovery housing and reinforcement-based treatment following opioid detoxification

People with substance use disorders are more likely to stay off drugs when they have access to drug-free recovery housing and day-treatment programs following detox. Link to Abstract

Smokeless tobacco use related to military deployment, cigarettes and mental health symptoms in a large, prospective cohort study among US service members

Members of the US military service increase their probability of taking up smokeless tobacco when they are deployed, exposed to combat, show symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, start smoking, or return to smoking after quitting. Link to Abstract

Very low rate and light smokers: smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour in England, 2006-11

In England, very low rate smokers (fewer than one cigarette per day) and light smokers (one to nine cigarettes per day) are at least as motivated to quit as heavier smokers. Although very low rate and light smokers are less likely to use prescription medication to help them stop smoking and are more likely to quit successfully, they still fail in quit attempts to a substantial degree. Link to Abstract

Effects of measurement methods on the relationship between smoking and delay reward discounting

Compared with non-smokers, smokers have a greater preference for small, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards. This observation holds true over several methods of measuring this preference. Link to Abstract

April 2012

Interventions to prevent substance use and risky sexual behaviour in young people: a systematic review

There is limited evidence that programs designed to reduce both substance use and sexual risk in school children are effective. The most promising programs address several levels that influence risk behaviour (i.e., individual and peer, family, school, and community). Link to Abstract

Changes in sobriety in the Swedish population over three decades: age, period or cohort effects?

The proportion of people in Sweden who never drink alcohol has increased from 1968 to 2000 primarily because each successive group has more teetotalers, not because people tend to stop drinking as they get older. Link to Abstract

Age and ethnic differences in the onset, persistence and recurrence of alcohol use disorder

Compared with young white men, US-born Hispanics aged 40+ years have a higher risk of developing alcohol use disorder and all younger minority men have an increased risk of developing alcohol dependence. Compared with young white women, older black women and US-born Hispanics have a higher risk of developing alcohol use disorder and alcohol dependence. Link to Abstract

Scheduling of newly emerging drugs: a critical review of decisions over 40 years

In the USA, no more than 7 scheduling decisions with respect to the 63 substances studied might be considered errors, and results for other countries are broadly similar. Link to Abstract

Use of other opioids during methadone therapy: a population-based study

Many patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Ontario, Canada receive overlapping prescriptions for other opioids such as codeine and oxycodone. Many prescriptions may reflect deceitful drug-seeking behavior, either for personal use or for sale to others. Link to Abstract

Comparison of intranasal methamphetamine and d-amphetamine self-administration by humans

It appears that d-amphetamine, a frequently prescribed medication, has a similar potential for abuse as methamphetamine. Link to Abstract

Cognitive and subjective effects of mephedrone and factors influencing use of a 'new legal high'

Despite the health risks, young people who continued to use mephedrone after it became illegal would try a new legal high if it were pure and rated highly by their friends or on the Internet. Link to Abstract

Would vaccination against nicotine be a cost-effective way to prevent smoking uptake in adolescents?

A preventive nicotine vaccination program is unlikely to be a cost-effective way to stop adolescents from becoming smokers. Link to Abstract

Greater prevalence of proposed DSM-5 nicotine use disorder compared to DSM-IV nicotine dependence in treated adolescents and young adults

Proposed changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders would increase the number of young people diagnosed with nicotine use disorder (called 'nicotine dependence' under the current DSM) despite no changes in their smoking habits and would introduce potentially problematic new criteria for diagnosis. Link to Abstract

Academic achievement and smoking initiation in adolescence: a general growth mixture analysis

Adolescents who do well in school are less likely to smoke, suggesting that it would be cost-effective to focus smoking prevention activities on the unstable low achievers who are more likely to begin smoking at an early age. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of stage-matched intervention for smoking cessation in cardiac out-patients

An intervention based on the Stages of Change model to promote smoking cessation in cardiac patients in China was not effective beyond one year. Link to Abstract

Young people\'s beliefs about the harmfulness of alcohol, cannabis and tobacco for mental disorders: findings from two Australian national youth surveys

In Australia, most people aged 15 to 25 are aware that substance use has a negative impact on mental disorders, but a few high-risk groups remain, including males, young adults (18 to 25) of both sexes, and young people with high levels of psychological distress. Link to Abstract

March 2012

How much unsuccessful quitting activity is going on among adult smokers? Data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country cohort survey

Smokers think a lot about quitting and make many unsuccessful attempts to quit, relapsing even after extended periods of nonsmoking. It's important to find ways to translate efforts to quit into long-term abstinence. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of tobacco control policies in Vietnam: the case of personal smoking cessation support

Brief advice from physicians is a cost-effective intervention for tobacco control in Vietnam. Pharmacological therapies are not cost-effective at current prices. Link to Abstract

Evidence of increasing age of onset of cannabis use among younger Australians

Cannabis use has declined in Australia since 1998 and the age of first use among those under 20 has increased. Link to Abstract

Impact of in-patient research participation on subsequent heroin use patterns: implications for ethics and public health

Drug users who voluntarily take drugs as participants in research projects do not show subsequent increased heroin use. Some research participants go on to enter treatment and stop heroin use in the short term. Link to Abstract

Eating patterns among heroin users: a qualitative study with implications for nutritional interventions

Heroin users have dysfunctional eating patterns that are amenable to improvement with help. Link to Abstract

Deep brain stimulation compared with methadone maintenance for the treatment of heroin dependence: a threshold and cost-effectiveness analysis

When deep brain stimulation produces 49% of patients remaining heroin-free after 6 months of treatment, it is as cost effective as methadone maintenance treatment in treating opiate addiction. Link to Abstract

The effect of hepatitis C treatment and HIV coinfection on the disease burden of hepatitis C among injecting drug users in Amsterdam

A high mortality rate, particularly caused by HIV infection, has reduced hepatitis C among injecting drug users in Amsterdam. Link to Abstract

Drug use in rural China: A preliminary investigation in Hunan Province

Drug abuse is a substantial problem in both urban and rural areas in China. Link to Abstract

Psychiatric comorbidity and the persistence of drug use disorders in the United States

People with antisocial, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders tend to maintain drug use disorders over a three-year period. Link to Abstract

Transition from first illicit drug use to first injection drug use among rural Appalachian drug users: a cross-sectional comparison and retrospective survival analysis

In Appalachia, in the United States, the prescription opioid OxyContin® is widely used non-medically and users show a higher risk of rapid transition to injection drug use compared with the use of other illicit drugs. Link to Abstract

Seeking Safety Treatment for Male Veterans with a Substance Use Disorder and PTSD Symptomatology

'Seeking Safety', a manualised treatment approach for substance use disorder, shows better drug use outcomes than 'treatment as usual′ in male veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Link to Abstract

