Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor-in-Chief, Robert West

January 2016

How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest; it primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives.

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The drug situation in Europe: an overview of data available on illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances from European monitoring in 2015

Opioid drugs continue to burden the European drug treatment system, although both new heroin entrants and injecting show declines. The European early warning system now monitors more than 450 new psychoactive substances.

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Health information on alcoholic beverage containers: has the alcohol industry's pledge in England to improve labelling been met?

The UK Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol labelling pledge has not been fully met. Labelling information frequently falls short of best practice, with font and logos smaller than would be accepted on other products with adverse health effects.

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Relating off-premises alcohol outlet density to intentional and unintentional injuries

Greater off-premises outlet density is related to greater incidence of traumatic injury. Chain outlets appear to be most strongly associated with traumatic injury rates.

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The association between alcohol outlet density and alcohol use among urban and regional Australian adolescents

Higher densities of alcohol outlets in an adolescent's immediate neighbourhood are related to increased likelihood of alcohol consumption. The density of licensed clubs is associated more strongly with drinking for urban than for regional adolescents.

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Risk of mortality on and off methadone substitution treatment in primary care: a national cohort study

Among primary care patients undergoing methadone treatment, risk of all-cause mortality increases following treatment cessation, and is highest in the initial 4-week period.

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Understanding Americans' views on opioid pain reliever abuse

Americans view the problem of opioid pain reliever abuse as serious, and support nearly all policies recommended by experts to curb the epidemic.

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Innovative community-based educational face-to-face intervention to reduce HIV, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne infectious risks in difficult-to-reach people who inject drugs: ANRS-AERLI study

An inexpensive and easily implemented educational intervention on risks associated with drug injection reduces significantly unsafe HIV-HCV transmission practices and injection-related complications.

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Enhancing the effectiveness of smoking treatment research: conceptual bases and progress

A new, synthesized research approach identifies promising components for every phase of smoking treatment. Many intervention components interact with one another.

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Comparative effectiveness of motivation phase intervention components for use with smokers unwilling to quit: a factorial screening experiment

Motivation-phase nicotine gum and behavioral reduction counseling are promising intervention components for smokers who are initially unwilling to quit.

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Identifying effective intervention components for smoking cessation: a factorial screening experiment

Preparation counseling and the combination of intensive cessation in-person counseling with preparation nicotine gum or patch are promising intervention components for smoking.

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Comparative effectiveness of intervention components for producing long-term abstinence from smoking: a factorial screening experiment

Twenty-six weeks of nicotine patch/gum (versus 8 weeks) and maintenance counseling provided by phone are promising intervention components for the cessation and maintenance phases of smoking treatment.

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Predictors of comorbid polysubstance use and mental health disorders in young adults--a latent class analysis

Mental health disorders are more likely in young adults with polysubstance use disorders than those with alcohol/cannabis use disorders.

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February 2016

Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin: a 40-year history of Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service

The history of Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service in 1973, reflects changing perceptions of appropriate addiction treatment and appropriate funding relationships between statutory authorities and service providers.

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Does parental drinking influence children's drinking? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies

More parental drinking is associated with more drinking in offspring, but a causal connection has not yet been established.

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An international systematic review of smoking prevalence in addiction treatment

Smoking prevalence is higher among people enrolled in addiction treatment compared with the general population. Within that group, smoking rates are higher in people being treated for opiate dependence compared with people being treated for alcohol use disorder.

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Validation of an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

The computer self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test appears to be a valid way to identify substance use in primary care patients.

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Drinking and mortality: long-term follow-up of drinking-discordant twin pairs

Twin data from Finland show that monthly alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced blackouts are important factors leading to increased deaths in heavy drinkers.

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The importance of age groups in estimates of alcohol-attributable mortality: impact on trends in Switzerland between 1997 and 2011

Trends in alcohol-attributable mortality differ according to the upper age limit used for the estimates.

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Does promoting parents' negative attitudes to underage drinking reduce adolescents' drinking? The mediating process and moderators of the effects of the Ã-rebro Prevention Programme

Increasing parents' restrictive attitudes to youth drinking appears to reduce heavy underage drinking regardless of gender, immigrant status, parents' and peers' alcohol use and parent-youth relationship quality.

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Declining and rebounding unhealthy alcohol consumption during the first year of HIV care in rural Uganda, using phosphatidylethanol to augment self-report

Unhealthy alcohol use among Ugandan adults entering HIV care declines prior to the start of anti-retroviral therapy but rebounds with time. The alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol increases detection of unhealthy alcohol use.

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Prevalence of and motives for pharmacological neuroenhancement in Switzerland--results from a national internet panel

Taking prescription or recreational drugs for pharmacological neuroenhancement is rare among Swiss employees and students (4.0%), with mood enhancement (3.1%) more prevalent than cognitive enhancement (1.4%).

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Impact of treatment for opioid dependence on fatal drug-related poisoning: a national cohort study in England

Patients who receive only psychological support for opioid dependence in England appear to be at greater risk of fatal opioid poisoning than those who receive pharmacotherapy.

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Treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs attending opioid substitution treatment and community health clinics: the ETHOS Study

People with a history of injecting drug use and chronic hepatitis C virus attending opioid substitution treatment and community health clinics adhere to, and respond to, interferon-based therapy similarly to other populations.

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The relationship between player losses and gambling-related harm: evidence from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in four countries

Contrary to previous reports, increased gambling losses appear to increase gambling-related harms according to a linear or r-shaped function, not a j-shaped function.

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Enhancing Quit & Win contests to improve cessation among college smokers: a randomized clinical trial

Multiple Quit & Win contests appear to increase smoking abstinence rates in college students more than single contests.

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinical smoking cessation interventions in Thailand

In middle-income countries such as Thailand, nortriptyline and varenicline appear to provide cost-effective clinical options to help smokers quit.

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Behavioral associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence among US young adults

A new waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence scale created by adapting traditional tobacco dependence measures appears to be a valid tool for measuring dependence.

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Are financial incentives cost-effective to support smoking cessation during pregnancy?

Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy are highly cost-effective.

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March 2016

Peer-led interventions to prevent tobacco, alcohol and/or drug use among young people aged 11-21 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Peer interventions may help prevent tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents, but the evidence base is limited.

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The prevalence of compulsive buying: A meta-analysis

Evidence to date suggests that in countries where it has been studied around 1 in 20 adults may suffer from compulsive buying.

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Enforcement uniquely predicts reductions in alcohol-impaired crash fatalities

As enforcement of drunk driving laws increases, alcohol-impaired crash fatalities decrease.

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The contribution of education, social class and economic activity to the income-mortality association in alcohol-related and other mortality in Finland in 1988-2012

The income disparity in mortality among working-age Finns originates increasingly from alcohol-related causes of death.

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Increasing compliance with alcohol service laws in a developing country: intervention trial in the Kingdom of Bhutan

A programme to improve compliance with legal restrictions on serving alcohol in Bhutan had a modest effect, reducing illegal purchases from 80% to 66%.

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Potential cost-effectiveness of supervised injection facilities in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada

It is likely to be cost-effective to establish at least three supervised injection facilities in Toronto, Canada and two in Ottawa, Canada.

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Being the victim of violence during a date predicts next-day cannabis use among female college students

Among female college students in the United States, being the victim of violence during a date appears to increase the risk for cannabis use the following day.

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Clinical risk factors for death after release from prison in Washington State: a nested case-control study

Injection drug use and substance use disorders are important risk factors for death following release from prison.

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Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users

Self-reported addiction to video gaming and internet use correlates better with problems associated with these activities than reports of heavy use of these products over time.

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Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs

Higher tobacco outlet density may increase life-time smoking among youths.

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Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes

E-cigarettes can deliver levels of nicotine that are comparable to or higher than typical tobacco cigarettes, with similar systemic retention, suggesting addictive potential.

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Predictors of 10-year smoking abstinence in smokers abstinent for 1 year after treatment

Having a psychological disorder at the time of stopping smoking is a risk factor for relapse to smoking, even after more than 1 year of abstinence.

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April 2016

Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban) and varenicline (Chantix, Champix) appear to be effective and tolerable stop-smoking aids for adults with serious mental illnesses.

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Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a potential measure in substance use treatment-outcome studies

Because respiratory sinus arrhythmia appears to measure self-regulatory capacity, it may be a useful measure of underlying mechanisms in substance use disorder treatment studies.

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Temporal changes in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity in Australia

In Australia between 2001 and 2010, alcohol-attributable death and illness increased without a corresponding increase in per capita alcohol consumption.

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Relation between age of first drinking and mental health and alcohol and drug disorders in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year cohort study

The associations between age of first drinking and later alcohol/drug disorders appear to be partly accounted for by factors related to characteristics of the individual and family during childhood.

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Population trends in smoking, alcohol use and primary prevention variables among adolescents in Iceland, 1997-2014

Substance use among adolescents in Iceland has declined steadily from 1997 to 2014, while primary prevention factors for substance use (e.g., parental monitoring, participation in organized sports) have increased in strength.

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The burden of disease attributable to cannabis use in Canada in 2012

The cannabis-attributable burden of disease in Canada in 2012 included 55,813 years of life lost due to disability, caused mainly by cannabis use disorders.

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Qualitative evaluation of a novel contingency management-related intervention for patients receiving supervised injectable opioid treatment

A 'qualitative realist' evaluation of an intervention for complex substance use disorders suggests that the programmes need to: have stakeholder input implement consistent eligibility criteria, rules and processes; and be introduced into stable treatment settings where relationships are trusting and patients and staff feel secure.

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Measuring benefits of opioid misuse treatment for economic evaluation: health-related quality of life of opioid-dependent individuals and their spouses as assessed by a sample of the US population

US public opinion holds that injection opioid misuse reduces quality of life more than prescription drug misuse, and methadone therapy reduces quality of life more than buprenorphine therapy.

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Advancing patient-centered care for structurally vulnerable drug-using populations: a qualitative study of the perspectives of people who use drugs ...

Hospital-based harm reduction interventions for people who use drugs can potentially improve hospital care retention, promote patient-centered care and reduce adverse health outcomes among people who use drugs.

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Long-term outcomes after randomization to buprenorphine/naloxone versus methadone in a multi-site trial

There are few differences in long-term outcomes between buprenorphine and methadone treatment for opioid dependence. Treatment with each medication is associated with a strong reduction in illicit opioid use.

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Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan

Approximately half of 8240 respondents in a Japanese internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products and 6.6% had tried them. Of that 6.6%, more than 70% used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, which are unregulated in Japan, and 33% used nicotine e-cigarettes, which are prohibited.

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Integrating smoking cessation into routine care in hospitals--a randomized controlled trial

A pharmacist-led multi-component stop-smoking intervention during hospital stay did not improve abstinence rates at 6 or 12 months compared with routine hospital care.

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Characteristics of users and usage of different types of electronic cigarettes: findings from an online survey

In an online survey of e-cigarette users, newer-generation e-cigarettes were perceived as more satisfactory and more effective for refraining from smoking than older models.

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The effect of potential electronic nicotine delivery system regulations on nicotine product selection

Higher taxes, a proposed US FDA warning label for e-cigarettes, and a more severe warning label may discourage adult smokers from switching from cigarettes to e-cigarettes.

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May 2016

Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of alcohol screening with brief interventions for patients in emergency care settings

Brief interventions in emergency care settings appear to have very small effects on alcohol consumption. More intensive interventions show no clear benefit over briefer ones.

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Effectiveness of motivational interviewing to reduce illicit drug use in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Motivational interviewing has not been found thus far to reduce adolescent use of illicit drugs.

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Validity of the alcohol purchase task: a meta-analysis

The Alcohol Purchase Task appears to have good construct validity but limited incremental utility in estimating risk for alcohol problems.

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A microsimulation cost-utility analysis of alcohol screening and brief intervention to reduce heavy alcohol consumption in Canada

In Canada, screening and brief intervention via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) to reduce heavy alcohol consumption appears to be cost-effective at AUDIT thresholds of 8 and lower and AUDIT-C thresholds of 7 and lower.

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Cost-effectiveness of motivational intervention with significant others for patients with alcohol misuse

It appears to be cost-effective to incorporate a patient's partner into a patient's motivational intervention for alcohol misuse.

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Assessing elements of a family approach to reduce adolescent drinking frequency: parent-adolescent relationship, knowledge management and keeping secrets

Adolescent alcohol use appears to increase as parental control decreases and child secrecy increases.

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Trajectories of drinking urges and the initiation of abstinence during cognitive-behavioral alcohol treatment

Drinking urges during out-patient behavioral treatment for alcohol use disorders may be maintained in part by alcohol consumption. Initiating abstinence is associated with reductions in drinking urges immediately and then more gradually over time.

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Malmo Treatment Referral and Intervention Study (MATRIS)--effective referral from syringe exchange to treatment for heroin dependence: a pilot randomized controlled trial

A pilot randomized controlled trial in a syringe exchange programme did not indicate effectiveness of a strength-based case management intervention to improve attendance for treatment over referral alone.

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Medical treatments for opioid use disorder in Iran: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of buprenorphine/naloxone and naltrexone maintenance treatment

Among patients with opioid use disorder in Iran, sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone led to a greater number of opioid-negative urine tests and better treatment retention than oral naltrexone, but did not yield significantly greater initial abstinence duration or proportions with sustained abstinence.

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Effectiveness of Scotland's National Naloxone Programme for reducing opioid-related deaths: a before (2006-10) versus after (2011-13) comparison

Scotland's National Naloxone Programme has been associated with a 36% reduction in opioid-related deaths in the 4 weeks following prison release.

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Association between Trajectories of Buprenorphine Treatment and Emergency Department and In-patient Utilization

Patients who persistently use buprenorphine for 12 months have a lower risk of all-cause hospitalizations/emergency department visits.

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Financial incentives to promote extended smoking abstinence in opioid-maintained patients: a randomized trial

Among opioid-maintained smokers receiving an initial period of daily contingent incentives, contingent reinforcement appears to be more effective at extending smoking abstinence than noncontingent reinforcement over 10 weeks.

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Childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and 3-year persistence of adult alcohol and nicotine dependence in a national sample

The association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol and nicotine dependence may be mediated in part by development of personality disorders.

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When psychopathology matters most: identifying sensitive periods when within-person changes in conduct, affective and anxiety problems are associated with male adolescent substance use

Among adolescent boys, increased conduct disorder problems appear to increase the likelihood of later substance use, and increased alcohol use appears to increase the likelihood of later anxiety problems. Developmental turning points appear to be particularly sensitive periods for developing these patterns.

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June 2016

In the weeds: a baseline view of cannabis use among legalizing states and their neighbours

In the United States, 86% of people who report ever using cannabis for medicinal purposes also use it recreationally. People who use cannabis do not commonly use it with alcohol, irrespective of recreational or medical use.

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Re-starting smoking in the postpartum period after receiving a smoking cessation intervention: a systematic review

Nearly half of women who stop smoking during pregnancy go back to smoking soon after the baby is born.

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Impacts of drinking-age legislation on alcohol-impaired driving crimes among young people in Canada, 2009-13

Release from drinking-age restrictions appears to be associated with increases in alcohol-impaired driving offences among young drivers in Canada.

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Association between a brief alcohol craving measure and drinking in the following week

Craving for alcohol is associated strongly with alcohol use in the following week.

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Therapist and client discussions of drinking and coping: a sequential analysis of therapy dialogues in three evidence-based alcohol use disorder treatments

In motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and 12-Step facilitation therapy for alcohol use disorders, the therapists who explore and connect with clients appear to be more successful at eliciting discussion about change than therapists who engage in teaching behaviour.

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Long-term effects of changes in Swedish alcohol policy: can alcohol policies effective during adolescence impact consumption during adulthood?

Men and women in Sweden who grew up during a period with more restrictive alcohol policies currently drink less alcohol than those who grew up during periods with more liberal policies.

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A micro-temporal geospatial analysis of medical marijuana dispensaries and crime in Long Beach, California

Using law enforcement to reduce the number of medical marijuana dispensaries in California appears to have reduced crime in residential areas near to, but not in, these locations.

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Role of overlapping genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between early adolescent conduct problems and substance use in young adulthood

Conduct disorder symptoms in early adolescence appear moderately to predict substance use in early adulthood.

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Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage

Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility and feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances.

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Associations between smoking and caffeine consumption in two European cohorts

There appears to be a positive association between smoking and caffeine consumption in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

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Protocol proposal for, and evaluation of, consistency in nicotine delivery from the liquid to the aerosol of electronic cigarettes atomizers: regulatory implications

E-cigarettes that use tank-type atomizers appear to deliver nicotine in more consistent quantities than electronic cigarettes that use cartomizers. The protocol for testing e-cigarette nicotine delivery consistency described in this paper could be used effectively for regulatory purposes.

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E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives

Themes that emerge in UK vapers' views about e-cigarettes are a need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping, and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence.

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Polysomnographic measures of sleep in cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence: Implications for age-related loss of slow wave, stage 3 sleep

Cocaine and alcohol dependence appear to be associated with marked disturbances of sleep architecture.

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Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

Iterative categorization (IC) is a simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and able to support a range of common analytical approaches.

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Reverse engineering a 'responsible drinking' campaign to assess strategic intent

The "How to Drink Properly" ad by Drinkwise in Australia may reinforce existing drinking attitudes and behaviours among young drinkers.

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July 2016

Gabapentin misuse, abuse and diversion: a systematic review

The anti-epileptic and analgesic medication gabapentin appears to be misused in many countries.

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Are take-home naloxone programmes effective? Systematic review utilizing application of the Bradford Hill criteria

Take-home naloxone reduces overdose mortality and has a low rate of adverse events.