The relationship between childhood depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early adolescence: findings from a large longitudinal population-based study. Alcohol problems in depressed boys a

In the UK, problematic alcohol use in girls (but not boys) is associated with prior depressive symptoms. This association may be caused by family and social factors. Link to Abstract

Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music

One in five songs sampled from US popular music has explicit references to alcohol, and one-quarter of these mention a specific alcohol brand. Specific alcohol brand mentions involve a luxury life-style characterized by wealth, sex, partying, and other drugs. Link to Abstract

The association between the incidence of emergency department attendances for alcohol problems and assault incidents attended by police in New South Wales, Australia, 2003-08: a time-series analysis

In Australia, there is a clear short-term temporal relationship between emergency department attendances for acute alcohol problems and assaults reported to police. Link to Abstract

Relationship between personality change and the onset and course of alcohol dependence in young adulthood

Young people who show behavioral disinhibition and negative emotionality before they start using alcohol have an increased risk of developing alcohol use disorders. Development of an alcohol use disorder affects the rate of personality change during emerging adulthood. Link to Abstract

The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities

In Norway, each additional one-hour extension to the opening times of premises selling alcohol is associated with a 16% increase in violent crime. Link to Abstract

Trends in adolescent alcohol use: effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

In the Netherlands, alcohol initiation, frequency, and quantity have increased among adolescents over a 15-year period, but there are no changes in the genetic basis of adolescent alcohol use. Link to Abstract

The effectiveness of opioid maintenance treatment in prison settings: a systematic review

Benefits of opioid maintenance treatment in prison include recruiting problem opioid users into treatment, reducing illicit opioid use and risky behaviours, allowing continuity of treatment as people enter and leave prison, and possibly minimising overdose risks upon release. Link to Abstract

February 2012

A damage/benefit evaluation of addictive product use

When asked for their opinions of the net societal harm caused by major addictive products, French addiction experts appeared to assign more weight to the products' benefits than to their harms. Link to Abstract

Do components of current "hardcore smoker" definitions predict quitting behaviour?

'Hardcore' smoking seems to involve both low motivation to quit and high nicotine dependence. Motivational factors, such as the intention to quit and previous quit attempts, best predict whether a smoker will try to quit in the first place. Measures of sm Link to Abstract

The association between exposure to point-of-sale anti-smoking warnings and smokers' interest in quitting and quit attempts: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

Point-of-sale health warnings about tobacco are more prominent in Australia than the USA, UK, or Canada and appear to have some effect in prompting people decide to quit smoking. Link to Abstract

Delay Discounting by Adolescents Experimenting with Cigarette Smoking

Like regular smokers, and unlike non-smokers, young people who experiment with cigarettes tend to prefer small immediate rewards over large delayed rewards. Link to Abstract

The effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Findings from the Netherlands SimSmoke Tobacco Control Policy Simulation Model

According to a simulation model, in the Netherlands, smoking and smoking-related deaths can be reduced through tax increases, smoke-free legislation, high-intensity media campaigns, stronger advertising bans and health warnings, comprehensive cessation treatment, and youth access laws. Link to Abstract

Examining the predictive validity of low-risk gambling limits with longitudinal data

As may be expected, low-risk gamblers who shift to high-risk gambling are subsequently more likely to experience future gambling-related harms than those who remain low-risk. Link to Abstract

Engagement with opioid maintenance treatment and reductions in crime: a longitudinal national cohort study

Norwegians who are in opioid maintenance treatment appear to commit fewer crimes than when they are not. Link to Abstract

The effect of methadone on emotional reactivity

Methadone use may blunt emotional responses. Link to Abstract

Cannabis use and subclinical positive psychotic experiences in early adolescence: findings from a Dutch survey

Among Dutch school students, there is an association between cannabis use at an early age and psychotic experiences, even after they report having not used cannabis for at least a year. Link to Abstract

Effect of prison-based opioid substitution treatment and post-release retention in treatment on risk of re-incarceration

In New South Wales, Australia, opioid substitution treatment after release from prison appears to have reduced the average risk of being sent back to prison by one-fifth. Link to Abstract

Double-blind placebo-controlled evaluation of the PROMETA™ protocol for methamphetamine dependence

The PROMETA protocol is no more effective than placebo in reducing methamphetamine use, keeping patients in treatment, or reducing methamphetamine cravings. Link to Abstract

Factors associated with injection cessation, relapse and initiation in a community-based cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India

Injection drug users in southern India demonstrate a high rate of quitting, but relapse is common and quitting often coincides with an increase in alcohol use. Link to Abstract

A longitudinal study of substance use and violent victimization in adulthood among a cohort of urban African Americans

Among African Americans, violent victimization appears to drive substance use. African Americans who are not raised in extreme poverty are the most negatively affected by violence. Link to Abstract

Age differences in diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV alcohol dependence among adults with similar drinking behaviour

For a given amount of alcohol consumed, young drinkers are more likely to show alcohol tolerance, drink more than intended, and spend time getting, drinking, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. Older drinkers are more likely to experience alcohol withdrawal symptoms Link to Abstract

Subjective measures of binge drinking and alcohol-specific adverse health outcomes: a prospective cohort study

Drinkers' own reports of being intoxicated, having hangovers and passing out appear to be useful in identifying drinkers at risk for later health problems caused by drinking. Link to Abstract

The relation between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and age of onset of alcohol use

Adolescents who begin drinking at an early age appear to show reduced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress. Link to Abstract

Does sponsorship improve outcomes above Alcoholics Anonymous attendance? A latent class growth curve analyses

Any pattern of AA attendance, even if it declines or is never high for a particular 12-month period, is better than little or no attendance in terms of helping maintain abstinence. Keeping a sponsor over a period of time raises the attendance benefit. Link to Abstract

Determining the relative importance of the mechanisms of behavior change within Alcoholics Anonymous: a multiple mediator analysis

Alcoholics Anonymous helps people recover at least in part by changing its members' social networks and boosting self-belief in high risk social contexts. Link to Abstract

Psychosocial therapeutic interventions for volatile substance use: a systematic review

There are no proven treatments to help people stop volatile substance use but three types of intervention merit further study: family therapy, activity-based programmes and some residential approaches. Link to Abstract

January 2012

Mortality among Substance-using Mothers in California: A 10-year Prospective Study

In the United States, substance-using mothers have 8.4 times the mortality of non-substance-using women because of more severe problems of employment, physical health, and psychiatric health. Link to Abstract

Psychological dysregulation, white matter disorganization and substance use disorders in adolescence

In adolescents, substance use disorder and psychological dysregulation appear to be associated with reduced frontoparietal network white matter maturation, which is commonly found among adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. Link to Abstract

Cessation assistance reported by smokers in 15 countries participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) policy evaluation surveys