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Sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood

Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and young adulthood appears to be mostly influenced by gender-specific shared environmental factors (e.g. rearing influences, shared friends).

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A successful high-visibility enforcement intervention targeting underage drinking drivers

A high-visibility enforcement campaign targeting underage drink driving appeared to reduce both underage driving after drinking among US college students and drink driving at any age.

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Estimating under- and over-reporting of drinking in national surveys of alcohol consumption: identification of consistent biases across four English-speaking countries

People who describe themselves as less frequent drinkers appear to under-report their drinking frequency substantially.

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Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

In the USA, recruits for randomized controlled trials of substance use disorder treatments tend to have more years of education and a greater likelihood of full-time work compared with people receiving care in routine clinical settings.

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Differences in polysubstance use patterns and drug-related outcomes between people who inject drugs receiving and not receiving opioid substitution therapies

People who inject drugs and also use a broad range of substances have more injecting-related injuries and poorer health outcomes and are more likely to engage in criminal activity than other groups of people who inject drugs.

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Clinical outcomes of patients infected with HIV through use of injected drugs compared to patients infected through sexual transmission

In Spain, patients who acquire HIV infection through use of injected drugs appear to have a higher risk of late presentation, delayed initiation of anti-retroviral treatment and progression to AIDS and death than patients who acquire HIV by sexual transmission.

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Spatial patterns of arrests, police assault and addiction treatment center locations in Tijuana, Mexico

In Mexico, people who inject drugs are at greater risk of police violence if they consider themselves in need of addiction treatment, and their police interactions are more frequent around treatment centers.

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The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation: Results from a randomized controlled trial

Proactive telephone counselling is more effective than a self-help booklet in achieving prolonged smoking abstinence for 12 months.

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Who thinks what about e-cigarette regulation? A content analysis of UK newspapers

In the UK between 2013 and 2014, governments and tobacco control advocates frequently commented on e-cigs in UK-wide and Scottish national newspapers, most supporting e-cig regulation, but not agreeing on e-cig use in enclosed public spaces.

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Does cigarette reduction while using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit attempt predict abstinence following quit date?

Smoking reduction prior to a target quit date while on a smoking cessation medication may only predict subsequent abstinence when smokers are consciously attempting to reduce.

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A comparison of neuropsychiatric adverse events during early treatment with varenicline or a nicotine patch

In US Veterans Administration patients using varenicline from smoking cessation prior to implementation of a 'black box' warning about neuropsychiatric side effects, the drug was not associated with an increase in hospitalization for mental health disorders compared with use of nicotine patches.

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Governmental standard drink definitions and low-risk alcohol consumption guidelines in 37 countries

Drinking guidelines and 'standard drink' definitions are inconsistent across the globe. The size of a standard drink varies by as much as 250% from country to country.

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August 2016

Topiramate for cocaine dependence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Topiramate for cocaine dependence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Current evidence does not support the use of topiramate to improve treatment retention for cocaine use disorder.

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The effects of cannabis intoxication on motor vehicle collision revisited and revised

Acute cannabis intoxication is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in motor vehicle crash risk.

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Daily alcohol Use as an independent risk factor for HIV seroconversion among people who inject drugs

Daily alcohol use appears to be an independent risk factor for HIV seroconversion among people who inject drugs.

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Gender-specific effects of comorbid depression and anxiety on the propensity to drink in negative emotional states

Female alcoholics seem to have a higher prevalence than males of comorbid depression and anxiety disorders and tendency to drink in negative emotional situations.

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Estimating demand for primary care-based treatment for substance and alcohol use disorders

In the US, people with substance or alcohol use disorders seem more willing to enter treatment in a primary care setting than in a specialty drug treatment centre.

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A randomized trial of a pain management intervention for adults receiving substance use disorder treatment

Among adults with pain receiving addictions treatment, a psychological pain management intervention appears to reduce pain and alcohol use and improve pain-related functioning over 12 months.

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Effectiveness of a universal internet-based prevention program for ecstasy and new psychoactive substances: a cluster randomized controlled trial

A universal online school-based prevention program appeared to reduce students' intentions to use new psychoactive substances (NPS) and increased knowledge about ecstasy and NPS in the short term.

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A randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine taper duration among opioid-dependent adolescents and young adults

Longer (56-day) buprenorphine taper produces better opioid abstinence and retention outcomes than shorter (28-day) taper for opioid-dependent youth.

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Buprenorphine + naloxone plus naltrexone for the treatment of cocaine dependence: the Cocaine Use Reduction with Buprenorphine (CURB) study

Buprenorphine + naloxone, used in combination with naltrexone, may be associated with reductions in cocaine use among people with cocaine dependence.

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Problem gambling and the five-factor model of personality: a large population-based study

Higher severity problem gambling may be associated with higher neuroticism scores and lower conscientiousness and agreeableness scores in the Mini-International Personality Item Pool.

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Depression motivates quit attempts but predicts relapse: differential findings for gender from the International Tobacco Control Study

Smokers with depressive symptoms or diagnosis make more quit attempts than their non-depressed counterparts but are likelier to relapse in the first month.

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The impact of quitting smoking on depressive symptoms: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey

Most people who stop smoking appear to be at no greater risk of developing symptoms of depression than if they had continued smoking.

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Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio-economic background to alcohol consumption

In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and if they participate in tertiary education (college and university).

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Ecological momentary assessment of working memory under conditions of simultaneous marijuana and tobacco use

The putative effect of marijuana on working memory and the facilitative effect of tobacco on working memory are no longer present when used simultaneously with tobacco and alcohol, respectively.

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Weak evidence on nalmefene creates dilemmas for clinicians and poses questions for regulators and researchers

Nalmefene, a drug used to treat alcohol problems, was licensed for use in the UK despite insufficient evidence to prove its effectiveness.

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September 2016

A mixed-method systematic review and meta-analysis of mental health professionals' attitudes toward smoking and smoking cessation among people with mental illnesses

A significant proportion of mental health professionals holds attitudes and misconceptions that may undermine the delivery of smoking cessation interventions.

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Varenicline for smoking cessation and reduction in people with severe mental illnesses: systematic review and meta-analysis

Varenicline appears to be significantly more effective than placebo for smoking cessation and reduction in people with severe mental illness, with no clear evidence of increased risk of psychiatric adverse events.

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Developing a social practice-based typology of British drinking culture in 2009-2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis

Eight types of drinking situation in Great Britain can be identified: mixed -location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get-together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%).

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The indirect effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on alcohol problems in adulthood through unique facets of impulsivity

Elevated levels of emotional impulsivity (negative/positive urgency) may be what puts children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at increased risk for alcohol problems in adulthood.

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Understanding trends in Australian alcohol consumption--an age-period-cohort model

The overall decline in drinking in Australia during the past decade is due mainly to less drinking among people in their teens and early twenties.

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Risk of heavy drinking among sexual minority adolescents: indirect pathways through sexual orientation-related victimization and affiliation with substance-using peers

Sexual minority adolescents in the US appear to exhibit increased heavy episodic drinking via an indirect socialization pathway, including affiliations with substance-using peers and sexual minority-related victimization.

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The toxicology of heroin-related death: estimating survival times

In heroin-related deaths in Sydney, Australia during 2013 and 2014, 6-monoacetyl morphine (6MAM) was present in the blood in <50% of cases, suggesting that in >50% of those fatalities, survival time exceeded 20-30 minutes, giving sufficient time to intervene.

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An economic evaluation of contingency management for completion of hepatitis B vaccination in those on treatment for opiate dependence

Using financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost-effective use of health-care resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%.

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Implications of gambling problems for family and interpersonal adjustment: results from the Quinte Longitudinal Study

At-risk and problem gambling may be associated with concurrent and near-term future decreases in social functioning but possibly not longer-term trajectories in social functioning.

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'Maybe they should regulate them quite strictly until they know the true dangers': a focus group study exploring UK adolescents' views on e-cigarette regulation

In focus group discussions, a sample of UK adolescents exposed to particular communications about e-cigarettes supported strict regulation of e-cigarettes, including banning sales to minors and use in indoor public areas.

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Motivating parents of kids with asthma to quit smoking: the effect of the teachable moment and increasing intervention intensity using a longitudinal randomized trial design

Parents who smoke whose children have asthma are more likely to quit smoking after receiving motivational smoking cessation counselling following a teachable moment, such as witnessing their child experience an asthma attack).

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Which measures of cigarette dependence are predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy? Analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial

Four common measures of nicotine dependence (number of cigarettes per day, Fagerström Test score, frequency of urges, level of expired CO) predict short-term smoking abstinence during pregnancy and at end of pregnancy with similar predictive validity.

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Is khat use disorder a valid diagnostic entity?

The construct of a substance use disorder syndrome for khat using DSM-5 criteria appears valid and performs in a manner consistent with other substances of dependence.

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October 2016

Gender differences in the impact of population-level alcohol policy interventions: evidence synthesis of systematic reviews

Gender is poorly reported in systematic reviews of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm, hindering assessment of the effects of such policies on women versus men.

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Smoking in movies and smoking initiation in adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

There are substantial associations between young people reporting having seen smoking imagery in films and smoking initiation, whether assessed cross-sectionally or prospectively. It is not clear whether the association is causal.

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Evaluating the public health impacts of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the United States

Plausible effects of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the United States include substantially reducing the price of cannabis and increasing heavy use and some types of cannabis-related harm among existing users. In the longer term it may also increase the number of new users.

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European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use

Degree of adolescent exposure to alcohol marketing appears to be associated with subsequent amount of alcohol use.

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The burden of alcohol use disorders in US military veterans: results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study

More than 40% of US military veterans have a lifetime history of alcohol use disorder, usually with a substantial comorbid psychiatric burden, including elevated rates of suicidal ideation and attempts.

Link to Abstract
Parental alcohol-related disorders and school performance in 16-year-olds--a Swedish national cohort study

In Sweden, alcohol-related disorders in both mothers and fathers are associated with lower school performance in their children at age 15-16 years.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol-attributed disease burden in four Nordic countries: a comparison using the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors 2013 study

Finland and Denmark had a higher alcohol-attributed disease burden than Sweden and Norway from 1990-2013. Non-fatal conditions accounted for a higher proportion of disability-adjusted life years in Norway and Sweden than Finland and Denmark.

Link to Abstract
Cognitive ability and risk for substance misuse in men: genetic and environmental correlations in a longitudinal nation-wide family study

Common genetic factors appear to explain the association between low cognitive ability and subsequent risk of substance misuse events among Swedish men.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol and marijuana use trajectories in a diverse longitudinal sample of adolescents: examining use patterns from age 11 to 17 years

Greater alcohol and marijuana use is associated with worse functioning in high school for all youth.

Link to Abstract
Epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders in Iran: prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and service utilization results from the Iranian Mental Health Survey

Opioid use disorders are the most common type of drug use disorders in Iran.

Link to Abstract
The impact of codeine re-scheduling on misuse: a retrospective review of calls to Australia's largest poisons centre

Misuse of codeine combination products appears to be increasing in Australia. Limited rescheduling in 2010 failed to curb this increase.

Link to Abstract
From cannabis initiation to daily use: educational inequalities in consumption behaviours over three generations in France

In France, the risk of transition from cannabis initiation to daily use has remained consistently higher among less educated cannabis initiators over three generations.

Link to Abstract
Is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among men associated with initiation or escalation of substance use at 15-month follow-up? A longitudinal study involving young Swiss men

For men in their early 20s, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a risk factor for continued heavier use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and initiating use of cannabis, stimulants, hallucinogens and sedatives, independent of conduct disorder in early adolescence.

Link to Abstract

November 2016

The association between smoking prevalence and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

People with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa are significantly more likely to be life-time smokers than healthy controls.

Link to Abstract
Craving cannabis: a meta-analysis of self-report and psychophysiological cue-reactivity studies

Regular cannabis users have attentional biases towards cannabis cues that appear to be greater relative to non-users than perceptions of craving for the drug.

Link to Abstract
Improving the delivery of brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care: outcome results of the ODHIN five-country cluster randomized factorial trial

Giving primary health-care units training, support and financial reimbursement for delivering AUDIT-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers increases screening for alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Estimated increase in cross-border purchases by Washington residents following liquor privatization and implications for alcohol consumption trends

The privatization of liquor sales in Washington, USA in 2012 resulted in a significant increase in sales in bordering counties in Oregon and Idaho with little change to the amount of alcohol sales and revenue in Washington.

Link to Abstract
Behavioral economic indicators of drinking problem severity and initial outcomes among problem drinkers attempting natural recovery: a cross-sectional naturalistic study

Two behavioral assessment tools that measure spending on alcohol, the Alcohol Purchase Task and the Alcohol-Savings Discretionary Expenditure index, appear to be reliable in assessing drinking problem severity.

Link to Abstract
Perceived parental alcohol problems, internalizing problems and impaired parent-child relationships among 71 988 young people in Denmark

Young people in secondary education in Denmark who report perceived parental alcohol problems have significantly higher odds of internalizing problems and poorer parent-child relationships compared with young people without perceived parental alcohol problems.

Link to Abstract
Predictive validity of clinical AUDIT-C alcohol screening scores and changes in scores for three objective alcohol-related outcomes in a Veterans Affairs population

In clinical settings, baseline AUDIT-C scores and score increases to moderate-severe alcohol misuse at follow-up screening appear to predict higher HDL cholesterol, alcohol-related gastrointestinal hospitalizations and physical trauma.

Link to Abstract
The role of living context in prescription opioid injection and the associated risk of hepatitis C infection

People who inject prescription opioids in inner-city areas of Montréal, Canada are more likely to engage in injecting-related risk behaviours and have a higher risk of hepatitis C virus infection than those who live in the suburbs.

Link to Abstract
Essential/precursor chemicals and drug consumption: impacts of US sodium permanganate and Mexico pseudoephedrine controls on the numbers of US cocaine and methamphetamine users

Essential/precursor chemical controls in the USA (2006) and Mexico (2007) were associated with large, extended reductions in cocaine and methamphetamine users in the USA.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent cannabis use and repeated voluntary unprotected sex in women

Women who start using cannabis during adolescence appear to be more likely to report voluntary engagement in repeated unprotected sex than women who never use cannabis or who initiate cannabis use after adolescence.

Link to Abstract
Non-medical use of prescription opioids is associated with heroin initiation among US veterans: a prospective cohort study

New-onset non-medical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) is a strong risk factor for heroin initiation among HIV-infected and uninfected veterans in the United States who reported no previous history of NMUPO or illicit opioid use.

Link to Abstract
Electronic cigarette use in the European Union: analysis of a representative sample of 27 460 Europeans from 28 countries

E-cigarette use in the European Union appears to be largely confined to current or former smokers, while current use and nicotine use by people who have never smoked is rare.

Link to Abstract
Estimating met demand for alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia

A new method of calculating the use of drug treatment estimates that between 202,168 and 232,419 Australians received alcohol and other drug treatment in 2011-12.

Link to Abstract
Cannabis and alcohol use, affect and impulsivity in psychiatric out-patients' daily lives

Cannabis and alcohol use are associated with higher levels of impulsivity (both), hostility (cannabis) and positive affect (alcohol) in daily life.

Link to Abstract

December 2016

Buprenorphine compared with methadone to treat pregnant women with opioid use disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of safety in the mother, fetus and child

Buprenorphine treatment of opioid use disorder during pregnancy appears to result in lower risk of preterm birth, greater birth weight and larger head circumference compared with methadone treatment, and no greater harms.

Link to Abstract
Behavioural tasks sensitive to acute abstinence and predictive of smoking cessation success: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Compared with satiated smokers, acutely abstinent smokers display higher delay discounting, lower response inhibition, and impaired arithmetic and recognition memory performance.

Link to Abstract
Finding success in failure: using latent profile analysis to examine heterogeneity in psychosocial functioning among heavy drinkers following treatment

Current US Food and Drug Administration guidance to use heavy drinking as indicative of treatment 'failure' does not to take into account substantial psychological and social improvements made by individuals who continue occasionally to drink heavily post-treatment.

Link to Abstract
The party effect: prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content

Adolescents and young adults in the USA appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset associated with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non-party themes.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol-induced place conditioning in moderate social drinkers

Non-dependent consumers of alcohol appear to develop a behavioral preference for locations paired with alcohol consumption, more so for those who experience sedative effects from alcohol in those locations.

Link to Abstract
Developmental course of non-medical use of prescription drugs from adolescence to adulthood in the United States: national longitudinal data

The non-medical use of prescription opioids, sedatives, stimulants and tranquilizers appears to peak during late adolescence. The developmental course of non-medical use is not the same among all four classes of drugs.

Link to Abstract
Community pharmacist knowledge, attitudes and confidence regarding naloxone for overdose reversal

Community pharmacists in Australia appear to be willing to supply naloxone but have low levels of knowledge about naloxone pharmacology and administration.

Link to Abstract
How does state marijuana policy affect US youth? Medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived harmfulness: 1991-2014

While perceived harmfulness of marijuana use appears to be decreasing nationally among adolescents in the USA, the passage of medical marijuana laws (MML) has been associated with increases in perceived harmfulness among young adolescents and marijuana use has decreased among those who perceive marijuana to be harmful after passage of MML.

Link to Abstract
Gambling and violence in a nationally representative sample of UK men

Among UK men, self-reports of problem/pathological gambling are predictive of violent behaviour after adjusting for alcohol and drug dependence, comorbid mental disorder and impulsivity.