There is wide variation across countries in rates of attempts to stop smoking and use of assistance to quit, with medication being more popular than behavioural support. Link to Abstract

Cigarette price, affordability and smoking prevalence in the European Union

Higher cost of smoking does not appear to have affected smoking prevalence in the European Union in recent years. Link to Abstract

Genetic variants in the serotonin transporter influence the efficacy of bupropion and nortriptyline in smoking cessation

In the Netherlands, antidepressant therapy seems to be more effective in aiding smoking cessation among people with high-activity variants of a gene that promotes release of serotonin. Link to Abstract

The association between seeing retail displays of tobacco and tobacco smoking and purchase: findings from a diary style survey

Among Australian smokers, exposure to retail displays of tobacco increases the probability of smoking and leads to higher levels of smoking. Link to Abstract

Childhood impulsive behaviour and problem gambling by adulthood: A 30-year prospective community-based study

Children who exhibit impulsive behaviour at age seven are more likely to report problem gambling in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Positive impact of HCV treatment on ART adherence in HIV-HCV coinfected patients: one more argument for expanded access to HCV treatment for IDUs

People who are co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis C who also engage in treatment for Hepatitis C show high adherence to anti-retroviral treatment for HIV. Link to Abstract

A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Acceptability and Safety Study of Direct Buprenorphine/Naloxone Induction in Heroin-Dependent Individuals

Direct buprenorphine/naloxone (BNX) induction is a safe and effective strategy for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Link to Abstract

Sertraline Delays Relapse in Recently Abstinent Cocaine-Dependent Patients with Depressive Symptoms

Cocaine-dependent patients who achieve at least two weeks of abstinence and are then given sertraline take longer to relapse than similar patients given placebo. Link to Abstract

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among pregnant women using injecting drugs in Ukraine, 2000-2010

Pregnant HIV-infected injecting drug users (IDUs) in Ukraine have worse clinical status, poorer access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), more adverse pregnancy outcomes, and higher risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) than Ukrainian women who do not inject drugs. Link to Abstract

Women's Alcohol Consumption and Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in Russia

Russian women substantially reduce drinking after they know they are pregnant. Russian women who know they might become pregnant or are trying to conceive show no reductions in drinking prior to knowing they have become pregnant. Link to Abstract

Alcohol consumption, problem drinking, abstention and disability pension award. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

In Norway, problem drinkers and those who do not drink alcohol at all are at increased risk of eventually needing disability pensions. Link to Abstract

IQ in adolescence and later risk of alcohol-related hospital admissions and deaths - 37 year follow-up of Swedish conscripts

In Swedish men there is an association between low IQ measured in adolescence and later risk of alcohol-related disease and death Link to Abstract

Working hours and alcohol problems in early adulthood

In New Zealand, longer work hours appear to be associated with higher rates of alcohol-related problems, including more frequent alcohol use, higher rates of alcohol abuse/dependence, and a greater number of alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Link to Abstract

Alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and subsequent problems among adolescents in 23 European countries: does the prevention paradox apply?

The prevention paradox, which holds that a majority of alcohol-related problems in a population can be attributed to low and moderate drinkers, seems to be valid among adolescent European boys and girls. Link to Abstract

The Distribution of Alcohol Consumption and the Prevention Paradox in Brazil

Most drinking problems in Brazil are associated with low or moderate drinkers. Binge drinking better accounts for the distribution of alcohol problems than total volume consumed. Link to Abstract

Alcohol consumption and the intention to engage in unprotected sex: systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

Alcohol consumption increases a person's intention to have unsafe sex. Link to Abstract

The Effectiveness of Interventions for Reducing Stigma Related to Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review

Stigma associated with substance use disorder can be reduced by a range of interventions including Acceptance Commitment Therapy and communicating positive stories of people with this disorder. Link to Abstract

Ketamine use: a review

Chronic, frequent use of ketamine is associated with ulcerative cystitis, neurocognitive impairment, and deficits in working and episodic memory. Link to Abstract

December 2011

A randomized experiment to examine unintended consequences of dietary supplement use among daily smokers: taking supplements reduces self-regulation of smoking

The use of dietary supplements may lead smokers to smoke more cigarettes under the false belief that the vitamins mitigate the risk. Link to Abstract

'Closet' quit attempts: prevalence, correlates and association with outcome

Keeping quiet about the fact that one is trying to stop smoking is very common and does not appear to hinder the chances of success. Link to Abstract

Impact of the removal of misleading terms on cigarette pack on smokers' beliefs about 'light/mild' cigarettes: cross-country comparisons

Despite the removal of "light/mild" labels from cigarette packaging, alternative labels such as "smooth" and "fine" and design features such as lighter colours are enough to maintain the belief that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular ones. Link to Abstract

Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort

Stopping regular cannabis use appears to improve the ability to remember information that has just been learned. Link to Abstract

The increasing mortality burden of liver disease among opioid-dependent people: cohort study

In the 30 years since first entering treatment, liver disease has been found to be the most common cause of death among opioid-dependent people in Australia. Link to Abstract

Co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance use disorder in the general population

Individuals diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder are more likely to suffer from substance use disorder than those diagnosed with non-obsessive-compulsive psychological disorders; this is particularly true of men. Link to Abstract

Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, decreases in impulsivity and drinking and psychosocial outcomes over 16 years: moderated-mediation from a developmental perspective

Among people attending Alcoholics Anonymous, a decrease in impulsivity is associated with fewer alcohol-related problems. Link to Abstract

Treatment outcomes of a stage 1 cognitive-behavioral trial to reduce alcohol use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected out-patients in western Kenya

Cognitive-behavioural therapy, delivered by paraprofessional counsellors, appears to be effective in reducing alcohol use among HIV- infected Kenyan out-patients. Link to Abstract

Non-medical prescription use increases the risk for the onset and recurrence of psychopathology: results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

The non-medical use of prescription medications that affect the central nervous system increases the risk for the onset and recurrence of psychopathology. Link to Abstract

The Örebro prevention programme revisited: a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of programme effects on youth drinking

The "Örebro prevention programme", as currently delivered in Sweden, does not appear to reduce or delay youth drunkenness. Link to Abstract

Reducing the legal blood alcohol concentration limit for driving in developing countries: a time for change? Results and implications derived from a time-series analysis (2001-10) conducted in Brazil&

When Brazil reduced the legal limit for blood alcohol when driving it reduced the numbers of deaths caused by traffic accidents Link to Abstract

November 2011

The timing of smoking onset, prolonged abstinence and relapse in men: a prospective study from ages 18 to 32 years 

Even after long periods of abstinence from smoking, relapses continue to erode quit success. Starting to smoke early in adolescence appears to be linked to lower likelihood of quitting later in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacy

E-cigarettes are used both as an aid to reducing and quitting smoking and by former smokers to avoid relapse, in much the same way that people use nicotine replacement therapy. Link to Abstract

Planned quit attempts among Ontario smokers: impact on abstinence

Among smokers in Ontario, most quit attempts are planned and planners are more likely to use quit aids; however, planning does not appear to increase the likelihood of success. Link to Abstract

Long-term effects of a community-based intervention: 5-year follow-up of 'Clubs against Drugs'

The 'Clubs against Drugs' community-based intervention programme, a systems approach to prevention, appears to increase the frequency and effectiveness of club doormen's interventions to tackle obviously drug-intoxicated guests.  Link to Abstract

Mephedrone: use, subjective effects and health risks

Mephedrone has a high abuse and health risk liability, with increased tolerance, impaired control and a compulsion to use being the predominant reported dependence symptoms. Link to Abstract

The impact of needle and syringe provision and opiate substitution therapy on the incidence of hepatitis C virus in injecting drug users: pooling of UK evidence

In the UK, opiate substitution therapy and a high coverage of needle and syringe programmes appears to have substantially reduced the risk of hepatitis C virus transmission among injecting drug users. Link to Abstract

The effect of neighborhood deprivation and residential relocation on long-term injection cessation among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, Maryland

Living in a deprived neighbourhood appears to undermine attempts to stop injecting illicit drugs. Relocating out of these neighbourhoods appears to be helpful in promoting behaviour change. Link to Abstract

The role of alcohol in the Russian mortality crisis

Much of the 1990 to 1994 rise in Russian mortality appears to have been due to the increase in population alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Drinking behaviour among men and women in China: the 2007 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance

Excessive drinking, frequent drinking and binge drinking behaviour have reached epidemic proportions among current drinkers in China. Link to Abstract

DSM-IV to DSM-5: the impact of proposed revisions on diagnosis of alcohol use disorders

The proposed DSM-5 revisions to diagnosis of alcohol use disorders would exclude as cases individuals who drink at hazardous levels but show no other signs of dependence or alcohol problems but include individuals with relatively low levels of dependence Link to Abstract

Housewife or working mum--each to her own? The relevance of societal factors in the association between social roles and alcohol use among mothers in 16 industrialized countries

In countries with relatively high gender-income equality, the combination of motherhood, paid labour and partnership appears to be associated with decreased alcohol consumption; in countries with lower gender-income equality, this role combination does not appear to have the same effect. Link to Abstract

October 2011

Substance use and exercise participation among young adults: parallel trajectories in a national cohort-sequential study

Increased participation in sports, athletics or exercising is related to significantly lower substance use at age 18 and into early adulthood. Link to Abstract

Examining gender differences in emerging tobacco use using the adolescents' need for smoking scale

Canadian girls score higher than boys on measures of emotional dependence and social attitudes associated with tobacco smoking. Link to Abstract

The dynamics of the urge-to-smoke following smoking cessation via pharmacotherapy

The chances of success of quit attempts appear to be influenced not only by the strength of urges to smoke but by the way that they change over time Link to Abstract

The impact of the introduction of smoke-free legislation on prescribing of stop-smoking medications in England

While prescriptions of all smoking cessation medications in England increased in the months leading up to the introduction of smoke-free legislation, this increase was not sustained afterwards. Link to Abstract

Cost effectiveness of interventions to reduce relapse to smoking following smoking cessation

Treatments aimed at preventing relapse to smoking after a quit attempt (such as nicotine replacement therapy) appear cost effective when used in routine clinical care. Link to Abstract

Cocaine-related attentional bias following trauma cue exposure among cocaine dependent in-patients with and without post-traumatic stress disorder

Cocaine appears to serve an emotion-regulating function among post-traumatic stress disorder patients. Link to Abstract

Effects of a randomized contingency management intervention on opiate abstinence and retention in methadone maintenance treatment in China

In China, "contingency management" - the use of motivational incentives - appears to improve opiate abstinence and treatment retention in methadone maintenance treatment clinics. Link to Abstract

The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976-2007

Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Link to Abstract

Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiate users with concurrent sexual partnerships: an egocentric network study in Yunnan, China

In China, concurrent sexual partnerships are common among both injection drug users and non-injection drug users; these concurrent sexual partnerships may serve as a bridging group to transmit HIV from high-risk populations to the general population. Link to Abstract

Access to alcohol outlets and harmful alcohol consumption: a multi-level study in Melbourne, Australia

In Australia, an increased number of off-premises alcohol outlets in an area is associated with a greater risk of harmful alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Extended telephone-based continuing care for alcohol dependence: 24-month outcomes and subgroup analyses

The benefits of an extended telephone-based continuing care programme to treat alcohol dependence did not persist after the end of the intervention. Link to Abstract

Brief interventions in routine health care: a population-based study of conversations about alcohol in Sweden

In Sweden, brief interventions to reduce alcohol consumption are more effective when conversations with health-care professionals are longer and include advice on how to cut down on drinking. Link to Abstract

September 2011

Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention: cluster randomized clinical trial (ISTAPS study) 

In primary care settings, a "stepped" smoking cessation intervention appears to significantly increase smoking abstinence, compared with a brief intervention. Link to Abstract

Australian smokers' and recent quitters' responses to the increasing price of cigarettes in the context of a tobacco tax increase

In Australia, an increase in cigarette prices does not appear to result in smokers moving to cheaper cigarette products. Instead, the majority of smokers indicate a positive change in their smoking-related thoughts and behaviours as a result of the prices increase. Link to Abstract

Nicotine dependence, abuse and craving: dimensionality in an Israeli sample

The various criteria conventionally applied to define dependence on nicotine, such as craving and experience of withdrawal symptoms, appear to be sufficiently closely related to each other as to be regarded as a single underlying condition that varies in severity. Link to Abstract

Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

Heavy cannabis users appear to have an automatically triggered tendency to approach rather than avoid cannabis-related stimuli; those with stronger tendencies to approach are more likely to increase cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Age moderates non-genetic influences on the initiation of cannabis use: a twin-sibling study in Dutch adolescents and young adults

Familial similarities in the initiation of cannabis use appear to be influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, with the influence of environmental factors increasing - and genetic factors decreasing - from early adolescence to young adulthood. Link to Abstract

Physical and mental health in severe opioid-dependent patients within a randomized controlled maintenance treatment trial

Both heroin-assisted and methadone maintenance treatments appear to improve physical and mental health among severe opioid-dependent patients, with heroin-assisted treatment producing the best results. Link to Abstract

Cannabis and social welfare assistance: a longitudinal study

In Norway, the use of cannabis is linked with subsequent receipt of social welfare assistance, although it is unclear whether this welfare assistance is a consequence of cannabis use or of cultural factors and the illegal status of the cannabis. Link to Abstract

Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey

In Australia, alcohol use at work appears to be widespread, with more than one in twenty workers admitting to having worked under the influence of alcohol. Link to Abstract

The relationship between serious injury and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in fatal motor vehicle accidents: BAC=0.01% is associated with significantly more dangerous accidents than BAC

In the US, the severity of life-threatening motor vehicle accidents increases significantly at blood alcohol concentrations that are far lower than the current legal limit of 0.08 percent. Link to Abstract

Surveying the range and magnitude of alcohol's harm to others in Australia

Seventy percent of Australians report being negatively affected by other people's drinking; these negative effects range from noise and fear to physical abuse, sexual coercion and social isolation. Link to Abstract

August 2011

Social gradient in initiation and transition to daily use of tobacco and cannabis during adolescence: a retrospective cohort study

Although adolescents from high socio-economic backgrounds are at risk of tobacco and cannabis experimentation, they are less likely to engage in daily use than adolescents from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Link to Abstract

Prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy to adolescents in England

Despite the recent inclusion of 12-17 year olds in the marketing licence for nicotine replacement therapy in England, prescriptions to adolescents remain low. Link to Abstract

Plain packaging increases visual attention to health warnings on cigarette packs in non-smokers and weekly smokers but not daily smokers

Among non-smokers and non-daily cigarette smokers, plain packaging appears to increase visual attention towards health warning information and away from brand information. Link to Abstract

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to social stress and adolescent cannabis use: the TRAILS study

Among adolescents, low levels of reactivity to social stress are associated with repeated and lifetime cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Methamphetamine users show greater than normal age-related cortical gray matter loss

Age-related cortical gray matter loss is greater than normal in methamphetamine users, suggesting the possibility of an accelerated decline in their mental functioning. Link to Abstract

The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of intranasal crushed buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone tablets in opioid abusers

The abuse potential of crushed buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone tablets - used in the treatment of opioid dependence - taken by the intranasal route appears low. Link to Abstract

Socio-economic determinants of drugged driving - a register-based study

In Finland, a disadvantaged socio-economic background increases the likelihood of driving while under the influence of drugs for all substance use groups. Low education, unemployment and receiving a disability pension are particularly strong predictors. Link to Abstract

Mortality among a cohort of drug users after their release from prison: an evaluation of the effectiveness of a harm reduction program in Taiwan

Among ex-prisoners in Taiwan with a history of opiate injecting, enrolment and continued participation in methadone maintenance treatment is associated with substantially lower mortality. Link to Abstract

Gender differences in the impact of families on alcohol use: a lagged longitudinal study of early adolescents

Family environment appears to impact differently upon the alcohol use of male versus female adolescents. While an emotionally close relationship to mothers is associated with less frequent drinking in females, parental disapproval of alcohol is a better predictor of reduced drinking in males. Link to Abstract

Similar profile of cognitive impairment and recovery for Aboriginal Australians in treatment for episodic or chronic alcohol use

Among Aboriginal Australians, episodic or "binge" drinking is associated with similar patterns of cognitive impairment and recovery as chronic alcohol use. Link to Abstract

July 2011

Does the introduction of comprehensive smoke-free legislation lead to a decrease in population smoking prevalence?

Across Canada and the US, smoke-free legislation does not appear to have had an impact on existing smoking trends, although it has increased the decline of smoking prevalence is some regions. Link to Abstract

Prospective predictors of quitting behaviours among adult smokers in six cities in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey

Contrary to findings in other South East Asian countries, neither low nicotine dependence nor high-self efficacy appear to predict successful smoking cessation in China. Link to Abstract

Relative performance of common biochemical indicators in detecting cigarette smoking

In areas with strong smoke-free laws, a breath carbon monoxide level of 5 parts per million or more is effective at identifying someone as a cigarette smoker. Link to Abstract

Prescribing of smoking cessation medication in England since the introduction of varenicline

Since its introduction in England, varenicline has become the most commonly prescribed smoking cessation medication after nicotine replacement therapy. Despite this popularity, varenicline has not led to an increase in the overall prescription rates for smoking cessation medication. Link to Abstract

Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to depot naltrexone in unemployed opioid-dependent adults: a randomized controlled trial

Employment-based reinforcement appears to increase adherence to depot naltrexone, a drug that blocks the effects of opioids, among unemployed opioid-dependent adults. Link to Abstract

Deviant socialization mediates transmissible and contextual risk on cannabis use disorder development: a prospective study

Deviant socialization resulting from transmissible risk (genetic or parental upbringing risk factors) and poor parent-child relationships is integral to the development of cannabis use disorder in young adulthood. Link to Abstract

Pill content, dose and resulting plasma concentrations of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in recreational 'ecstasy' users

Among ecstasy users in Australia, the use of multiple ecstasy pills in one session is common, likely resulting in a greater exposure of the brain to MDMA than is predicted in single-dose studies. Link to Abstract

Drug violations and aviation accidents: findings from the US mandatory drug testing programs

Although rare, illegal drug use among aviation employees is associated with a significantly increased risk of involvement in an aviation accident. Link to Abstract

Effects of major depression on crack use and arrests among women in drug court

Among women attending drug court, current major depression, but not past major depression, appears to increase the risk of crack cocaine use. Link to Abstract

Associations between drinking motives and changes in adolescents' alcohol consumption: a full cross-lagged panel study

In the Netherlands, adolescents who are motivated to drink alcohol for social reasons - such as "fitting in" and "having fun" - appear more likely to drink heavily after a year than adolescents who drank to enhance their mood or cope with negative emotion Link to Abstract

Does readiness to change predict in-session motivational language? Correspondence between two conceptualizations of client motivation

The use of motivational language by patients during counselling for excessive alcohol consumption does not appear to be a good predictor of their actual readiness to change their drinking behaviour. Link to Abstract

The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among night-time weekend drivers

The majority of drunk drivers on US roads during weekend evenings and nights do not suffer from alcohol use disorders, but can be considered heavy drinkers. Link to Abstract

Alcohol-related discussions in health care--a population view

Despite reporting positive feelings about alcohol-related discussions in healthcare settings, relatively few people in Finland are asked about alcohol consumption by healthcare professionals, and even fewer are offered advice. Link to Abstract

June 2011

Does improved access and greater choice of nicotine replacement therapy affect smoking cessation success? Findings from a randomized controlled trial

Offering smokers who want to quit a wide range of nicotine replacement therapy does not appear to produce better results than offering a narrower selection of reduced cost nicotine replacement therapy. Link to Abstract

Beyond light and mild: cigarette brand descriptors and perceptions of risk in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