Link to Abstract
Estimations and predictors of non-compliance in switchers to reduced nicotine content cigarettes

Among smokers volunteering to smoke only very low nicotine cigarettes for 6 weeks, non-compliance was common and biochemical assessments detected more cases of non-compliance than self-report. Despite this, smokers reduced their intake of nicotine by an average of 60%.

Link to Abstract
Long-term effectiveness of a combined student-parent and a student-only smoking prevention intervention among 7th grade school children in Berlin, Germany

A combined student-parent smoking prevention intervention delivered via secondary schools in Berlin, Germany, did not significantly reduce regular smoking compared with a control group or a student-only intervention. The student-only intervention did not significantly reduce regular smoking compared with the control group.

Link to Abstract
Using Bayes factors for testing hypotheses about intervention effectiveness in addictions research

Use of Bayes factors when analysing data from randomized trials of interventions in addiction research can provide information allowing more precise conclusions than are typically obtained using current methods.

Link to Abstract
The Australian experience following plain packaging: the impact on tobacco branding

The introduction of plain packaging of cigarettes in Australia did not deter the introduction of new brands and variants of cigarettes.

Link to Abstract

January 2015

What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use?

The epidemiological literature in the past 20 years shows that cannabis use increases the risk of accidents and can produce dependence, and that there are consistent associations between regular cannabis use and poor psychosocial outcomes and mental health in adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in the treatment of adolescents and young adults with depression and substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Antidepressant medication has a small overall effect in reducing depression in young patients with combined depressive and substance-use disorders, but does not appear to improve substance use outcomes.

Link to Abstract
Patterns of change in implementation of state alcohol control policies in the United States, 1999-2011

Implementation of politically palatable but ineffective state alcohol policies increased during 1999-2011 in the United States, while the most effective policies remained underused.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol expectancies in childhood: change with the onset of drinking and ability to predict adolescent drunkenness and binge drinking

Higher childhood alcohol expectations of positive effects predict earlier onset of problem drinking. Onset of alcohol use is followed by an increase in the rate of development of positive expectancies.

Link to Abstract
HERMITAGE--a randomized controlled trial to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviors among HIV-infected Russian drinkers

The HERMITAGE HIV risk reduction intervention does not appear to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviours in Russian HIV-infected heavy drinkers compared with simply providing standard care and attention.

Link to Abstract
Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men

Stimulating effects of alcohol are common in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but alcohol appears to be less rewarding.

Link to Abstract
Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10 365 general population men

In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime.

Link to Abstract
Ongoing impact of HIV infection on mortality among people who inject drugs despite free antiretroviral therapy

HIV infection continues to have a persistent association with mortality rates among people who inject drugs in settings with free HIV/AIDS care, although causes of death have shifted markedly from infectious and AIDS-related causes to non-AIDS-related causes.

Link to Abstract
High-frequency drug purity and price series as tools for explaining drug trends and harms in Victoria, Australia

Decreases in methamphetamine purity-adjusted price along with the bimodality of crystal methamphetamine purity may account for some of the recent increase in methamphetamine-related harm in Victoria, Australia. For a given amount spent, methamphetamine purchase power has increased and the presence of extreme purity variations may challenge individuals' control of consumption.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of rapid HCV testing and simultaneous rapid HCV and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs

On-site rapid hepatitis C virus and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs is cost-effective at a <$100,000/ quality-adjusted life year threshold in the US.

Link to Abstract
Telescoping and gender differences in the time course of disordered gambling: evidence from a general population sample

When assessed at the general population level, female gamblers do not appear to show a telescoped disordered gambling trajectory (showing a later age at initiation of gambling but a shorter time from initiation to disorder) compared with male gamblers.

Link to Abstract
The Impact of the Tobacco Retail Outlet Environment on Adult Cessation and Differences by Neighborhood Poverty

In the USA, density of tobacco outlets within 500 meters of the home residence appears to be negatively associated with smoking abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes only in poor areas.

Link to Abstract
The association between family affluence and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in 33 European countries, Israel and Canada: the role of national wealth

The difference in smoking prevalence between rich and poor people is greater in more affluent countries.

Link to Abstract
Plain cigarette packs do not exert Pavlovian to instrumental transfer of control over tobacco-seeking

Plain packaging may reduce smoking rates in current smokers by reducing the extent to which the package acts as an unconscious trigger for smoking urges.

Link to Abstract

February 2015

Familial factors associated with development of alcohol and mental health comorbidity

Maternal smoking and low mother-child warmth may lead to alcohol, mental health and comorbid disorders at age 21.

Link to Abstract
Effects of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol problems: evaluating chained mediation through generalized anxiety, depression and drinking motives

Propensity to anxiety appears to lead to alcohol problems in part through drinking to deal with negative emotions.

Link to Abstract
Tests of the effects of adolescent early alcohol exposures on adult outcomes

Early alcohol use and intoxication may be partly responsible for adult alcohol- and drug-related problems and antisocial behaviour.

Link to Abstract
Relative risk of injury from acute alcohol consumption: modeling the dose-response relationship in emergency department data from 18 countries

Women have a higher risk of injury than men after more than three drinks.

Link to Abstract
Interaction effects between the 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype and family conflict on adolescent alcohol use and misuse

Compared with non-carriers, adolescents carrying the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele are more susceptible to the effects of family conflict on alcohol misuse.

Link to Abstract
Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 US states: impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density

In the United States, the density of alcohol outlets in a county is positively correlated with alcohol-related suicide, especially among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol in the second half of life: do usual quantity and frequency of drinking to intoxication increase with increased drinking frequency?

Among Norwegian adults in the second half of life, increased drinking frequency appears to be associated with a small reduction in usual quantity, and a small increase in frequency of drinking to intoxication.

Link to Abstract
Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs

There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions

Link to Abstract
Smoking cessation-related weight gain--beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength and bone health

Weight gain from smoking cessation is caused by an increase in muscle mass and bone density as well as an increase in fat.

Link to Abstract
The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands

On current projections, smoking will continue to kill hundreds of thousands of people in Northern Europe each year for the foreseeable future.

Link to Abstract
Use of stop-smoking medications in the United States before and after the introduction of varenicline

The introduction of varenicline in the United States coincided with a net increase in attempts to quit smoking and, among these, a net increase in use of stop-smoking medications.

Link to Abstract
'Wide-awake drunkenness'? Investigating the association between alcohol intoxication and stimulant use in the night-time economy

Stimulants users are more likely to have prolonged sessions of heavy alcohol consumption and a range of risk-taking behaviours on a night out than those who do not use stimulants.

Link to Abstract

March 2015

DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among young Swiss men

Previous studies suggest the new DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) will increase the apparent prevalence of AUD. However, in a high-risk sample of young Swiss males, prevalence of AUD as diagnosed by DSM-5 was slightly lower than prevalence of DSM-IV diagnosis of dependence plus abuse.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

When examining the association between alcohol taxes and binge drinking, use of more specific tax measures, incorporating both volume-based taxes and value-based taxes, shows stronger associations than generic measures.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality within siblings

The association between educational status and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality is only driven by familial factors to a small degree.

Link to Abstract
Genomic influences on alcohol problems in a population-based sample of young adults

Genetic influences on alcohol problems involve genes underpinning both nervous system functioning and physiological functions outside the nervous system.

Link to Abstract
Driving under the influence as a turning point? A register-based study on financial and social consequences among first-time male offenders

Among men in Finland, the first drunk-driving conviction constitutes a significant life event that appears to increase the likelihood of financial problems and divorce.

Link to Abstract
Drug use, health and social outcomes of hard-to-treat heroin addicts receiving supervised injectable opiate treatment: secondary outcomes from the Randomized Injectable Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT)

In a randomised controlled trial, supervised injectable heroin treatment and supervised injectable methadone treatment showed no benefit over optimized oral methadone in terms of wider drug use, crime, and physical and mental health within a 6-month period, despite achieving a greater reduction in street heroin use.

Link to Abstract
Subtyping based on readiness and confidence: the identification of help-seeking profiles for gamblers accessing web-based counselling

Problem gamblers in Australia who seek web-based counselling comprise four distinct subgroups based on self-reported levels of readiness to change, confidence to resist the urge to gamble, and importance of change.

Link to Abstract
Smoking and mortality in a prospective cohort study of elderly Chinese in Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the risk of death from smoking appears to be the same for Chinese women as it is for men. Half of all deaths in Chinese smokers aged 65 years and older and a quarter of all deaths in Chinese smokers aged 85 years and older are caused by smoking-attributable diseases.

Link to Abstract
Associations between use of pharmacological aids in a smoking cessation attempt and subsequent quitting activity: a population study

Smokers who have tried to quit in the past year are more likely to try to quit again within 6 months regardless of whether they used a pharmacological aid, and they are more likely to re-try aids they had used previously.

Link to Abstract
Gender differences in the relationship between affect and adolescent smoking uptake

Low positive affect (low experience of positive feelings or emotions) for females, and high negative affect (high experience of negative feelings or emotions) for both males and females increases the risk of adolescents taking up smoking.

Link to Abstract
Examining the role of common genetic variants on alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and illicit drug dependence

At least 20% of the variance in the generalized vulnerability to substance dependence is attributable to common genetic variations.

Link to Abstract

April 2015

Alcohol consumption in adolescent homicide victims in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a substantial proportion of adolescent homicides in Johannesburg, South Africa, especially among male and older adolescent victims and in victims killed with sharp instruments over the weekends and during the evenings.

Link to Abstract
Factors associated with over-serving at drinking establishments

In urban settings in Norway, over-serving of alcohol in drinking establishments appears to occur frequently and increases in the presence of poor lighting, loud music and high intoxication level among patrons.

Link to Abstract
Drinking experience uncovers genetic influences on alcohol expectancies across adolescence

In young people, environmental factors explain beliefs about the social and behavioural consequences of alcohol use before they experience drinking for the first time whereas genetic factors explain an increasing proportion of the variance in these beliefs after drinking onset.

Link to Abstract
The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening--an event-level analysis

Among young adults in Switzerland, individual alcohol consumption appears to increase with the number of friends in the drinking group.

Link to Abstract
A longitudinal study of the association of adolescent polydrug use, alcohol use and high school non-completion

Unsurprisingly, Australian adolescents who use multiple psychoactive drugs or who mainly use alcohol us are less likely to complete school than adolescents who do not use drugs.

Link to Abstract
Benzodiazepine use among mothers of small children: a register-based cohort study

In Finland, benzodiazepine use among mothers is reduced during pregnancy and the child's first year, and then increases as the child grows older. Mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric disorders are at particularly high risk of benzodiazepine use.

Link to Abstract
A longitudinal comparison of retention in buprenorphine and methadone treatment for opioid dependence in New South Wales, Australia

Although retention rates for buprenorphine treatment have improved in New South Wales, Australia, individuals starting methadone treatment still show higher retention rates.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study

In England, both cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence are associated strongly with subsequent adverse educational outcomes, including low standardised test scores and leaving school with no qualifications.

Link to Abstract
First- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes: predictors of choice and effects on urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms

First- and second-generation electronic cigarettes appear to be similarly effective in reducing urges to smoke during abstinence, but second-generation devices appear to be more satisfying to users.

Link to Abstract
Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: a single-arm intervention study assessing cessation and gaming

In the UK, pregnant smokers enrolled in an incentive scheme to quit smoking appeared to achieve prolonged cessation rates comparable to those reported in US trials.

Link to Abstract
Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students

Adolescents in the UK who notice tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognise a higher number of tobacco brands appear to have an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking. (People who are susceptible to smoking intend to try smoking and are likely to smoke if offered a cigarette.)

Link to Abstract
Adolescents' exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos

Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding.

Link to Abstract

May 2015

Effects of Experimental Negative Affect Manipulations on Ad Lib Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

A review of experimental studies confirms that feeling bad increases intensity of smoking.

Link to Abstract
Prevalence of alcohol use disorders in mainland China: a systematic review

Current and lifetime prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence in China measure 2.2% and 3.7%, respectively, approaching those of the Netherlands, USA, and other Western countries.

Link to Abstract
Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking

Ability to resist drinking when feeling bad could be what is driving the link between poorer mental health, impulsiveness and tendency to drink alone in adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

Adolescents who show worsening inattention symptoms as they grow older and delinquency tend to have increased levels of substance use in early adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Hepatitis C seroconversion in methadone maintenance treatment programs in Wuhan, China

Methadone maintenance treatment patients in Wuhan, China show a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus at admission (72.1%) and a high rate of seroconversion during treatment (46.3%). Seroconversion is associated with continuing injection drug use.

Link to Abstract
US federal cocaine essential ('precursor') chemical regulation impacts on US cocaine availability: an intervention time-series analysis with temporal replication

In the United States, controls of chemicals critical to cocaine manufacture from 1989 to 2006 seemed to be highly effective in reducing cocaine availability.

Link to Abstract
Prolonged hypogonadism in males following withdrawal from anabolic-androgenic steroids: an under-recognized problem

Male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid misusers tend to experience prolonged low testosterone levels when they stop using the drugs leading to substantial effects on sexual functioning.

Link to Abstract
Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing for reducing injection risk behaviours among persons who inject drugs

A brief motivational interviewing intervention was more effective than a brief educational intervention in reducing some high risk drug injecting behaviours in the 6 months following the intervention.

Link to Abstract
Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a statewide representative sample

Using the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD), symptoms related to "giving up other activities," "tolerance" and "withdrawal" seem to be most relevant for diagnosing IGD in German students aged 13-18 years.

Link to Abstract
Efficacy of a smoking prevention programme in Catalan secondary schools: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Spain

A school-based educational intervention for secondary school students in Catalonia, Spain was not found to lead to a noticeable reduction of smoking, confirming yet again the limitations of this kind of approach.

Link to Abstract
The comparative efficacy of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal

Second-generation e-cigarettes (those involving refillable cartridges and looking less like cigarettes) seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first-generation e-cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers

Among vapor store customers in the US who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer generation devices, and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavoured e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation.

Link to Abstract

June 2015

Global Statistics on Addiction Behaviours: 2014 Status Report

A major new global report on addictive behaviour shows that the harm to society from legal drugs far outweighs the harm from illicit drugs: 240 million people have an alcohol use disorder and more than 1 billion people smoke tobacco.

Link to Abstract
The efficacy of acamprosate and naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence, Europe versus the rest of the world: a meta-analysis

Both acamprosate and naltrexone appear to reduce the risk of alcohol-dependent individuals returning to drinking.

Link to Abstract
The harmful dysfunction model of alcohol use disorder: revised criteria to improve the validity of diagnosis and prevalence estimates

Diagnostic validity improves when using 'harmful dysfunction' diagnostic criteria compared with standard DSM criteria, partly by reducing misdiagnosis of teenage transient drinkers.

Link to Abstract
Heterogeneous dose-response and college student drinking: examining problem risks related to low drinking levels

Among US college students, all drinkers exhibit greater risks for physiological problems related to alcohol use (hangover, nausea, memory loss, etc.) when drinking greater amounts of alcohol, but heavier drinkers exhibit fewer problems for each additional drink consumed than light and moderate drinkers.

Link to Abstract
The impact of extended closing times of alcohol outlets on alcohol-related injuries in the nightlife areas of Amsterdam: a controlled before-and-after evaluation

A 1-hour extension of alcohol outlet closing times in some of Amsterdam's nightlife areas was associated with 34% more alcohol-related injuries.

Link to Abstract
Is there a link between per capita alcohol consumption and youth drinking? A time-series analysis for Sweden in 1972-2012

Adult and youth drinking in Sweden were synchronized closely during the two last decades of the 20th century, but youth drinking developed an independent trajectory shortly before 2000.

Link to Abstract
Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention among injecting drug users: who should we cure first?

When more than half of all exchanged syringes in a population of injecting drug users (IDU) are contaminated by hepatitis C virus, it is most efficient to treat low-risk IDU first. Below this threshold, it is most efficient to treat high-risk IDU first.

Link to Abstract
Long-term mortality, remission, criminality and psychiatric comorbidity of heroin dependence: 11-year findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

In an 11-year follow-up of patients undergoing treatment for heroin dependence in Australia, 10.2% had died and almost half were still in treatment. The proportion still using heroin had fallen to a quarter, with major depression being a significant predictor of continued use.

Link to Abstract
Mortality among individuals accessing pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence in California, 2006-10

In people with opiate dependence, detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment both independently reduce the immediate risk of death.

Link to Abstract
Opioid treatment at release from jail using extended-release naltrexone: a pilot proof-of-concept randomized effectiveness trial

Extended-release naltrexone is associated with significantly lower rates of opioid relapse among men in the United States following release from jail when compared with a no medication treatment-as-usual condition.

Link to Abstract
Examining the association between substance use disorder treatment and smoking cessation

Being recently in receipt of substance use disorder treatment is associated with reduced chances of stopping smoking.

Link to Abstract
An exploratory short-term double-blind randomized trial of varenicline versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation in women

Varenicline appears to be better at helping women stop smoking than does nicotine patch.

Link to Abstract
Craving and Substance Use among Patients with Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis or Heroin Addiction: A Comparison of Substance-specific and Person-specific Cues

Person-specific cues for substance abuse (e.g. places associated with use) appear to be powerful triggers for craving and relapse and to persist for longer than more general cues relating to taking drugs.

Link to Abstract

July 2015

A comparison of the efficacy of brief interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption between European and non-European countries

Brief interventions appear to be effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption by hazardous and harmful drinkers at 6 and 12 month follow-up in both primary health care and emergency department trials.

Link to Abstract
Educational inequalities in hospitalisation attributable to alcohol: a population-based longitudinal study of changes over the period 2000 to 2007

Lower educational level is markedly associated with increased risk of alcohol-related hospitalisation among men and women in Finland.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: Results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

The alcohol prevention programme Preventure appears to have little or no effect on overall prevalence of binge drinking in adolescents in the Netherlands but may reduce the development of binge drinking over time.

Link to Abstract
Parental transmission of risk for cannabis use disorders to offspring

Parental histories of antisocial personality and illicit substance use disorders are associated with increased risk for cannabis use disorder onset in offspring.

Link to Abstract
The impact of paying treatment providers for outcomes: Difference-indifferences analysis of the 'payment by results for drugs recovery' pilot

In the first year of the pilot "Payment by Results for Drugs Recovery" scheme in England, linking payments to outcomes reduced the probability of completing drug misuse treatment and increased the proportion service users declining to continue with treatment.

Link to Abstract
Economic crisis and changes in drug use in the Spanish economically active population

During a period of economic recession in Spain, heavy drinking decreased and binge drinking increased. Sporadic cannabis use increased among older unemployed men and women. Heavy use of hypnotics/sedatives increased among employed men while older women increased use irrespective of employment status.

Link to Abstract
4-Fluoroamphetamine in the Netherlands: more than a one-night stand

The stimulant 4-fluoroamphetamine is increasingly popular in the Netherlands, which might be due to its subjective effects profile, which lies between amphetamine and MDMA.

Link to Abstract
The health consequences of injecting tablet preparations: foreign body pulmonary embolization and pulmonary hypertension among deceased injecting drug users

Cases of foreign body pulmonary embolization (resulting from injecting crushed tablets meant for oral use, such as benzodiazepines and pharmaceutical opioids) in Sydney, Australia increased markedly from 1997 to 2013.

Link to Abstract
Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland

In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting.

Link to Abstract
Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up

Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation.

Link to Abstract
Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among US young adults: survival analysis using annual national cohorts from 1976 to 2005

Among high school seniors in the United States, taking up occasional and experimental smoking increased from 1976 to 2005. Smoking uptake remained most likely to occur at age 19/20, but prevalence of uptake at older ages increased.

Link to Abstract
Abstinence and relapse amongst smokers who use varenicline in a quit attempt - a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials

Varenicline does a better job than placebo at getting smokers to quit after they have failed to stop smoking on their target quit date. Relapse rates from end of treatment to 52 weeks are similar in varenicline and placebo treated smokers.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial of treatments for co-occurring substance use disorders and PTSD

Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy may improve drug-related outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sufferers with substance use disorder more than drug focused counseling but probably not by reducing PTSD symptoms to a greater extent.

Link to Abstract

August 2015

Are the Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges likely to improve public health?: An evidence synthesis

England's Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges do not reflect the most effective evidence-based strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm.

Link to Abstract
Potential bias due to outcome-related loss to follow-up in cohort studies on incidence of drug injection: systematic review and meta-analysis

In cohort studies on drug injection initiation, study participants with higher risk of starting injection drop out at a higher rate than other participants, which can produce a false impression of decline in the incidence of drug injection in studies that use long follow-up periods.

Link to Abstract
Pain as a predictor of heavy drinking and any drinking lapses in the COMBINE study and the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial

Among people treated for alcohol use disorder, being in physical pain appears to predict heavy drinking lapses during or after treatment.

Link to Abstract
Transition probabilities for four states of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood: what factors matter when?

There is a high degree of stability over time in the drinking patterns of German adolescents and young adults with those who are abstinent at one time being very likely to be abstinent years later, and those with risky drinking patterns maintaining those patterns over time.

Link to Abstract
Cocaine-related stimuli impair inhibitory control in cocaine users following short stimulus onset asynchronies

Cocaine-related stimuli appear to decrease inhibitory control in cocaine users at short (100 and 200 ms) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: the amount of time between the start of one stimulus and the start of another stimulus), but not at longer (300, 400 and 500 ms) SOAs.

Link to Abstract
Estimating the number of people with hepatitis C virus who have ever injected drugs and have yet to be diagnosed: an evidence synthesis approach for Scotland

The number of undiagnosed hepatitis C virus-infected cases in Scotland appears to be particularly high among those who are over 35 and have injected drugs more than 1 year ago.

Link to Abstract
Predictors of participant engagement and naloxone utilization in a community-based naloxone distribution program

Community naloxone distribution programs are capable of reaching sizeable populations of high-risk individuals and facilitating large numbers of overdose reversals.

Link to Abstract
The association between speed of transition from initiation to subsequent use of cannabis and later problematic cannabis use, abuse and dependence

Rapid transition (within one week) from first to second use of cannabis is associated with increased likelihood of subsequent daily cannabis use and abuse/dependence.

Link to Abstract
Fatal opioid poisoning: a counterfactual model to estimate the preventive effect of treatment for opioid use disorder in England

It is estimated that treatment services for opioid use prevent about 880 fatalities from overdose per year in England.

Link to Abstract
Dose-response relationship between methadone dose and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive persons who use illicit opioids

HIV-positive people in methadone maintenance therapy who receive higher doses of methadone are more likely to stick with their antiretroviral therapy than those receiving lower doses.

Link to Abstract
Towards a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling

A modification of Kendler's model for major depression provides a foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling.

Link to Abstract
E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditions

E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditions that e-cigarette users typically detect and avoid.

Link to Abstract

September 2015

Healthcare interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

Brief advice from a healthcare worker, telephone helplines, automated text messaging, printed self-help materials, cytisine and nortriptyline are globally affordable healthcare interventions to promote and assist smoking cessation.

Link to Abstract
Specialty substance use disorder services following brief alcohol intervention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

There is no clear evidence currently that brief alcohol interventions increase uptake of treatment for alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Increased behavioral economic demand and craving for alcohol following a laboratory alcohol challenge

When they are intoxicated with alcohol people say that they would pay more for a drink and consume more drinks if they were free.

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Ecological evidence that affect and perceptions of drink effects depend on alcohol expectancies

Frequent drinkers' expectations that drinking will enhance sociability or reduce tension influence their perceptions of pleasure and relief from drinking.

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Changes in mortality due to major alcohol-related diseases in four Nordic countries, France and Germany between 1980 and 2009: a comparative age-period-cohort analysis

Trends in alcohol-attributable mortality in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Norway and Sweden clearly differed between 1980 and 2009. It appears that country-specific events simultaneously affected all age groups and cohorts in the respective countries.

Link to Abstract
Design and baseline findings of a large-scale rapid response to an HIV outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme

In Athens, Greece, the ARISTOTLE intervention for identifying HIV-positive people among people who inject drugs (PWID) facilitated rapid identification of a hidden population experiencing an outbreak.

Link to Abstract
Arrhythmia associated with buprenorphine and methadone reported to the Food and Drug Administration

In spontaneously reported adverse events, methadone is associated with disproportionately high reporting of cardiac arrhythmias, whereas buprenorphine is not.

Link to Abstract
Changes in health outcomes as a function of abstinence and reduction in illicit psychoactive drug use: a prospective study in primary care

Among primary care patients in the US who use illicit psychoactive drugs, abstinence but not reduction in use appears to be associated with decreased adverse drug use consequences.

Link to Abstract
Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England

In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by approximately 80% since 1998. The proportion of children living in a home reported to be smoke-free increased from 63% in 1998 to 87.3% in 2012.

Link to Abstract
Distress, race/ethnicity, and smoking cessation in treatment-seekers: implications for disparity elimination

Among smokers in Florida, USA, racial/ethnic differences in distress before starting cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation were eliminated at the end of treatment, driven by improvements among African American and Hispanic people. Tackling distress through CBT may be important in eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in smoking cessation.

Link to Abstract
What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health & Morbidity Survey

People who don't respond to health surveys in Denmark have an increased risk of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with respondents.

Link to Abstract
Screening for substance misuse in the dental care setting: findings from a nationally representative survey of dentists

While more than three-quarters of US dentists report that they ask their patients about substance misuse, two-thirds do not think it is part of their professional role.

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Social Networks and Substance Use among At-Risk Emerging Adults Living in Disadvantaged Urban Areas in the Southern United States: A Cross-Sectional Naturalistic Study

Social networks appear to be important in both promoting and preventing substance use in disadvantaged young adults in the USA.

Link to Abstract

October 2015

Red flags on pinkwashed drinks: Contradictions and dangers in marketing alcohol to prevent cancer

Some alcohol corporations use pink ribbons and other breast cancer-related media to help promote a product that contributes to cancer disease and early death.

Link to Abstract
An experimental investigation of reactivity to ecological momentary assessment frequency among adults trying to quit smoking

In smokers trying to quit, more frequent ecological momentary assessment self-monitoring (real-time reports in subjects' natural environments) results in lower craving, anxiety, anger, hunger and positive affect.

Link to Abstract
Reliability of a retrospective decade-based life-course alcohol consumption questionnaire administered in later life

A retrospective decade-based Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) grid administered in older age provides a relatively reliable measure of alcohol consumption across the life course.

Link to Abstract
The effects of liquor licensing restriction on alcohol-related violence in NSW, 2008-13

Legislative reforms introduced in New South Wales, Australia between 2008 and 2012 to restrict trading hours and conditions of licensed alcohol premises may have reduced police-recorded incidences of actual bodily harm and grievous bodily harm by 31.27% and 39.70% respectively.

Link to Abstract
The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions delivered by community pharmacists: randomized controlled trial

A brief intervention delivered by community pharmacists in London, UK appears to have had no effect in reducing hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Adolescents from affluent city districts drink more alcohol than others

Adolescents in affluent parts of Oslo reported higher levels of alcohol use and more frequent alcohol intoxication than did those in more disadvantaged areas.

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Changes in daily substance use among people experiencing homelessness and mental illness: 24-month outcomes following randomization to Housing First or usual care

Housing First, an intervention to support recovery for homeless people who have co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, did not reduce daily substance use compared with treatment as usual after 12 or 24 months.

Link to Abstract
Impact of opioid substitution therapy for Scotland's prisoners on drug-related deaths soon after prisoner release

Prison-based opioid substitution therapy is unlikely to reduce the very high drug-related death risk in the first 2 weeks after prison release.

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Can cannabis use be prevented by targeting personality risk in schools? Twenty-four-month outcome of the adventure trial on cannabis use: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Trained school staff can deliver personality-targeted interventions to delay marijuana use onset aong a subset of high-risk teenagers called sensation-seekers.

Link to Abstract
Licit and illicit substance use among people who inject drugs and the association with subsequent suicidal attempt

Among people who inject drugs, use of alcohol, sedative-hypnotics and cannabis, but not cocaine, amphetamine or opioids, appears to be associated with an increased likelihood of later attempted suicide.

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Naloxone--does over-antagonism matter? Evidence of iatrogenic harm after emergency treatment of heroin/opioid overdose

Opiate users in urban Scotland repeatedly report harm caused by naloxone over-antagonism, although this is not evident in observational data.

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Are predictors of making a quit attempt the same as predictors of 3-month abstinence from smoking? Findings from a sample of smokers recruited for a study of computer-tailored smoking cessation advice

While high motivation and determination to quit are necessary to prompt an attempt to quit smoking, demographic factors (marital status, reading level, level of social deprivation) and level of nicotine dependence are more important for maintaining abstinence.

Link to Abstract
Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up

Progressively reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may not lead smokers to quit

Link to Abstract
Intervention study for smoking cessation in Spanish college students: pragmatic randomized controlled trial

A multi-component intervention tailored to college students and managed by a nurse is effective in helping college students quit smoking.

Link to Abstract

November 2015

How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

The alcohol industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self-regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol Attributable Fraction for Injury Morbidity from the Dose-Response Relationship of Acute Alcohol Consumption: Emergency Department Data from 18 Countries

Alcohol-attributable injuries presenting in emergency departments are higher 1) for males than females, 2) for violence-related injuries compared with other types of injury, and 3) for countries with more detrimental drinking patterns compared with those with less detrimental patterns.

Link to Abstract
Internet-based brief intervention for young men with unhealthy alcohol use: a randomized controlled trial in a general population sample

An internet-based brief intervention directed at harmful alcohol use among young men led to a reduction in self-reported alcohol consumption and AUDIT scores compared with a control condition involving assessment only.

Link to Abstract
Liberal alcohol legislation: does it amplify the effects among Swiss men of person-related risk factors on heavy alcohol use?

Stronger alcohol legislation protects against heavy alcohol use in young Swiss men, but this protective effect is lost in individuals with high levels of sensation-seeking or having an antisocial personality disorder.

Link to Abstract
Impacts of New Zealand's lowered minimum purchase age on context-specific drinking and related risks

The 1999 change in New Zealand's minimum purchase age for alcohol from 20 to 18 years appears to have been associated with increased drinking and associated drinking problems among 16 to 19-year-olds.

Link to Abstract
Are overdoses treated by ambulance services an opportunity for additional interventions? A prospective cohort study

Mortality risk among people who inject drugs is significantly greater in time-periods after an overdose attendance than outside these time-periods.

Link to Abstract
Project QUIT (Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial): A randomized controlled trial of a primary care based multi component brief intervention to reduce risky drug use

A primary-care based, clinician-delivered brief intervention with follow-up coaching calls may decrease risky psychoactive drug use.

Link to Abstract
Cannabis use among Swedish men in adolescence and the risk of adverse life course outcomes: results from a 20 year-follow-up study

Heavy cannabis use among Swedish men in late adolescence appears to be associated with unemployment and being in need of social welfare assistance in adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Drug use in Australian nightlife settings: estimation of prevalence and validity of self-report

Self-report findings suggest drug use in Australian nightlife is common, although still very much a minority activity. Drug swabs indicate a higher prevalence of use (20%) than self-report (9%).

Link to Abstract
Early second-hand smoke exposure and child and adolescent mental health: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort

Prenatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure (e.g. from smoking by the pregnant smoker's partner) appears to be a risk factor for behavioural problems at age 11.

Link to Abstract
Changes in the rate of nicotine metabolism across pregnancy: a longitudinal study

Nicotine metabolism appears to be faster during pregnancy; this faster metabolism is apparent from 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy and appears to fall by 4 weeks after childbirth.

Link to Abstract
E-cigarettes and expectancies: why do some users keep smoking?

E-cigarette users with positive expectancies of e-cigs have a greater likelihood of having quit smoking but lower likelihood of intention to quit e-cigs.

Link to Abstract
Personality and smoking: individual-participant meta-analysis of nine cohort studies

Adult smokers have higher extraversion, higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness personality scores than non-smokers.

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The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption. The Inter99 Study--a randomized controlled trial

A population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention in Denmark had sustained beneficial effects on smoking abstinence and binge drinking 5 years after its discontinuation.

Link to Abstract

December 2015

Implementation strategies to enhance management of heavy alcohol consumption in primary health care: a meta-analysis

Implementation strategies for alcohol screening and brief interventions should combine patient-, professional- and organizational-orientated approaches and involve mid-level health professionals as well as physicians.

Link to Abstract
The effect of alcohol outlets, sales and trading hours on alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments in Perth, Australia, from 2002 to 2010

Regions of Perth, Australia with greater off-premises alcohol sales and numbers of on-premises alcohol outlets, particularly those with extended trading hours, appear to have higher levels of alcohol-related injuries.

Link to Abstract
Lay epidemiology and the interpretation of low-risk drinking guidelines by adults in the United Kingdom

Drinking guidelines based solely epidemiological paradigms lack relevance for UK drinkers, who control their alcohol intake according to their own knowledge and risk perceptions derived from experience.

Link to Abstract
Shared additive genetic influences on DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence in subjects of European ancestry

Additive genetic effects on DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria overlap; there appear to be common genetic effects across alcohol dependence symptoms.

Link to Abstract
Sex and age differences in the early identification and treatment of alcohol use: a population-based study of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

In the UK, prior to alcoholic cirrhosis diagnosis, men are more likely than women to use health-care services and have their alcohol use recorded but women are more likely to receive alcohol brief interventions.

Link to Abstract
Potency trends of delta9 THC and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15

The average tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of the most popular herbal cannabis products in the Netherlands has decreased slightly since 2005.

Link to Abstract
Cocaine-specific neuroplasticity in the ventral striatum network is linked to delay discounting and drug relapse

Cocaine dependence-related neuroadaptations in the brain may increase impulsivity and increase the rate of cocaine relapse.

Link to Abstract
Natural outcome of cannabis use disorder: a 3-year longitudinal follow-up

A substantial level of remission from cannabis use disorders (CUDs), including non-abstinent remission, suggests that the nature of CUDs may be more unstable than reported previously.

Link to Abstract
A cost-effectiveness analysis of opioid substitution therapy upon prison release in reducing mortality among people with a history of opioid dependence

Opioid substitution treatment given on release from prison to people with a history of opioid dependence is cost-effective in reducing mortality in the first 6 months of release.

Link to Abstract
Variety of gambling activities from adolescence to age 30 and association with gambling problems: a 15-year longitudinal study of a general population sample

Engaging in several different types of gambling in early adulthood appears to be a risk factor for emergence of problem gambling.

Link to Abstract
Damage to the insula leads to decreased nicotine withdrawal during abstinence

Smokers who have a stroke in the insular cortex are more likely to quit smoking and experience fewer and less severe withdrawal symptoms than those with strokes in other parts of the brain.

Link to Abstract
Self-help educational booklets for the prevention of smoking relapse following smoking cessation treatment: a randomized controlled trial

In people who stopped smoking with behavioural support, a comprehensive self-help educational programme on handling high-risk situations for return to smoking did not reduce relapse.