Although the words 'light' and 'mild' are banned, smokers in western countries continue to believe that some cigarette brands are less harmful than others. These beliefs are based on the descriptive words and designs used in cigarette marketing. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of a smoking reduction plus nicotine replacement therapy intervention for smokers not willing to quit smoking

In smokers with no immediate plans to quit, smoking reduction programmes with behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy are more effective than brief advice to quit Link to Abstract

Empirically derived subtypes of opioid use and related behaviours

There are five distinct categories of opioid use and related behaviour, with each category - particularly the most severe, early-onset category - revealing significant genetic influences on the characteristics of an individual's opioid use. Link to Abstract

The validity of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence criteria in adolescents and the value of additional cannabis use indicators

DSM's current distinction between cannabis abuse and cannabis dependence has limited use for diagnosing adolescents. The two sets of criteria do not reflect two distinct aspects of cannabis-related problems, but instead constitute a single underlying diso Link to Abstract

Affective disorders and anxiety disorders predict the risk of drug harmful use and dependence

Patients with affective disorders and anxiety disorders have an increased risk of developing substance abuse problems, although it is unclear whether these disorders lead to substance abuse problems, or whether both are symptoms of a common cause. Link to Abstract

Staff regard towards working with substance users: a European multi-centre study

In Europe, health professionals - particularly those in primary care - appear to have a lower regard for treating substance users than for treating patients with other chronic conditions. Link to Abstract

The role of person-environment interactions in increased alcohol use in the transition to college

In the transition from high school to college, sensation seeking students from protective high school environments experience more alcohol-related problems than those from less protective environments. Link to Abstract

Alcohol expectancy moderates attentional bias for alcohol cues in light drinkers

While light drinkers only show increased attention to pictures that are alcohol-related when they are expecting alcohol, heavy drinkers show a preference for alcohol-related pictures regardless of whether they are expecting alcohol. Link to Abstract

Alcohol's harm to others: reduced wellbeing and health status for those with heavy drinkers in their lives

As is widely believed, heavy drinking adversely affects the health and personal well-being of others who are close to the heavy drinker. Link to Abstract

May 2011

Comorbid psychiatric disorders and nicotine dependence in adolescence

Psychiatric disorders have a stronger influence on the onset of nicotine dependence in adolescents than nicotine dependence has on the onset of psychiatric disorders. Disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be a particularly important precursor and consequence of nicotine dependence. Link to Abstract

Influence of traditional tobacco use on smoking cessation among American Indians

When compared with other racial/ethnic groups, American Indians appear to have a low awareness of the use of pharmacotherapy - such as nicotine replacement therapy - to aid smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Genetics of the association between intelligence and nicotine dependence: a study of male Swedish twins

Nicotine dependence and intelligence are only weakly associated. This association does not appear to be due to common genetic factors. Link to Abstract

Associations of CYP2A6 genotype with smoking behaviors in southern China

Among Chinese smokers, a variant of the CYP2A6 gene leading to reduced rate of nicotine metabolism is associated with later smoking initiation, fewer cigarettes smoked per day, shorter smoking duration but reduced likelihood of smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Clinical experience with the treatment of hepatitis C infection in patients on opioid pharmacotherapy

Treatment for Hepatitis C infection can be successful in patients on opioid substitution therapy, even if they are active injectors, and is not associated with any major safety concerns. Link to Abstract

Outreach screening of drug users for cirrhosis with transient elastography

'Transient elastography' - a non-invasive procedure - has the capacity to identify severe liver fibrosis in a significant proportion of drug users with hepatitis C infections, making it a feasible screening tool for cirrhosis among drug users. Link to Abstract

Employment-based abstinence reinforcement as a maintenance intervention for the treatment of cocaine dependence: post-intervention outcomes

Although abstinence-contingent employment appears to reduce cocaine use in cocaine dependent patients, there is a high rate of relapse once the abstinence contingency of their employment is discontinued. Link to Abstract

Impaired conditional reasoning in alcoholics: a negative impact on social interactions and risky behaviors?

The capacity for 'conditional reasoning' (using if-then rules) of patients being treated for alcohol dependence, including reasoning about social contracts and emotional intelligence, appears to be impaired. Link to Abstract

An evaluation of the proposed DSM-5 alcohol use disorder criteria using Australian national data

Alcohol use disorders have a low correlation with the 'substance-related legal problems' criterion used in the DSM diagnosis, supporting the removal of the criterion. Although alcohol use disorders have a high correlation with the proposed 'craving' crite Link to Abstract

Randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in hospitalized Taiwanese men

In Taiwan, a brief in-hospital interventions has been found to reduce alcohol consumption among hospitalised men who drink heavily or have been diagnosed with alcohol use disorders. Link to Abstract

A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and domestic violence

Rates of domestic violence appear to correlate positively with the density of alcohol outlets in the local area, particularly those with off premise alcohol licenses. Link to Abstract

April 2011

The role of desire, duty and intention in predicting attempts to quit smoking

Although 'duty' - the belief that one ought to quit smoking - appears to be the most commonly reported motive for quitting, both 'desire' and 'intention' to quit are better predictors of quit attempts, with 'duty' even appearing to mitigate their effects. Link to Abstract

Adjustment of nicotine replacement therapies according to saliva cotinine concentration: the ADONIS trial--a randomized study in smokers with medical comorbidities

Among smokers with smoking-related illnesses, tailoring nicotine replacement therapy according to the concentration of cotinine - a biomarker for tobacco smoke exposure - in the patient's saliva does not appear more effective than standard nicotine replac Link to Abstract

Treating heavy smokers in primary care with the nicotine nasal spray: randomized placebo-controlled trial

Treating heavy smokers in primary care with nicotine nasal spray compared with a placebo, significantly increases the rate of successful quit attempts, and is particularly effective among those highly dependent on nicotine. Link to Abstract

The population impact of smoke-free workplace and hospitality industry legislation on smoking behaviour. Findings from a national population survey

In the Netherlands, a workplace ban on smoking appears to have been more effective than a hospitality ban in reducing the prevalence of smoking and increasing the rate of successful quit attempts. Link to Abstract

Increasing US mortality due to accidental poisoning: the role of the baby boom cohort

Over the past decade there has been a sharp increase in accidental poisoning deaths in the US. While a baby boom cohort effect is likely responsible for this increase among black Americans, among white Americans it appears that a historical period effect - possibly the rise in non-medical pharmaceutical drug use - has contributed to this rise in deaths. Link to Abstract

Modelling the adverse effects associated with ecstasy use

Long-term ecstasy use increases the likelihood of adverse effects, such as paranoia, poor general health and irritability, particularly when the drug is consumed with alcohol. These adverse effects decrease with the period of abstinence from the drug. Link to Abstract

The association between spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis for personal use and earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand

In New Zealand there is a positive correlation between earnings from property crime and levels of both methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis use. While this relationship also exists between methamphetamine/amphetamine use and drug dealing, earnings from drug dealing are negatively associated to levels of cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Residual neurocognitive features of long-term ecstasy users with minimal exposure to other drugs

In contrast to previous findings, there is little evidence of decreased cognitive performance in long-term ecstasy users. Link to Abstract

Impact on alcohol-related mortality of a rapid rise in the density of private liquor outlets in British Columbia: a local area multi-level analysis

The large increase in numbers of privately owned liquor stores in British Columbia between 2003 and 2008 was associated with a significant local-area increase in alcohol-related deaths. Link to Abstract

The effects of a large reduction in alcohol prices on hospitalizations related to alcohol: a population-based natural experiment

In Finland, a reduction in the price of alcohol in 2004 was associated with an increase in chronic hospitalization rates among 50-69 year olds. This increase was largely due to a rise in alcohol-related mental and behavioural disorders. Link to Abstract

Types of drinkers and drinking settings: an application of a mathematical model

The level of social interaction between light, moderate and heavy drinkers and the traffic between low-risk and high-risk drinking venues are important determinants of changes in drinking patterns among US college students. Link to Abstract

Inverse association of the obesity predisposing FTO rs9939609 genotype with alcohol consumption and risk for alcohol dependence

The genotype which predisposes to obesity is also associated with protection from alcohol dependence, lower alcohol consumption and less intense cigarette smoking. Link to Abstract

The price of a drink: levels of consumption and price paid per unit of alcohol by Edinburgh's ill drinkers with a comparison to wider alcohol sales in Scotland

Drinkers in Edinburgh with alcohol-related illnesses pay an average of £0.29 less per unit of alcohol than the general Scottish population, with those paying the lowest prices consuming the greatest amounts of alcohol. Link to Abstract

Interventions for disorder and severe intoxication in and around licensed premises, 1989-2009

Server training appeared to be successful at reducing alcohol-related violence in and around licensed premises. However, there is limited evidence that premises level interventions are effective at reducing intoxication or related disorder. Link to Abstract

March 2011

Probability and predictors of remission from life-time nicotine, alcohol, cannabis or cocaine dependence: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

The vast majority of nicotine, alcohol, cannabis or cocaine dependent individuals achieve remission at some point in their lives, with males, Blacks and those with personality disorders exhibiting the lowest rates of remission. Link to Abstract

Effect of compliance with nicotine gum dosing on weight gained during a quit attempt

During the first 30 days of a quit attempt, smokers who use more pieces of nicotine gum experience less weight gain. This relationship is not seen for smokers on nicotine-free placebo gum. Link to Abstract

An Ecological Momentary Assessment analysis of relations among coping, affect and smoking during a quit attempt

Although stress coping responses during a quit attempt may be effective at lowering stress, they do not appear to protect against smoking or increase the likelihood of quit success. Link to Abstract

Strength of urges to smoke as a measure of severity of cigarette dependence: comparison with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and its components

Among English smokers, a simple 'strength of urges' rating appears to be a good predictor of short-term quit success. Link to Abstract

Cigarette tax and public health: what are the implications of financially stressed smokers for the effects of price increases on smoking prevalence?

Although price increases may reduce smoking prevalence among smokers as a whole, financial stress appears to limit the efficacy of price increases among low-income smokers. Link to Abstract

Do cigarette prices motivate smokers to quit? New evidence from the ITC survey

Smokers living in areas with higher cigarette prices and taxes were significantly more motivated to quit and had an increased likelihood of actual quitting. Link to Abstract

Predictors and correlates of reduced frequency or cessation of injection drug use during a randomized HIV prevention intervention trial

HIV prevention interventions that encourage injection drug users to take on the role of peer educator may have the additional benefit of increasing the likelihood of injection cessation. Link to Abstract

Opioid dependence latent structure: two classes with differing severity?

Among in-treatment opioid users, there appears to be two separate classes of individuals, exhibiting distinct patterns of opioid dependence, other substance use and mental health disorders. Link to Abstract

Mortality and HIV transmission among male Vietnamese injection drug users

The mortality rate of male Vietnamese injection drug users is 13 times higher than that of the general population and substantially higher than the mortality rate of injection drug users studied in developed countries. Link to Abstract

Revised dose schema of sublingual buprenorphine in the treatment of the neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome

Administering Buprenorphine to infants was demonstrated to be both safe and effective in the treatment of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, with indications of a therapeutic advantage over morphine. Link to Abstract

Neural correlates of verbal learning in adolescent alcohol and marijuana users

While adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana displayed no difference from non-users in their performance on a verbal encoding task, both binge drinkers and combined marijuana and alcohol users did exhibit different brain response patterns. No main effects of marijuana use alone were found. Link to Abstract

Exploring the emergence of alcohol use disorder symptoms in the two years after onset of drinking: findings from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health

Despite steadily increasing during the first nine months of alcohol use, the emergence of clinical features of alcohol use disorder then appear to plateau or fluctuate during the second year. Link to Abstract

Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

The portrayal of alcohol consumption in movies appears to increase the alcohol consumption of young males while they are viewing the movie, but not that of female viewers. Link to Abstract

Why target early adolescents and parents in alcohol prevention? The mediating effects of self-control, rules and attitudes about alcohol use

An intervention targeting both young adolescents and their parents appears to be effective in delaying the onset of weekly alcohol use by developing adolescent self-control as well as parental rule-setting. Link to Abstract

Brief alcohol interventions for mandated college students: comparison of face-to-face counseling and computer-delivered interventions

Among American college students who had violated alcohol policies, face-to-face counselling reduced alcohol consumption and related problems more than computer-delivered interventions, particularly in female students. Link to Abstract

Alcohol as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Alcohol consumption in parents may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. However, it is unclear whether this is due to alcohol impairing parental capacity, or alcohol being a proxy for other risk factors, such as smoking. Link to Abstract

February 2011

Teaching community program clinicians motivational interviewing using expert and train-the-trainer strategies

Both 'expert-led' and 'train-the-trainer' approaches to training clinicians in addiction treatment appear to be more successful than a self-study approach. Link to Abstract

Anxiety diagnoses in smokers seeking cessation treatment: relations with tobacco dependence, withdrawal, outcome and response to treatment

Anxiety diagnoses are common among smokers attempting to quit, and appear to be related to an impaired ability to quit. Link to Abstract

Does extinction of responses to cigarette cues occur during smoking cessation?