Link to Abstract
Effect of warning statements in e-cigarette advertisements: an experiment with young adults in the United States

Both ingredient-themed and industry-themed warnings on e-cigarette television ads reduce craving and purchase intent similarly similarly but have inconsistent effects on perceived risks.

Link to Abstract
Under pressure: Adolescent substance users show exaggerated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli

Adolescents with alcohol and marijuana substance use disorders may be hypersensitive to aversive internally generated stimuli (in the form of restricted breathing), which may lead to drug-seeking behaviour.

Link to Abstract

January 2014

Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

Legalizing Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages in some US states during the period 1990 to 2007 was associated with a significant increase in alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Retention of participants in medication-assisted programs in low- and middle-income countries: an international systematic review

Medication-assisted treatment programs for opiate use in low- and middle-income countries achieve an average 50% retention rate after 12 months, with little difference between those using buprenorphine or methadone.

Link to Abstract
A systematic review of studies assessing the association between adherence to smoking cessation medication and treatment success

There is modest evidence that lack of adherence to nicotine replacement therapy regimens undermines treatment effectiveness in clinical studies.

Link to Abstract
Acute alcohol-related dysfunction as a predictor of employment status in a longitudinal study of working-age men in Izhevsk, Russia

Alcohol-related dysfunction rather than total alcohol consumption appears to underlie the effects of non-beverage alcohol use on loss of employment in Russia.

Link to Abstract
Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with all-cause and liver-related mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems

Hepatitis C virus infection is associated independently with all-cause and liver-related mortality in HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems, even when accounting for alcohol and other drug use.

Link to Abstract
Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: Results from the ROAD study

Of all routinely used indirect markers for chronic alcohol consumption, percentage of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) is the major predictor of repeat drunk driving.

Link to Abstract
Treatment retention among patients randomized to buprenorphine/naloxone compared to methadone in a multi-site trial

Treatment with methadone appears to be associated with better retention in treatment for opioid dependence than buprenorphine, as does higher doses of both medications. Treatment with buprenorphine is associated with lower continued use of illicit opioids.

Link to Abstract
Causes of death in a cohort treated for opioid dependence between 1985 and 2005

In a cohort of opioid-dependent people in New South Wales from 1985 to 2005, almost 9 in 10 deaths were avoidable.

Link to Abstract
Non-medical use of prescription opioids during the transition to adulthood: a multi-cohort national longitudinal study

Approximately one-third of a sample of 18-year-olds in the United States reporting non-medical use of prescription opioids appears to continue use beyond age 18 and have elevated odds of other substance use behaviors at ages 23/24.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between cannabis outcome expectancies and cannabis refusal self-efficacy in a treatment population

A person's belief that he or she can abstain from cannabis use underlies at least part of the association between perceived consequences of cannabis use and actual cannabis use.

Link to Abstract
A closer look at the evidence for sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on gambling in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health: from disordered to ordered gambling

Family environment appears to play a role in whether young adults in general start to gamble for both men and women.

Link to Abstract
Pharmacotherapy effects on smoking cessation vary with nicotine metabolism gene (CYP2A6)

Nicotine replacement therapy may be more effective among individuals with faster CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism.

Link to Abstract
Impact of the 2009 Taiwan Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act on Smoking Cessation

The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in 2009 in Taiwan, which combined smoke-free legislation with a tobacco tax increase, graphic health warning labels and a total ban on tobacco advertisements, was associated with increases in quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate.

Link to Abstract
Did hardening occur among smokers in England from 2000 to 2010?

The proportion of smokers in England with both low motivation to quit and high dependence appears to have increased between 2000 and 2010, suggesting that 'hardening' may be occurring in this smoker population.

Link to Abstract
Tobacco Use Disorder and the Risk of Suicide Mortality

Tobacco use disorder is associated with a modest increased risk of suicide.

Link to Abstract

February 2014

Trend analysis and modelling of gender-specific age, period and birth cohort effects on alcohol abstention and consumption level for drinkers in Great Britain: General Lifestyle Survey 1984-2009

Rising alcohol consumption among women and progression of higher-consuming birth cohorts through the life course are key drivers of increased per capita alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom.

Link to Abstract
Balance--a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of an online intensive self-help alcohol intervention

Balance (an automated online alcohol intervention), added to a brief online screening intervention, may aid reduction in alcohol consumption compared with the screening intervention plus an educational booklet.

Link to Abstract
Family transitions and changes in drinking from adolescence through mid-life

From late adolescence to mid-life, women and men in Britain are most at risk for higher levels of alcohol consumption and problem drinking when they are not involved in family roles such as intimate cohabitation, marriage and parenthood.

Link to Abstract
Altered cingulate and insular cortex activation during risk-taking in methamphetamine dependence: losses lose impact

Methamphetamine-dependent individuals show disrupted risk-related processing in the brain, which may lead to risk-taking despite experiencing negative consequences.

Link to Abstract
Training family members to manage heroin overdose and administer naloxone: randomized trial of effects on knowledge and attitudes

Take-home naloxone training for family members of heroin users increases opioid overdose-related knowledge and competence.

Link to Abstract
Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of the IASP study

Treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at a very high risk for additional externalizing disorders such as borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder.

Link to Abstract
Do societal wealth, family affluence and gender account for trends in adolescent cannabis use? A 30 country cross-national study

Among 30 European and North American countries, developing countries and less affluent youth have assumed the former (heavier) cannabis use pattern of richer countries and more affluent youth.

Link to Abstract
Towards a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use disorders

A modification of Kendler's risk factor model for major depression provides a foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders.

Link to Abstract
Prevalence and associations of quetiapine fumarate misuse among an Australian national city sample of people who regularly inject drugs

Quetiapine misuse appears to be common in people who inject drugs in urban Australia.

Link to Abstract
Legal substance use and the development of a DSM-IV cannabis use disorder during adolescence: the TRAILS study

Early-onset and continued tobacco use appear to predict the development of a cannabis use disorder in adolescence, whereas early onset and continued alcohol use do not.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of Extended Cessation Treatment for Older Smokers

It appears to be cost-effective to add extended cognitive behaviour therapy to standard smoking cessation treatment for older smokers.

Link to Abstract
Genetic and environmental influences on the ages of drinking and gambling initiation: evidence for distinct aetiologies and sex differences

Among Australian twins, age at first drink and age at first gambling experience are influenced by distinct unique environmental factors, and the genetic and environmental underpinnings of both phenotypes differ in men and women.

Link to Abstract

March 2014

Intimate partner violence victimization and alcohol consumption in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Among intimate partners, male-to-female violence is linked to drinking away from home and female-to-male violence is linked to drinking at home.

Link to Abstract
Treatment of comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression with cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis

Combining cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing may be beneficial in treating people with alcohol problems and depression.

Link to Abstract
Effects of the local alcohol environment on adolescents' drinking behaviors and beliefs

The local environment in terms of bar density and enforcement practices can influence amount of heavy drinking in adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent predictors and environmental correlates of young adult alcohol use problems

More than two in five young Australian adults suffer from alcohol problems.

Link to Abstract
Ethyl glucuronide in hair and fingernails as a long-term alcohol biomarker

Ethyl glucuronide, especially in fingernails, may be useful for assessing amount of alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
The sales and marketing practices of English-language internet alcohol vendors

Current Internet alcohol vendor practices do not prevent sales to minors.

Link to Abstract
Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial

Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with ADHD and substance dependence.

Link to Abstract
'Not just Methadone Tracy': transformations in service-user identity following the introduction of hepatitis C treatment into Australian opiate substitution settings

Trial introduction of hepatitis C care and treatment in Australian opiate substitution therapy clinics may have encouraged alternative, 'non-addict' identities to rival the stigma of 'the drug user'.

Link to Abstract
Striatum and insula dysfunction during reinforcement learning differentiates abstinent and relapsed methamphetamine-dependent individuals

People suffering from methamphetamine dependence appear to have dysfunctional brain reward pathways.

Link to Abstract
Challenges of surveying wastewater drug loads of small populations and generalizable aspects on optimizing monitoring design

Obtaining annual estimates of population drug use by waste water analysis requires large numbers of samples (more than 50) to be taken with careful selection of sites.

Link to Abstract
Reduced fetal growth in methadone-maintained pregnancies is not fully explained by smoking or socio-economic deprivation

Opiate use in pregnancy may retard fetal growth.

Link to Abstract
Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications

Toxin concentrations in the vapour from major electronic cigarette brands on sale in the United Kingdom are very low.

Link to Abstract
'Real-world' effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study

Smokers in England who try to quit are three times more likely to succeed if they see a trained advisor than if they try by themselves but there appears to be no benefit from using nicotine replacement products such as gum or patches when bought from a shop with no professional support.

Link to Abstract

April 2014

Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

Banning multi-buy promotions for alcohol in Scotland did not reduce alcohol purchasing in the short term.

Link to Abstract
Mortality from diseases, conditions and injuries where alcohol is a necessary cause in the Americas, 2007-09

Almost 80,000 deaths could be directly attributed to alcohol across the Americas between 2007 and 2009. Most of the deaths were in men and were from liver disease.

Link to Abstract
Harms to 'others' from alcohol consumption in the minimum unit pricing policy debate: a qualitative content analysis of UK newspapers (2005-12)

The United Kingdom's news focus on youth binge drinkers may be masking the wider issue of alcohol overconsumption across the broader population.

Link to Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to alcohol pictures predicts subsequent transition to heavy drinking in college students

United States college students who show a greater neural response to pictures of alcohol subsequently show larger increases in drinking and alcohol-related problems.

Link to Abstract
Treatment retention, drug use and social functioning outcomes in those receiving 3 months versus 1 month of supervised opioid maintenance treatment

Supervising patients' consumption of opioid maintenance medications (buprenorphine, methadone, etc.) for longer periods doesn't appear to improve patients' opioid use or retention in treatment programs.

Link to Abstract
The association of childhood physical abuse with the onset and extent of drug use among regular injecting drug users

Severe childhood physical abuse is associated with an earlier initiation into drug use. Any level of abuse is associated with more extensive polydrug use.

Link to Abstract
Maintenance treatment for opioid dependence with slow-release oral morphine: a randomized cross-over, non-inferiority study versus methadone

Slow-release oral morphine appears to be at least as effective as methadone in treating people with opioid use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Reasons behind Greek problem drug users' decisions to quit using drugs and engage in treatment of their own volition: Sense of self and the Greek 'filotimo'

Primarily in relation to 'filotimo' (a Greek concept that regulates behaviour towards one's family), the desire to restore one's spoiled identity plays a pivotal role in Greek problem drug users' decisions to stop drug use and seek treatment.

Link to Abstract
Environmental factors selectively impact co-occurrence of problem/pathological gambling with specific drug-use disorders in male twins

Environmental factors appear to play a greater role in the co-occurrence of problem gambling and smoking and cannabis use than the co-occurrence of problem gambling and stimulant use.

Link to Abstract
Children's resistance to parents' smoking in the home and car: a qualitative study

Some children and young people in the United Kingdom, irrespective of socio-economic status, may actively oppose parents' smoking in the home and car, although their influence may be limited by their position in the family and social norms.

Link to Abstract
Personal tobacco pack display before and after the introduction of plain packaging with larger pictorial health warnings in Australia: an observational study of outdoor cafe strips

Following Australia's 2012 policy of plain packaging and larger pictorial health warnings on cigarette and tobacco packs, smoking in outdoor areas of cafés, restaurants, and bars declined, and fewer people made their packs clearly visible on tables.

Link to Abstract
Initial reactions to tobacco and cannabis smoking: a twin study

Initial subjective reactions to tobacco are associated with later nicotine dependence and cannabis use/dependence while initial subjective reactions to cannabis are only associated with cannabis use/dependence. The associations are partly genetic, suggesting common biological underpinnings.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol and tobacco use among maltreated and non-maltreated adolescents in a birth cohort

Children who are maltreated are more likely to smoke as young adolescents. Children who are neglected are more likely to drink and smoke as young adolescents.

Link to Abstract

May 2014

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in restaurants and bars

Smoking bans in restaurants and bars in the United States, South America, Europe, and Australia have on average not had a detectable adverse economic impact on the hospitality industry.

Link to Abstract
Testing a social ecological model of alcohol use: the California 50-city study

Having more bars in a given area is associated with heavier drinking outside the home.

Link to Abstract
Facing temptation in the bar: counteracting the effects of self-control failure on young adults' ad libitum alcohol intake

When mental reserves needed for self-control are reduced, men tend to drink more while women tend to drink less. Raising self-awareness may counteract this effect in men.

Link to Abstract
Disseminating alcohol screening and brief intervention at trauma centers: a policy-relevant cluster randomized effectiveness trial

Training trauma center providers to screen for alcohol problems and deliver brief advice may have a modest beneficial effect on alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
Motivational intervention to enhance post-detoxification 12-Step group affiliation: a randomized controlled trial

A motivational intervention in an inpatient substance use disorder detox ward may increase engagement in 12-Step groups and reduce substance use.

Link to Abstract
Use of Silk Road, the online drug marketplace, in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States

Drug buyers in the UK, USA, and Australia use the Silk Road for the same reasons that many people prefer online commerce (range, quality, convenience, ratings). The appeal of the Silk Road is affected by country-specific deterrents and market characteristics.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a brief cannabis universal prevention program among adolescents in primary care

Among adolescents in urban primary care in the United States, a computer-delivered brief intervention appeared to prevent and reduce cannabis use.

Link to Abstract
Does methamphetamine use increase violent behaviour? Evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

There is a dose-related increase in violent behaviour during periods of methamphetamine use that cannot be explained by presence of psychotic symptoms.

Link to Abstract
Differences between early-onset pathological gambling and later-onset pathological gambling: data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

Individuals with early-onset pathological gambling (PG) are likely to be male, never married, have lower income, belong to younger cohorts, and have a lower prevalence of mood disorders but higher prevalence of cluster B personality disorders than individuals with later-onset PG.

Link to Abstract
Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence in African Americans and European Americans

Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence but not general substance dependence in African Americans and European Americans.

Link to Abstract
Levels of saliva cotinine in electronic cigarette users

At least some experienced users of electronic cigarettes appear to be able to gain as much nicotine from their products as smokers typically get from cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of proactive quitline counselling for smoking parents recruited through primary schools: results of a randomized controlled trial

Intensive telephone counseling tailored to smoking parents of primary school children can help them quit smoking and promote parenting practices that protect their children from adverse effects of smoking.

Link to Abstract
The risk for persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence: the role of childhood maltreatment

A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence.

Link to Abstract

June 2014

A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol

Large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. Because this kind of alcohol is typically cheaper than licit alcohol, it may contribute to higher rates of heavy drinking.

Link to Abstract
Association among different measures of alcohol use across adolescence and emerging adulthood

Among Canadian youth, two indices of alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking and overall quantity) are more strongly correlated with each other into early adulthood than other indices of alcohol use. These two indices also together account for greater variance in alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood than either frequency or quantity alone.

Link to Abstract
Heterogeneous population effects of an alcohol excise tax increase on sexually transmitted infections morbidity

Increased alcohol taxes are associated with a reduction in sexually transmitted infections, especially among subpopulations with high disease burden such as non-Hispanic black people.

Link to Abstract
Drinking in social groups. Does 'groupdrink' provide safety in numbers when deciding about risk?

Moderate alcohol consumption appears to produce a tendency towards increased risk taking in deciding to drive while intoxicated, which can be mitigated by monitoring processes within small (4 to 6 person) groups.

Link to Abstract
Trends in non-drinking among Australian adolescents

The percentage of Australians aged 14-17 who do not drink alcohol increased from almost 33% in 2001 to over 50% in 2010.

Link to Abstract
Heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm in young people: a longitudinal cohort study

Data on Norwegian youths show a link between heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm.

Link to Abstract
Patterns of cannabis use and prospective associations with health issues among young males

Swiss men appear to settle into steady patterns of cannabis use by their early 20s. The number of symptoms of cannabis use disorder, rather than the frequency of cannabis use, predicts cannabis-related health issues.

Link to Abstract
Increasing public support for supervised injection facilities in Ontario, Canada

Support for implementation of supervised drug injection facilities in Ontario, Canada increased between 2003 and 2009, but at both time-points a majority still held mixed opinions.

Link to Abstract
Predictors of change in cocaine use in a street-recruited cohort of young cocaine users

A street-recruited group of cocaine users in Spain showed a significant reduction in cocaine use over a period of 12-24 months. High consumption of alcohol and increasing use of other psychoactive drugs decreased the probability of reducing cocaine use.

Link to Abstract
Clinical features of methamphetamine-induced paranoia and preliminary genetic association with DBH-1021C→T in a Thai treatment cohort

Among methamphetamine-dependent individuals, paranoia appears to occur increasingly rapidly in the course of a session of methamphetamine use. Severity of methamphetamine dependence and antisocial personality disorder predicts methamphetamine-induced paranoia. A genetic polymorphism in dopamine β-hydroxylase is associated with methamphetamine-induced paranoia.

Link to Abstract
Parental monitoring trajectories and gambling among a longitudinal cohort of urban youth

Low and/or declining parental monitoring of children between the ages of 11 and 14 is associated significantly with problem gambling when those children reach young adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of tobacco control television advertising in changing tobacco use in England: a population-based cross-sectional study

Government-funded tobacco control television advertising shown in England between 2002 and 2010 was associated with reduced smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption.

Link to Abstract
The freeze on mass media campaigns in England: a natural experiment of the impact of tobacco control campaigns on quitting behaviour

The suspension of tobacco control mass media campaigns in England in 2012 appeared to markedly reduce calls to the quitline, use of the SmokeFree website and use of booklets but not attendance at Stop Smoking Services.

Link to Abstract
Time to first cigarette predicts 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in adolescent regular and intermittent smokers, NHANES 2007-10

Time between waking and the first cigarette of the day is correlated in daily and non-daily adolescent smokers with overall nicotine, and therefore carcinogen, intake.

Link to Abstract
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure

The association between smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation does not appear to operate through in-utero exposure to tobacco.

Link to Abstract
The association between smoking and depression from adolescence to adulthood

The inter-relationship between depression and smoking in adolescence and early adulthood seems to be due to reciprocal causal associations.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

The Healthy School and Drugs programme (a Dutch school-based prevention programme for early adolescents) had no detectable effect on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use.

Link to Abstract

July 2014

Sexual orientation and alcohol problem use among UK adolescents: an indirect link through depressed mood

A higher prevalence of alcohol problem use in adolescents who are gay, lesbian or bisexual is partly explained by increased rates of depression in this group.

Link to Abstract
Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low-and Middle-Income Countries?

Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with reduced alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries.

Link to Abstract
Computerized versus in-person brief intervention for drug misuse: a randomized clinical trial

Computerized brief intervention can be an effective alternative to in-person brief intervention for addressing moderate drug use in primary care.

Link to Abstract
Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study

Although smokers of strong cannabis alter their smoking behaviour to compensate for the higher strength, they still take in more THC than smokers of lower potency cannabis.

Link to Abstract
Catecholamine levels and delay discounting forecast drug use among African American youths

Among young African American men, catecholamine levels (which indicate the degree of life stress) interact positively with delay discounting (the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger postponed rewards) to forecast increases in drug use.

Link to Abstract
Unexpected adverse childhood experiences and subsequent drug use disorder: a Swedish population study (1995-2011)

Children under 15 who experience second-hand an extraordinary traumatic event (such as a parent or sibling being assaulted, diagnosed with cancer, or dying) appear to have approximately twice the risk of developing a drug use disorder than those who do not.

Link to Abstract
Strategic and non-strategic problem gamblers differ on decision-making under risk and ambiguity

Problem gamblers make poor decisions under conditions of risk and ambiguity. Strategic (e.g. sports betting, poker) and non-strategic (e.g. electronic gaming machines) problem gamblers differed in decision-making and the underlying psychological processes associated with their decisions.

Link to Abstract
Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

Smoking, alcohol and cannabis use are influenced by aggregated genetic risk factors shared among these substances.

Link to Abstract
Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus

Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use (which has many of the same risk factors as smoking but to a lesser degree).

Link to Abstract
Ex-smokers are happier than current smokers among Chinese adults in Hong Kong

Ex-smokers in Hong Kong are happier than current smokers and people who have never smoked.

Link to Abstract
Change in physical activity after smoking cessation: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

Smokers who quit have progressively higher levels of physical activity in the years after quitting compared with continuing smokers.

Link to Abstract
Randomized controlled trial to assess the short-term effectiveness of tailored web- and text-based facilitation of smoking cessation in primary care (iQuit in Practice)

Tailored self-help messages delivered alongside routine smoking cessation support in primary care may increase long-term abstinence compared with routine cessation support alone.

Link to Abstract
Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence

A significant proportion of betel quid users in Asian communities meet the DSM-IV criteria for dependence.

Link to Abstract

August 2014

Efficacy of the nicotine vaccine 3′-AmNic-rEPA (NicVAX) co-administered with varenicline and counselling for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

The nicotine vaccine NicVAX does not appear to improve the chances of stopping smoking when given in addition to varenicline and behavioural support.

Link to Abstract
Treatment with a nicotine vaccine does not lead to changes in brain activity during smoking cue exposure or a working memory task

The nicotine vaccine NicVAX appears to produce no significant effects on brain activity in response to a nicotine challenge.

Link to Abstract
Clinical and biological moderators of response to naltrexone in alcohol dependence: a systematic review of the evidence

We don't yet know how to identify alcohol-dependent patients who will respond well to naltrexone, although family history and the genetic mutation OPRM1 Asn40Asp seem to be promising areas of research.

Link to Abstract
Sustaining motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis of training studies

On average, three to four feedback/coaching sessions over a 6-month period sustain motivational interviewing skills used for substance use disorder treatment.

Link to Abstract
The impact of alcohol on clinical outcomes in established psychosis: a longitudinal study

For people with psychosis, the most detrimental effect of alcohol consumption appears to be its effect on mood. Some of this effect seems to be reversible through drinking reduction.

Link to Abstract
The impact of opioid substitution therapy on mortality post-release from prison: retrospective data linkage study

Opioid substitution therapy in prison and post-release could reduce mortality risk in the immediate post-release period.

Link to Abstract
The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease 2010 study

Opioid dependence is a substantial contributor to the global disease burden; North America, eastern Europe and southern sub-Saharan Africa are most strongly affected.

Link to Abstract
Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

Analysis of water in the sewage system can be used to measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than national surveys, and creates estimates where such data do not exist.

Link to Abstract
Using cognitive modelling to investigate the psychological processes of the Go/NoGo discrimination task in male abstinent heroin misusers

Male abstinent heroin misusers appear to be more influenced by heroin-related stimuli (pictures of heroin and heroin-related paraphernalia) during decision-making than men with no history of heroin misuse.

Link to Abstract
Effects of depressive symptoms on antecedents of lapses during a smoking cessation attempt: an ecological momentary assessment study

Depressive symptoms prior to quitting smoking appear to be associated with negative emotions once the quit attempt has started, which decreases their belief in their ability to quit, increases their urges to smoke, and their probability of lapse back to smoking.

Link to Abstract
Youth tobacco use type and associations with substance use disorders

Tobacco use of any kind in adolescence is associated with higher rates of substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract

September 2014

Prize-based contingency management for the treatment of substance abusers: a meta-analysis

Adding prize-based contingency management (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize) to behavioural support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence, but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months.

Link to Abstract
The declining trend in Swedish youth drinking: collectivity or polarization?

The decrease in youth drinking in Sweden that occurred from 2000-12 occurred at all consumption levels, which is consistent with Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking behaviour.

Link to Abstract
The collectivity of changes in alcohol consumption revisited

Drinkers at all levels of consumption appear to move in concert, both up and down the consumption scale, in Finland, Norway and the United States, as predicted by Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking cultures.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance: a Mendelian randomization study

The observation that people who drink alcohol tend to have higher levels of cognitive ability does not appear to be due to any causal association.

Link to Abstract
An early evaluation of implementation of brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in the US Veterans Health Administration

Documented brief intervention in the US Veterans Health Administration was not associated with changes in drinking among outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use and repeat alcohol screening.

Link to Abstract
The burden of premature opioid-related mortality

Rates of opioid-related deaths are increasing rapidly in Ontario, Canada, and are concentrated among the young.

Link to Abstract
Sustained-release methylphenidate in a randomized trial of treatment of methamphetamine use disorder

Methylphenidate may reduce concurrent methamphetamine use when provided as treatment for patients undergoing behavioural support for moderate to severe methamphetamine use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Fixation time is a sensitive measure of cocaine cue attentional bias

The amount of time spent fixating on cocaine-related images is a sensitive and stable measure of cocaine cue attentional bias (the tendency to attend more to cocaine-related images than neutral images) in cocaine-using adults.

Link to Abstract
Gambling expenditure predicts harm: evidence from a venue-level study

As suggested by the Total Consumption Theory of gambling, aggregate spending by electronic gaming machine users predicts the prevalence of gambling-related harm in gaming venues.

Link to Abstract
Reciprocal Associations between Cigarette Consumption and DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence Criteria in Adolescent Smokers

In adolescent smokers, cigarette consumption predicts severity of nicotine dependence as defined by DSM-IV several years later.

Link to Abstract
Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study

People attempting to quit smoking without professional help have approximately 60% greater odds of reporting success if they use e-cigarettes than if they use willpower alone or over-the-counter nicotine replacement products.

Link to Abstract
Stability of smoking status in the US population: a longitudinal investigation

US smokers showed very little change in their smoking status when followed between 2001 and 2005.

Link to Abstract
Varenicline efficacy and safety among methadone maintained smokers: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Varenicline can aid short-term smoking abstinence in methadone-maintained smokers.

Link to Abstract

October 2014

'High' risk? A systematic review of the acute outcomes of mixing alcohol with energy drinks

From surveys it seems that combining 'energy drinks' (containing caffeine) with alcohol increases levels of stimulation and reduces sedation but experimental studies involving relatively low doses have so far not borne this out.

Link to Abstract
Association between stricter alcohol advertising regulations and lower hazardous drinking across European countries

Countries with stricter restrictions on alcohol advertising have a lower prevalence of hazardous drinking.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol industry sponsorship and hazardous drinking in UK university students who play sport

Alcohol industry sponsorship of sports in the UK seems to be associated with higher levels of hazardous drinking among the university students being sponsored.

Link to Abstract
Who under-reports their alcohol consumption in telephone surveys and by how much? An application of the 'yesterday method' in a national Canadian substance use survey

The 'yesterday method' (in which respondents are asked to report alcohol consumption the preceding day) can reduce under-reporting of alcohol consumption in telephone surveys. Using this method in a Canadian survey, younger drinkers and low-risk drinkers underestimated their alcohol consumption more than older drinkers and medium and high-risk drinkers.

Link to Abstract
Hazardous birthday drinking among young people: population-based impacts on emergency department and in-patient hospital admissions

There is a significant increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions around the time of people's birthdays.

Link to Abstract
Striking subgroup differences in substance-related mortality after release from prison

In Australia, in the first year after release, Indigenous ex-prisoners are more likely to die from alcohol-related causes but less likely to die of drug-related causes than are non-Indigenous ex-prisoners.

Link to Abstract
Just say 'know': how do cannabinoid concentrations influence users' estimates of cannabis potency and the amount they roll in joints?

When using their own cannabis in a naturalistic setting, people adjust the amount they roll in joints according to concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not cannabidiol (CBD).

Link to Abstract
A prospective study of hepatitis C incidence in Australian prisoners

In Australia, imprisonment appears to be a risk factor for hepatitis C virus transmission.

Link to Abstract
On the latent structure of problem gambling: a taxometric analysis

Evidence from problem gambling questionnaires suggests that it may be better viewed as a categorical construct rather than a continuous dimension.

Link to Abstract
Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy predicts drug use via externalizing behavior in two community-based samples of adolescents

Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking appears to be associated with a higher probability of experimenting with drugs during adolescence.

Link to Abstract
Future orientation and smoking cessation: secondary analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial

'Future orientation' does not seem to be a strong predictor of success at stopping smoking.

Link to Abstract
Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

Many smokers in the United States avoid the full impact of state excise tax on the cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations.

Link to Abstract
Widening educational inequalities in adolescent smoking following national tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003: a time-series analysis

After the introduction of tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003, smoking prevalence rates decreased among all adolescents, but socio-economic inequalities in adolescent smoking increased.

Link to Abstract

November 2014

Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit

Allowing electronic cigarettes to compete with cigarettes in the market-place might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating electronic cigarettes as strictly as cigarettes is not warranted on current evidence.

Link to Abstract
Do doctors' smoking habits influence their smoking cessation practices? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Doctors who smoke appear to be less likely than non-smoking or ex-smoking doctors to counsel their patients to quit but more likely to refer them to smoking cessation programmes.

Link to Abstract
Early age of alcohol initiation is not the cause of alcohol use disorders in adulthood, but is a major indicator of genetic risk. A population-based twin study

The association between early age of alcohol initiation and alcohol use disorders in later life does not reflect a causal relationship, but rather is due almost entirely to common genetic risk factors.

Link to Abstract
Autonomy, special offers and routines: a Q methodological study of industry-driven marketing influences on young people's drinking behaviour

Young people share several perspectives regarding industry-driven alcohol marketing, including imperviousness to marketing, responsiveness to price and affordability and responsiveness to marketing that focuses on youth lifestyles.

Link to Abstract
Does stage tailoring matter in brief alcohol interventions for job-seekers? A randomized controlled trial

A stage tailored intervention (an intervention tailored to match people's changing motivations to change) appears to be more effective than a non-stage tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use among people with high levels of drinking and low initial motivation to change.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent alcohol use: a reflection of national drinking patterns and policy?

High levels of adult drinking and lax national alcohol control policies are associated with high levels of alcohol use among adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Efficacy of motivational enhancement therapy on alcohol use disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial

Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) appears to increase alcohol abstinence in patients with chronic hepatitis C, alcohol use disorders and ongoing alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use

Bupropion might reduce methamphetamine use in people who use methamphetamine less than daily, but the evidence remains inconclusive.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between US heroin market dynamics and heroin-related overdose, 1992-2008

Decreases in the price of pure heroin in the United States and increases in market concentration of Colombian-source/type heroin are associated with increased hospital admissions for heroin-related overdose.

Link to Abstract
Neurofunctional changes in adolescent cannabis users with and without bipolar disorder

Bipolar adolescents with comorbid cannabis use do not exhibit the same over-activation of the regions involved in emotional processing as seen in adolescents with bipolar disorder alone. These individuals may have a unique type of bipolar disorder or cannabis use may alter brain activation uniquely in bipolar disorder patients who use cannabis.

Link to Abstract
Longitudinal patterns of problematic computer game use among adolescents and adults--a 2-year panel study

Within a 2-year time-frame, problematic use of computer games appears to be a less stable behaviour than reported previously and not related systematically to negative changes in the gamers' lives.

Link to Abstract
The allure of multi-line games in modern slot machines

Multi-line games (in which players can wager on more than one line per spin) appear to be more appealing to gaming machine ('slots') players than single-line games. Multi-line games may be particularly absorbing for people with gambling problems.

Link to Abstract
Role of smoking in regional variation in mortality in Poland

Differences in past smoking behaviour may largely explain the regional differences in all-cause mortality existing in 2008-10 in Poland, and its trends since 1991-1993.

Link to Abstract
Efficacy of brief motivational interviewing on smoking cessation at tuberculosis clinics in Tshwane, South Africa: a randomized controlled trial

Motivational interviewing by lay counsellors to promote smoking cessation in tuberculosis patients in South Africa approximately doubled sustained smoking abstinence for at least 6 months compared with brief advice alone.

Link to Abstract

December 2014

Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheap products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase), reducing the beneficial impact of tax policies on high-risk drinkers.

Link to Abstract
Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study

Among European adolescents, being able to name a favourite alcohol advertisement is associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking in the following year.

Link to Abstract
Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

In Estonia in 2008-09 most autopsies of people aged 25-54 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology but the death records failed to capture the scale and nature of those pathologies.

Link to Abstract
Genetic influences on alcohol-related hangover

Genes appear to play a significant role in individual differences in the propensity to experience a hangover and of being resistant to hangover at a given level of alcohol use

Link to Abstract
Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland

The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales.

Link to Abstract
What happens when people discontinue taking medications? Lessons from COMBINE

A patient's decision to stop taking medications during alcohol treatment appears to happen during a weeks-long process of disengagement from treatment. Patients who discontinue medications early in treatment or without medical consultation are typically those who drink more frequently and more heavily.

Link to Abstract
The impact of methadone maintenance therapy on hepatitis C incidence among illicit drug users

Participation in methadone maintenance treatment appears to be highly protective against hepatitis C infection among illicit drug users.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between years of cocaine use and brain activation to cocaine and response inhibition cues

Years of cocaine use may be more closely related to cocaine cue and response inhibition brain activation than cocaine dependence diagnosis or amount of recent use.

Link to Abstract
Recent cocaine use is a significant risk factor for sudden cardiovascular death in 15-49-year-old subjects: a forensic case-control study*

Recent cocaine use is associated with an increased risk for sudden cardiovascular death in people aged 15-49 years.

Link to Abstract
Craving Facebook? Behavioral addiction to online social networking and its association with emotion regulation deficits

The use of online social networking sites is potentially addictive. Compulsive online social networking use seems to be connected to poor emotion regulation skills and heightened susceptibility to addiction more generally.

Link to Abstract
Country - and individual - level determinants of probable problematic gambling in adolescence: A multilevel cross-national comparison

Family characteristics and expenditure on public health at a national level may play a key role in prevalence of problem gambling among adolescents in Europe.

Link to Abstract
Is smoking cessation associated with worse comorbid substance use outcomes among homeless adults?

In homeless smokers, quitting smoking may be associated with reduced alcohol consumption but not with a substantial change in other drug use.

Link to Abstract
Smoking cessation in smokers who smoke menthol and non-menthol cigarettes

In the United States, smoking menthol cigarettes appears to be associated with reduced success at quitting smoking, especially in African American women.

Link to Abstract
Genetic variation in personality traits explains genetic overlap between borderline personality features and substance use disorders

Both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors contribute to comorbidity between borderline personality features and substance use disorders. A substantial proportion of this comorbidity can be attributed to genetic variation in normal personality traits.

Link to Abstract

February 2013

Smoking and absence from work: systematic review and meta-analysis of occupational studies

Smoking increases number of days off work because of illness far more than previously thought.

Link to Abstract
Meta-analysis of naltrexone and acamprosate for treating alcohol use disorders: when are these medications most helpful?

Acamprosate seems to be more effective than naltrexone in promoting alcohol abstinence. Naltrexone seems to be more effective than acamprosate in reducing heavy drinking and craving. Both medications appear to work better when participants are detoxified and abstinent when treatment begins.

Link to Abstract
Past major depression and smoking cessation outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis update

People with a history of major depression have a harder time staying off cigarettes after smoking cessation treatment than people without this history.

Link to Abstract
Living in proximity of a bar and risky alcohol behaviours: a longitudinal study

Living close to a bar appears to increase risky alcohol behaviour.