For smokers attempting to quit, exposure to available cigarettes is a risk factor for lapsing. However, this risk can be reduced by repeated exposures to available cigarettes without smoking. Link to Abstract

The relationship between addiction and reward bundling: an experiment comparing smokers and non-smokers

Smokers appear to be more likely than non-smokers to prefer small short-term rewards over larger delayed rewards. Link to Abstract

Dizziness and the genetic influences on subjective experiences to initial cigarette use

An individual's initial smoking experience appears to be affected by heritable factors, particularly the experience of dizziness which may be caused by a heritable sensitivity to the chemicals contained in cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

Dopamine release appears to be associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gamblers, regardless of their performance in a gambling task. Link to Abstract

Cessation of groin injecting behaviour among patients on oral opioid substitution treatment

Although oral opioid substitution therapy can reduce groin injecting in some patients, groin injecting usually persists despite both treatment and severe health complications. Link to Abstract

The STEP into Action study: a peer-based, personal risk network-focused HIV prevention intervention with injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland

'STEP into Action', a peer-based training program using the influence of social networks, appeared to reduce behaviour with a high risk of HIV transmission among active injection drug users. Link to Abstract

The roles of law, client race and program visibility in shaping police interference with the operation of US syringe exchange programs

Police interference in American syringe exchange programs is inconsistent, with programs predominantly serving non-white drug users reporting higher levels of police interference. Link to Abstract

Decreased bone density in men on methadone maintenance therapy

Bone density appears to be lower than normal in men, but not women, taking methadone maintenance therapy. Link to Abstract

The course of substance use disorders in patients with borderline personality disorder and Axis II comparison subjects: a 10-year follow-up study

Substance use disorders appear more prevalent among patients also suffering from borderline personality disorder, although remissions in drug use appear common and relatively stable. Link to Abstract

The acute effects of caffeinated versus non-caffeinated alcoholic beverage on driving performance and attention/reaction time

Despite the common belief among young drinkers that caffeinated alcoholic drinks enhance alertness, when compared to non-caffeinated alcoholic drinks they do not appear to improve either driving performance or attention/reaction times. Link to Abstract

Personal, family and social functioning among older couples concordant and discordant for high-risk alcohol consumption

In couples over 65, high-risk drinking and differences in alcohol consumption do not appear to have a negative effect on the quality of marital relationships or family functioning, as they appear to in younger couples. Link to Abstract

Per capita alcohol consumption and ischemic heart disease mortality in a panel of US states from 1950 to 2002

In US adults, consumption of alcohol, and particularly spirits, appears to be associated with an increased rate of ischemic heart disease mortality while beer consumption appears have a protective effect. Link to Abstract

Effects of restricting pub closing times on night-time assaults in an Australian city

Effects of restricting pub closing times on night-time assaults in an Australian city Link to Abstract

Can stand-alone computer-based interventions reduce alcohol consumption? A systematic review

Computer-based interventions appear to be effective at reducing alcohol consumption in both student and non-student populations. Link to Abstract

January 2011

Common and drug-specific genetic influences on subjective effects to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use

Individual responses to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use appear to share common genetic influences; drug-specific genetic influences appear to contribute to individual differences in drug response Link to Abstract

Online video game addiction: identification of addicted adolescent gamers

In the Netherlands, approximately 1.5% of all 13-16 year olds can be considered addicted online gamers. Despite addiction-like problems, an association between addictive online gaming and decreased psychosocial health is not evident. Link to Abstract

Use of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction and during enforced temporary abstinence: a national survey of English smokers

The use of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking reduction and temporary abstinence does not appear to reduce the number of cigarettes consumed, when compared with those attempting reduction and temporary abstinence without nicotine replacement therapy. Link to Abstract

Associations between weight change over 8 years and baseline body mass index in a cohort of continuing and quitting smokers

Smokers who quit smoking gain more weight than those who continue smoking; the association between quitting and weight gain is particularly pronounced in those who are already obese. Link to Abstract

Declining alternative reinforcers link depression to young adult smoking

The observed association between depressive symptoms and smoking in young adults may be influenced by a decline in the presence of alternative sources of personal reward in depressive young adults. Link to Abstract

Evening types are more often current smokers and nicotine-dependent--a study of Finnish adult twins

Compared to 'morning types', 'evening types' are more likely to be current smokers and highly nicotine dependent; 'evening types' also have a lower likelihood of quitting smoking. Link to Abstract

The association between use of snus and quit rates for smoking: results from seven Norwegian cross-sectional studies

Consistent with Swedish studies, Norwegian data shows that snus use is associated with an increased probability of being a former compared with a current smoker, suggesting that in Norway snus may have a role in smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Mephedrone, new kid for the chop?

A study of users of a UK-based dance and clubbing website suggests that mephedrone use is common, particularly among males with the preferred route being intranasal. Link to Abstract

Hepatitis C virus among non-injecting cocaine users (NICUs) in South America: can injectors be a bridge?

Non-injecting cocaine users in South America are vulnerable to Hepatitis C infection, particularly those in an intimate relationship with an intravenous drug using, or HIV positive, partner. Link to Abstract

Impact of jail sanctions during drug court participation upon substance abuse treatment completion

A jail sanction for non-adherence to substance abuse treatment is more likely to achieve successful results in individuals not already acclimatized to incarceration. Link to Abstract

Paternal incarceration and trajectories of marijuana and other illegal drug use from adolescence into young adulthood: evidence from longitudinal panels of males and females in the United States

Paternal incarceration is associated with an increase in marijuana use and the risk of other illegal drug use among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Link to Abstract

Primary care-based intervention to reduce at-risk drinking in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

Although there is evidence to show that interventions reduce unhealthy alcohol use in primary care populations, a multi-component intervention among older adults in primary care did not reduce at-risk drinking, despite reducing alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

'Alcohol, less is better' project: outcomes of an Italian community-based prevention programme on reducing per-capita alcohol consumption

The 'Alcohol, less is better' project, which is aimed at changing attitudes to alcohol through the involvement of community leaders, appears to reduce alcohol consumption in participants, particularly women Link to Abstract

High alcohol consumption in middle-aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socio-economic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

High alcohol consumption is associated with poor cognitive performance among low socio-economic grou Link to Abstract

Area of residence and alcohol-related mortality risk: a five-year follow-up study

Whilst alcohol-related mortality is higher in the more deprived areas of Northern Ireland, this appears to be due to the characteristics of individuals within the areas, rather than an independent effect of area deprivation. Link to Abstract

Reduction in alcohol consumption and health status

A deterioration in health appears to be an important motive for reducing or stopping alcohol consumption; this may at least partly explain the apparently increased risk of ill health in people who abstain from drinking. Link to Abstract

A meta-analysis of alcohol toxicology study findings among homicide victims

A third of homicide victims appear to have been intoxicated with alcohol at the time of their death but this figure has decreased over time. Link to Abstract

Mortality among regular or dependent users of heroin and other opioids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

Although mortality in opioid-dependent users varies between countries, overdose is the most common cause of death. Link to Abstract