Link to Abstract
Web-based alcohol intervention for Māori university students: double-blind, multi-site randomized controlled trial

A web-based screening and brief intervention programme reduced hazardous and harmful drinking among Māori students.

Link to Abstract
Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the United States

U.S. states that have a monopoly over liquor sales (via state-operated alcohol stores) appear to have slightly higher liquor prices than states that sell alcohol via privately owned licensed retailers.

Link to Abstract
Missed and inconsistent classification of current drinkers: results from the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey

People in the U.S. who are asked about their drinking during the past 12 months, rather than the past 30 days, provide higher estimates of current alcohol use. The 30-day measure may underestimate national drinking patterns and fail to identify individuals who would benefit from alcohol misuse services.

Link to Abstract
An intervention targeting service providers and clients for methadone maintenance treatment in China: a cluster-randomized trial

Among methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) clinics in Sichuan, China, the MMT CARE intervention, which trains MMT service providers, can improve providers\' treatment knowledge and their success with clients.

Link to Abstract
Prescription drug use among pregnant women in Opioid Maintenance Treatment

In Norway, women in opioid maintenance treatment use more prescription drugs before and during pregnancy than do women in the general population.

Link to Abstract
A record-linkage study of drug-related death and suicide after hospital discharge among drug-treatment clients in Scotland, 1996-2006

Among people receiving treatment for drug dependence, hospital discharge marks the start of a period of higher vulnerability to drug-related death.

Link to Abstract
Twenty-five years of volatile substance abuse mortality: a national mortality surveillance programme

In the United Kingdom between 1983 and 2007, the number of deaths associated with volatile substance abuse peaked in the early 1990s and fell to its lowest level in the mid-2000s. Age at death increased over the time period, deaths involving glues decreased, and deaths involving gas fuels rose.

Link to Abstract
Randomized trial of the effectiveness of combined behavioral/pharmacological smoking cessation treatment in Syrian primary care clinics

When given alongside behavioural counselling, nicotine patches may not help smokers in certain low-income countries to quit.

Link to Abstract
Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers

Adolescent smokers whose bodies clear nicotine slowly smoke more cigarettes per day and show greater nicotine dependence than those with faster nicotine metabolism.

Link to Abstract
Visual attention to health warnings on plain tobacco packaging in adolescent smokers and non-smokers

Removing brand imagery from cigarette packets may increase visual attention to health warnings among occasional and experimental adolescent smokers, but not among daily adolescent smokers.

Link to Abstract
Exposure to second-hand smoke damages everyday prospective memory

Non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke may suffer impairment in ability to recall plans they have made.

Link to Abstract

March 2013

The mediating role of alcohol-related memory associations on the relation between perceived parental drinking and the onset of adolescents\' alcohol use

Non-drinking adolescents who watch their parents drink appear to form memory associations about alcohol, which in turn appear able to trigger them to start drinking.

Link to Abstract
Prospects for scaling-up supervised injection facilities in Canada: the role of evidence in legal and political decision-making

Despite the Supreme Court of Canada's recent support of North America\'s first supervised injection facility (Insite), additional court action may be required to establish a stable legal and policy basis for similar facilities in Canada.

Link to Abstract
Transportation into narrative worlds: implications for entertainment media influences on tobacco use

Individuals who are more highly transported into stories seem to show greater attitude, belief and behavior change, which may affect how they react to tobacco use in movies.

Link to Abstract
A systematic review of the relationships between family functioning, pubertal timing and adolescent substance use

Adolescents who have poor relationships with their parents and reach puberty early may be at risk for greater substance use than adolescents who have good parental relationships and mature on time or late.

Link to Abstract
Motivational typologies of drinkers: do enhancement and coping drinkers form two distinct groups?

Coping drinkers (people who drink to reduce negative moods) and enhancement drinkers (people who drink to increase positive moods) do not appear to form two distinct groups.

Link to Abstract
Working memory ability predicts trajectories of early alcohol use in adolescents: the mediational role of impulsivity

Weakness in working memory, the brain function that allows us to deliberate before acting, predicts both the initiation and the escalation of alcohol use in adolescents ages 10 to 15.

Link to Abstract
Early life socio-economic position and later alcohol use: birth cohort study

Children from higher-income households in England appear to be at greater risk of some types of adolescent alcohol problems than children in lower-income households.

Link to Abstract
Acute toxicity due to the confirmed consumption of synthetic cannabinoids: clinical and laboratory findings

In Germany, there appears to be an increase in use of some extremely potent synthetic cannabinoids. Acute toxic symptoms associated with their use include agitation, seizures, hypertension, vomiting, and low blood potassium.

Link to Abstract
Gender differences in the presence of drugs in violent deaths

In Colorado, USA, drugs associated with homicide (marijuana, cocaine and amphetamines) have a stronger association among males, while drugs associated with suicide (antidepressants and opiates) have a stronger association among females.

Link to Abstract
Profiles of illicit drug use during annual key holiday and control periods in Australia: wastewater analysis in an urban, a semi-rural and a vacation area

While the peak holiday season in Australia is perceived as a period of increased drug use, the increase in use is not uniform for all drugs and geographical areas.

Link to Abstract
Deficits in social perception in opioid maintenance patients, abstinent opioid users and non-opioid users

People in opioid maintenance treatment may have trouble reading social situations and recognising other people's emotions.

Link to Abstract
An empirical evaluation of proposed changes for gambling diagnosis in the DSM-5

Pathological gambling can be diagnosed without requiring the patient to have committed illegal acts. Thus reducing the threshold for diagnosis from five to four criteria results in more consistent diagnoses relative to the current classification system.

Link to Abstract
Egocentric social network analysis of pathological gambling

Compared with non-pathological gamblers, pathological gamblers have more gamblers, smokers and drinkers in their social networks, and have closer relationships with other gamblers. These social networks may reinforce addictive behaviour.

Link to Abstract
Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults

Gaming addiction does not appear to be widespread among adolescents and adults in Germany.

Link to Abstract
Population impact of reimbursement for smoking cessation: a natural experiment in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands, providing stop-smoking treatments for free seems to get more people to try to quit smoking and improves public health.

Link to Abstract
Racial differences in the relationship between tobacco dependence and nicotine and carcinogen exposure

At levels of low tobacco dependence, black smokers seem to take in more nicotine and carcinogens per individual cigarette than white smokers.

Link to Abstract
Population-level effects of automated smoking cessation help programs: a randomized controlled trial

Smokers interested in quitting who are assigned to an internet- or mobile phone-based quit-smoking program may be more likely to quit for at least 6 months than those directed to an information website.

Link to Abstract
Social relationships and subsequent health-related behaviours: linkages between adolescent peer status and levels of adult smoking in a Stockholm cohort

Swedish adolescents with low status among peers are more likely to become smokers by the time they reach adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Dating and substance use in adolescent peer networks: a replication and extension

Among adolescents in the USA, smokers tend to date and make friends with other smokers.

Link to Abstract

April 2013

Development of dependence following treatment with opioid analgesics for pain relief: a systematic review

From studies available in the literature, use of prescribed opioid medications for chronic pain conditions appears only rarely to be associated with development of addiction.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol intoxication in the context of major public holidays, sporting and social events: a time-series analysis in Melbourne, Australia, 2000-2009

In Melbourne, acute alcohol intoxication cases requiring ambulance, emergency department and hospital in-patient treatment increase substantially on the day before public holidays and other major social events.

Link to Abstract
Prospective Correlates of Drinking Cessation: Variation across the Life Course

Among US adults, factors associated with giving up drinking appear to change over the life course.

Link to Abstract
A randomised controlled trial of motivational interviewing to prevent risk for an alcohol exposed pregnancy in the Western Cape, South Africa.

Among rural women in South Africa, a motivational interviewing intervention reduced the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy through risky drinking, ineffective contraception, or both.

Link to Abstract
Cannabis use and vulnerability for psychosis in early adolescence--a TRAILS study

Cannabis use predicts psychosis vulnerability among Dutch adolescents, and vice versa.

Link to Abstract
Early life influences on the risk of injecting drug use: case control study based on the Edinburgh Addiction Cohort

In Scotland, injection drug use in adults is associated strongly with markers of prior childhood adversity, particularly not living with both parents as well as early conduct problems such as exclusion from school and criminal behaviour.

Link to Abstract
Aripiprazole for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Compared with placebo, aripiprazole does not significantly reduce methamphetamine use among actively using, methamphetamine-dependent adults in the USA.

Link to Abstract
Methadone Dosing and Prescribed Medication Use in a Prospective Cohort of Opioid-Dependent Pregnant Women

In the Irish health service, decreasing methadone doses for pregnant, opioid-dependent women does not appear to reduce neonatal abstinence syndrome in their babies.

Link to Abstract
Increased reflection impulsivity in patients with ephedrone induced Parkinsonism

Ephedrone patients may have similar deficits in information gathering and decision making to opiate dependent patients, with no corresponding deficits in working memory and risk taking.

Link to Abstract
Impulsivity trajectories and gambling in adolescence among urban male youth

Among urban male youth in Maryland, USA, development in impulsivity is associated strongly with problem and at-risk gambling in adolescence.

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Subtypes of disordered gamblers: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

In the USA, three subtypes of disordered gambling can be identified, ranging from low to high levels of gambling severity and psychopathology.

Link to Abstract
Income, income inequality and youth smoking in low- and middle-income countries

In low- and middle-income countries, a 10% increase in gross domestic product per capita appears to increase the odds of a young person being a current smoker by at least 2.5%.

Link to Abstract
ESCAPE: a randomised controlled trial of computer-tailored smoking cessation advice in primary care

ESCAPE, a brief, tailored stop-smoking intervention delivered by post in the UK, appears to increase the rate at which smokers try to quit but abstinence rates do not seem to be increased.

Link to Abstract
Graphic imagery is not sufficient for increased attention to cigarette warnings: the role of text captions

In the UK, graphic imagery on cigarette packets increases the attention paid to the accompanying text message about health risks.

Link to Abstract

May 2013

Efficacy combined with specified ingredients: a new direction for empirically supported addiction treatment

We are moving to a phase in the science of addiction where it is not enough to know whether an intervention is effective; it is essential to be able to identify its ingredients to build our understanding of why it works or does not so that its generalisability can be assessed and interventions can be improved upon

Link to Abstract
Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities

In New Zealand, the adoption of local policies to reduce alcohol-related harm can be helped by 1) competitive local government elections around alcohol issues, 2) preventing 'gate-keepers' from setting the policy agenda, and 3) fewer legislative restrictions by central government.

Link to Abstract
A randomized study of cellphone technology to reinforce alcohol abstinence in the natural environment

Cellphone technology may be useful for applying contingency management (which uses tangible incentives to reinforce abstinence) to treatment for alcohol problems.

Link to Abstract
Global alcohol exposure estimates by country, territory and region for 2005--a contribution to the Comparative Risk Assessment for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study

About 40% of the world\'s adult population consumes alcohol, and the average consumption per drinker is 17.1 litres per year. Eastern Europe and Southern sub-Saharan Africa had the most detrimental pattern of drinking scores in 2005, while drinkers in Eastern and Central Europe and Southern and West sub-Saharan Africa consumed the most alcohol.

Link to Abstract
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among illicit psychostimulant users: a hidden disorder?

Undiagnosed attention deficit disorder may be common in psychostimulant users.

Link to Abstract
The dynamic relationship between social norms and behaviors: the results of an HIV prevention network intervention for injection drug users

Peer-based social network interventions can change injection drug users' injection risk behaviours.

Link to Abstract
High rates of midazolam injection and associated harms in Bangkok, Thailand

Misuse of midazolam, a benzodiazepine often used as a premedication for sedation, is increasing among injecting drug users in Bangkok and appears to be used primarily as a substitute for heroin.

Link to Abstract
The D2/3 dopamine receptor in pathological gambling: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin and [11C]raclopride

There does not appear to be a link between low levels of D2/D3 dopamine receptors and pathological gambling.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention conducted among prisoners

Adding the antidepressant nortriptyline to stop-smoking behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy does not appear to improve long-term abstinence rates in male prisoners.

Link to Abstract
Investigating the impact of nicotine on executive functions using a novel virtual reality assessment

Nicotine gum enhances some aspects of cognitive performance in smokers who have abstained for as little as 2 hours.

Link to Abstract
Think abstractly, smoke less: a brief construal-level intervention can promote self-control, leading to reduced cigarette consumption among current smokers

Reminding smokers to think about health, even just in general terms, may help them improve self-control and smoke fewer cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Childhood sexual abuse and early substance use in adolescent girls: the role of familial influences

A history of childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for use of cigarettes and cannabis and a very strong predictor of starting to drink at an early age.

Link to Abstract

June 2013

Are the 1976-1985 birth cohorts heavier drinkers? Age-period-cohort analyses of the National Alcohol Surveys 1979-2010

In the USA, men born between 1976 and 1985, and women born between 1981 and 1985 drink more heavily than those born earlier or later.

Link to Abstract
Population drinking and drink driving in Norway and Sweden: an analysis of historical data 1957-89

In Norway and Sweden, as the total population level of alcohol consumption increases or decreases, so does drink driving.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between minimum alcohol prices, outlet densities and alcohol-attributable deaths in British Columbia, 2002-09

In British Columbia, Canada, between 2002 and 2009, increases in the minimum price of alcohol were associated with decreased alcohol-attributable mortality, while increases in the density of private liquor stores was associated with increased alcohol-attributable mortality.

Link to Abstract
Decline in incidence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users in Amsterdam; evidence for harm reduction?

Marked decreases in HIV and HCV incidence in Amsterdam since 1990 could be attributable largely to changes in the population of injecting drug users arising from HIV-related deaths.

Link to Abstract
A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of venlafaxine-extended release for co-occurring cannabis dependence and depressive disorders

For depressed, cannabis-dependent patients, the extended release form of the antidepressant venlafaxine does not appear to reduce depression and may increase cannabis use.

Link to Abstract
A comparison among tapentadol tamper-resistant formulations (TRF) and OxyContin (non-TRF) in prescription opioid abusers

Tamper-resistant forms of taptentadol (pain relief) tablets do not appear to be well-liked by people who tamper regularly with extended-release oxycodone tablets.

Link to Abstract
A prospective study of neurocognitive changes 15 years after chronic inhalant abuse

Some inhalant abusers experience severe and persistent neurological impairments, suggesting permanent damage possibly attributable to lead poisoning.

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'Vaping' profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette users

E-cigarettes are used primarily for smoking cessation, but for a longer duration than nicotine replacement therapy, and users believe them to be safer than smoking.

Link to Abstract
Tobacco Dependence Diagnosis and Treatment in Veterans Health Administration Residential Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs

Most veterans in Veterans Health Administration substance use disorders residential treatment programs appear to use tobacco, yet only one in ten receives a documented ICD-9 tobacco dependence diagnosis and pharmacotherapy while in treatment.

Link to Abstract
Motivational interviewing to enhance nicotine patch treatment for smoking cessation among homeless smokers: a randomized controlled trial

Adding motivational interviewing counselling to nicotine patches does not significantly increase smoking rates among homeless smokers at 26-week follow-up.

Link to Abstract
Which elements of improvement collaboratives are most effective? A cluster-randomized trial

Clinic-level coaching appears to improve waiting time and increase the number of new patients in outpatient addiction clinics in the United States.

Link to Abstract

July 2013

Internet addiction assessment tools: dimensional structure and methodological status

Questionnaires assessing internet addiction should cover compulsive use, negative outcome and salience.

Link to Abstract
Drink driving in Hong Kong: the competing effects of random breath testing and alcohol tax reductions

Hong Kong's current anti-drink driving strategy appears to reduce drink driving in men and prevent increased levels of drink driving among women.

Link to Abstract
Reducing heavy drinking in HIV primary care: a randomized trial of brief intervention, with and without technological enhancement

For alcohol-dependent HIV patients, enhancing motivational interviewing with HealthCall (an automated telephone service that provides personalized feedback) may offer additional benefit without requiring extensive additional staff.

Link to Abstract
The contributions of value-based decision-making and attentional bias to alcohol-seeking following devaluation

Value-based decision-making (making decisions based on subjective desires or beliefs) may be a more important determinant of drinking behaviour among student social drinkers than attentional bias (the tendency to pay attention to emotionally dominant stimuli).

Link to Abstract
Self-reported alcohol abuse in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: a better predictor of HIV virological rebound than physician\'s perceptions (HEPAVIH ARNS CO13 cohort)

In France, in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C, self-reported alcohol abuse seems to provide a better predictor of HIV viral rebound than physicians' perceptions of alcohol abuse in their patients.

Link to Abstract
Characterizing the longitudinal patterns of substance use among individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness after psychiatric hospitalization

Substance use is frequent and associated with poor recovery in patients with serious mental illness recently discharged from psychiatric hospitalization. Addiction treatments personalized by diagnosis and gender may improve outcomes.

Link to Abstract
'It\'s more about the heroin': injection drug users\' response to an overdose warning campaign in a Canadian setting

Among heroin injectors in British Columbia, a 2011 overdose warning campaign appeared to be of limited effectiveness and produced unintended negative consequences that exacerbated overdose risk.

Link to Abstract
Extended-release methylphenidate for treatment of amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Methylphenidate may improve retention of amphetamine/methamphetamine users in substance misuse treatment but any effect on substance misuse remains unproven.

Link to Abstract
Micromorphological changes in cardiac tissue of drug-related deaths with emphasis on chronic illicit opioid abuse

There is a long-term risk of cardiac dysfunction following chronic illicit opioid abuse.

Link to Abstract
Low incidence of hepatitis C virus among prisoners in Scotland

The low incidence of hepatitis C virus infections in Scottish prisons is probably due to the low occurrence of in-prison injecting and the high coverage of opiate substitution treatment.

Link to Abstract
A life-course perspective on economic stress and tobacco smoking: a population-based study

In Sweden, downward social mobility and economic stress in both childhood and adulthood appear to be risk factors for smoking over the life-course.

Link to Abstract
Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

The tobacco industry in the United Kingdom keeps the price of its cheapest cigarettes virtually static despite annual increases in tobacco taxes, circumventing the UK's public health policy to reduce smoking through higher prices.

Link to Abstract
Psychological predictors of male smokeless tobacco use initiation and cessation: a 16-year longitudinal study

Male youths in the United States who are rebellious, thrill-seeking and follow their friends' leads appear to be much more likely to start using smokeless tobacco than other male youths.

Link to Abstract
Use of varenicline versus bupropion and risk of psychiatric adverse events

Compared with bupropion use, varenicline use does not significantly increase the risk of psychiatric adverse events such as psychotic symptoms, hostility, homicidal ideation, or suicide attempt.

Link to Abstract

August 2013

Randomized clinical trial examining the incremental efficacy of a 90-minute motivational alcohol intervention as an adjunct to standard batterer intervention for men

Men with a history of hazaradous drinking and violence against their intimate partner who receive a combined batterer and alcohol intervention show temporary reductions in drinking and violence.

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness of alcohol treatment interventions integrated into routine tuberculosis care in Tomsk, Russia

In Tomsk Oblast, Russia, tuberculosis patients with severe alcohol use disorders and past attempts to quit drinking show improved tuberculosis outcomes when alcohol interventions are integrated into tuberculosis care.

Link to Abstract
Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders

Individuals with severe coexisting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) can benefit from cognitive behaviour therapy targeting AUD, with greater benefits associated with exposure for PTSD.

Link to Abstract
Characteristics, circumstances and toxicology of sudden or unnatural deaths involving very high-range alcohol concentrations

In Sydney, Australia, middle-aged men with long histories of alcohol problems are at greatest risk of unnatural deaths involving very high blood alcohol levels.

Link to Abstract
Increased risk of alcohol and drug use among children from deployed military families

Children of deployed military personnel are at higher risk for substance use than children of non-military citizens.

Link to Abstract
Patterns of drug use in fatal crashes

Fatal single-vehicle crashes involving drugs are less common than those involving alcohol. The characteristics of drug-involved crashes differ depending upon drug class and whether alcohol is present.

Link to Abstract
Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study

Swedish children who fail at school and have a low socio-economic status are more likely to engage in illicit drug abuse as youths and young adults.

Link to Abstract
Incidence trends of cannabis and cocaine use from periodic Spanish general population surveys: effect of standardizing results by age structure

An apparently decreasing trend in both cannabis and cocaine use in Spain from 2000 disappears when the rates are standardized to account for changes in the age structure of the population.

Link to Abstract
Mental health differences between frequent cannabis users with and without dependence and the general population

Dependent frequent cannabis users have worse mental health than both non-dependent frequent cannabis users and the general population.

Link to Abstract
A survey of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines in 121 countries

More than half of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have not yet developed national tobacco treatment guidelines.

Link to Abstract
A survey of tobacco dependence treatment services in 121 countries

Most Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, especially low- and middle-income countries, have not yet developed national tobacco treatment services.

Link to Abstract
The delivery of smoking cessation interventions to primary care patients with mental health problems

The total proportion of smokers with poor mental health who are prescribed a smoking cessation medication is low: one in ten is prescribed a smoking cessation medication and only half are advised to quit.

Link to Abstract
Fifty-two-week continuous abstinence rates of smokers being treated with varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy

Smokers in the same behavioural support programme who use varenicline appear more likely to achieve long-term abstinence than those using nicotine replacement therapy.

Link to Abstract
Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study

Children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are at risk for psychoactive substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in adolescence.

Link to Abstract

September 2013

Alcohol use disorders and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mortality in people with alcohol use disorder is markedly higher than thought previously. Women, younger people, and people undergoing treatment for the condition have higher mortality risks than other people with alcohol use disorders.

Link to Abstract
Comparative performance of biomarkers of alcohol consumption in a population sample of working-aged men in Russia: the Izhevsk Family Study

Among Russians, blood concentration of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a better biomarker for detecting ethanol consumption above 40 g/day than blood concentration of gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, or aspartate aminotransferase, or mean cell volume of erythrocytes.

Link to Abstract
Impacts of the minimum legal drinking age legislation on in-patient morbidity in Canada, 1997-2007: a regression-discontinuity approach

Based on data from 1997-2007, removing minimum legal drinking age restrictions in Canada would likely cause substantial increases in hospital admissions among young adults for alcohol-use disorders/poisoning and other serious injuries, especially among men.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol-selling outlets and mortality in Switzerland: The Swiss National Cohort

In Switzerland, alcohol-related mortality is associated with the density of alcohol outlets around the place of residence.

Link to Abstract
The collectivity of drinking cultures: is the theory applicable to African settings?

Although the theory of collective drinking predicts that alcohol consumption patterns in African countries will differ from industrialized countries, in fact African alcohol consumption shows the same distribution patterns as industrialized countries.

Link to Abstract
Shared risk: who engages in substance use with American homeless youth?

Homeless young people in the United States are more likely to drink or use drugs when they are with peers who engage in multiple risk behaviours (e.g., drug use plus risky sex; intoxication plus risky sex) and who occupy influential social roles (e.g., popular people, opinion leaders, support providers, sex partners).

Link to Abstract
Injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid dependence: long-term safety and effectiveness

During a 1-year open-label extension phase of injectable intramuscular injectable extended-release naltrexone for the prevention of relapse in opioid dependence, 62.3% of patients stayed in the program for the full year and 50.9% were abstinent from opioids.

Link to Abstract
Ecstasy and the use of sleep medications in a general community sample: a 4-year follow-up

The use of ecstasy appears to be associated with the use of sleeping medications, but this association can be accounted for by other factors, suggesting that the extent of sleep disruption for ecstasy users is not severe.

Link to Abstract
The effects of cannabis use expectancies on self-initiated cannabis cessation

In the USA, anticipated positive effects of cannabis use appear to be strongly linked to cannabis use and failure to quit.

Link to Abstract
The impact of cigarette pack shape, size and opening: evidence from tobacco company documents

Consumer research by the tobacco industry between 1973 and 2002 found that variations in packaging shape, size and opening method could influence brand appeal and risk perceptions and thereby increase cigarette sales.

Link to Abstract
Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes

The nicotine content of electronic cigarette refill bottles is close to what is stated on the label. Impurities detectable in several brands are below the level where they are likely to cause harm.

Link to Abstract
How does rate of smoking cessation vary by age, gender and social grade? Findings from a population survey in England

Among smokers in England, those under 30 and over 50 years of age seem to have higher quit rates than middle-aged smokers, women seem to have higher quit rates than men, and young adults in higher social grades seem to have higher quit rates than those in lower social grades.

Link to Abstract

October 2013

Efficacy of interventions to combat tobacco addiction: Cochrane update of 2012 reviews

Cochrane Reviews are a gold standard in establishing what works in clinical practice. Reviews published in 2012 found good evidence that behavioural interventions improve smokers' chances of stopping over and above use of stop-smoking medicines; that cytisine is effective in helping smokers to stop; that automated text messaging programmes can help smokers to stop and that training health professionals in smoking cessation improves their effectiveness in encouraging smokers to stop.

Link to Abstract
The epidemiology of substance use among street children in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Street children from resource-constrained settings report high life-time substance use. Inhalants are the predominant substances used, followed by tobacco, alcohol and marijuana.

Link to Abstract
Cravings as a mediator and moderator of drinking outcomes in the COMBINE study

Combining naltrexone with a behavioral intervention to treat alcoholism may not be more beneficial than either therapy on its own because craving reduction is a common mechanism of both.

Link to Abstract
Drinking motives moderate the impact of pre-drinking on heavy drinking on a given evening and related adverse consequences--an event-level study

Among young adults in Switzerland, heavy weekend drinking and the related consequences seem to result from the combination of pre-drinking, level of negative reinforcement drinking for women (drinking to fit in or forget problems) and positive reinforcement drinking for men (drinking to be sociable or have fun).

Link to Abstract
Alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency make distinct contributions to dysregulated drinking behaviour

Selective attention to alcohol (automatically orientating towards alcohol-related information over other stimuli) and an approach-alcohol action tendency (an automatic inclination to approach and consume alcohol) appear to be distinct mechanisms that contribute independently to difficulty regulating alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Measurement invariance of DSM-IV alcohol, marijuana and cocaine dependence between community-sampled and clinically overselected studies

DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence seem to be equally appropriate for describing substance dependence across clinical and community samples.

Link to Abstract
Pain is associated with heroin use over time in HIV-infected Russian drinkers

HIV-infected Russian drinkers who report pain are more likely to use heroin over time than HIV-infected Russian drinkers who do not report pain.

Link to Abstract
Comparison of behavioral treatment conditions in buprenorphine maintenance

There remains no clear evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy and contingency management reduce opiate use when added to buprenorphine and medical management in opiate users seeking treatment.

Link to Abstract
Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study

Self-report measures relating to cannabis use are at best weakly associated with objective measures. Of the self-report measures, number of joints per gram, cannabis price and subjective potency have at least some validity.

Link to Abstract
Young adults' recreational social environment as a predictor of ecstasy use initiation: findings of a population-based prospective study

In Australia, young adults appear to start using ecstasy mainly because of social environmental factors (ecstasy-using social contacts and attendance at dance music events), and less as a result of psychological distress and early cannabis use.

Link to Abstract
CHRNA5-A3-B4 genetic variants alter nicotine intake and interact with tobacco use to influence body weight in Alaska Native tobacco users

Variants in the gene cluster CHRNA5-A3-B4 alter nicotine intake and body mass index in a population of Alaska Native people with a distinct haplotype structure, smoking behaviors, and prevalence of obesity.

Link to Abstract
Impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Taiwan

The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in Taiwan in 2009 was associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking, particularly among adolescents in earlier stages of smoking and those living in non-urban areas.

Link to Abstract
Effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone on smoking and related behaviors in smokers preparing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

Naltrexone taken in the week before an attempt to quit smoking reduces cigarette consumption, urges to smoke and alcohol consumption relative to placebo.

Link to Abstract
Perceived pubertal timing and recent substance use among adolescents: a longitudinal perspective

Adolescents who believe they are more advanced in puberty than their peers are more likely to have used cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana recently than adolescents who believe they are on-time or late developing.

Link to Abstract
Concurrent use of khat and tobacco is associated with verbal learning and delayed recall deficits

Khat users who smoke cigarettes have a lower rate of verbal learning and delayed recall of previously learned verbal material than khat users who do not smoke cigarettes.

Link to Abstract

November 2013

The impact of hazardous drinking on suicide among working-age Russian males: an individual-level analysis

Hazardous drinking substantially increases the risk of suicide among working-age Russian males, with nearly half of all suicides attributed to this drinking pattern.

Link to Abstract
Is the alcohol industry delaying government action on alcohol health warning labels in Australia?

Campaigning by some parts of the alcohol industry appears to have been instrumental in the Australian Government's decision to delay the introduction of mandatory alcohol health warning labels.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol consumption and self-reported (SF12) physical and mental health among working-aged men in a typical Russian city: a cross-sectional study

Among working-aged male adults in Russia, hazardous patterns of alcohol drinking are associated with poorer self-reported physical and mental health. Physical health appears to be lower in those reporting complete abstinence compared with those drinking 10-19 litres per year.

Link to Abstract
Multiple behavioural impulsivity tasks predict prospective alcohol involvement in adolescents

Several measures of impulsivity predict escalation in alcohol involvement (consumption, drunkenness and problems) in young adolescents, but alcohol use does not appear to alter impulsivity.

Link to Abstract
Predicting steep escalations in alcohol use over the teenage years: age-related variations in key social influences

Among adolescents, parental disapproval of alcohol use before transition to high school, low school commitment at transition to high school, and sibling and peer alcohol use during adolescence are associated with a higher risk of steep escalations in alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
Managing psychiatric comorbidity within versus outside of methadone treatment settings: a randomized and controlled evaluation

On-site and integrated psychiatric and substance misuse services in a methadone treatment setting might produce better psychiatric outcomes than off-site and non-integrated substance misuse and psychiatric care.

Link to Abstract
Driving under the influence (DUI) among patients in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT): a registry-based national cohort study

In Norway, patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) have reduced convictions for driving under the influence (DUI) compared with their pre-treatment levels. Being male and having a previous history of several convictions for DUI are important risk factors for convictions for DUI during OMT.

Link to Abstract
Sensitivity and specificity of a procedure for early human screening of novel smoking cessation medications

Assessing days abstinent during 1 week of use of medication versus placebo in a cross-over design could be a useful early Phase 2 clinical trial study design for assessing usefulness of medications that aid smoking cessation.

Link to Abstract
Effects of reward and punishment on brain activations associated with inhibitory control in cigarette smokers

Compared with non-smokers, smokers show increased brain activity when resisting immediately rewarding stimuli and may be less sensitive to punishment as a strategy to increase control over rewarding stimuli.

Link to Abstract
Association between smoking cessation and short-term health-care use: results from an international prospective cohort study (ATTEMPT)

Smoking cessation does not appear to be associated with a substantial short-term increase or decrease in health-care use.

Link to Abstract
The prevalence, predictors and associated health outcomes of high nicotine dependence using three measures among US smokers

High nicotine dependence is associated with lower quality of life, lower work productivity and higher health-care use.

Link to Abstract
Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England

Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements in England used the most effective strategies: negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers.

Link to Abstract
Homelessness, cigarette smoking and desire to quit: results from a US national study

Among patients in US health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker. But homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit.

Link to Abstract
Snus use and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HUNT3 study

Norwegians who use snus extensively have a mixed profile of cardiovascular risk: slightly higher waist circumference and systolic blood pressure but also higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol.

Link to Abstract

December 2013

Influence of affective manipulations on cigarette craving: a meta-analysis

Laboratory studies indicate that adverse emotional states increase craving to smoke among dependent smokers, but positive emotional states do not consistently reduce craving to smoke.

Link to Abstract
Availability of convenience stores and adolescent alcohol use in Taiwan: a multi-level analysis of national surveys

Greater availability of convenience stores near a school is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use among adolescents over the previous 6 months.

Link to Abstract
Predicting persistency of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder and examining drinking patterns of recently remitted individuals: a prospective general population study

Only a minority of people in the Netherlands with alcohol use disorder as defined by DSM-5 still have the disorder 3 years later. Risk factors for persistence of alcohol use disorder include younger age, a higher number of weekly drinks and a comorbid anxiety disorder. A substantial number of people recently in diagnostic remission still drink above the maximum recommended level.

Link to Abstract
Drinking context-specific associations between intimate partner violence and frequency and volume of alcohol consumption

The social context in which drinking occurs appears to play a role in violence against partners, with male violence being linked to drinking away from home and female violence being linked to drinking at home.

Link to Abstract
The impact of a national alcohol policy on deaths due to transport accidents in Russia

The implementation of the suite of 2006 Russian alcohol control policies is partially responsible for saving more than 2400 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to traffic accidents.

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Cumulative and recent psychiatric symptoms as predictors of substance use onset: does timing matter?

Timing is significant in the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and substance use onset in childhood and adolescence, and the psychiatric predictors of onset are substance-specific.

Link to Abstract
Childhood conduct disorder trajectories, prior risk factors and cannabis use at age 16: birth cohort study

Maternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use.

Link to Abstract
Buprenorphine implants for treatment of opioid dependence: randomized comparison to placebo and sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone

Compared with placebo, buprenorphine implants result in significantly less frequent opioid use and are at least as effective as sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablets.

Link to Abstract
Engagement with the criminal justice system among opioid-dependent people: a retrospective cohort study

Among opioid-dependent people in Australia, a minority account for the majority of the criminal justice contact. Levels of offending are not consistent over time, sex or age.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness analysis of Recovery Management Checkups (RMC) for adults with chronic substance use disorders: evidence from a 4-year randomized trial

Recovery Management Checkups are a cost-effective and potentially cost-saving strategy for promoting abstinence and reducing substance use-related problems among chronic substance users.

Link to Abstract
Deviant smooth pursuit in preschool children exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco affects integrative visuomotor capabilities

Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally could inhibit the development of some cognitive functions in later life.

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An increase in primary care prescriptions of stop-smoking medication as a result of health insurance coverage in the Netherlands: population based study

Full health insurance coverage for smoking cessation treatment in the Netherlands was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of dispensed prescriptions of stop-smoking medication and a decrease in smoking prevalence.

Link to Abstract
Randomized trial of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion and NRT plus bupropion for smoking cessation: effectiveness in clinical practice

There is no difference in smoking cessation effectiveness among bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy and their combination when used with behavioural support in clinical practice. There is some evidence that bupropion is more beneficial than nicotine replacement therapy for smokers with a history of depression.

Link to Abstract
Influence of a dopamine pathway additive genetic efficacy score on smoking cessation: results from two randomized clinical trials of bupropion

A score based on functional polymorphisms relating to dopamine pathways appears to predict lapse to smoking following a quit attempt. That association is reduced in smokers using bupropion.

Link to Abstract
'No-one actually goes to a shop and buys them do they?': attitudes and behaviours regarding illicit tobacco in a multiply disadvantaged community in England

National strategies to reduce illicit tobacco may have limited impact in communities during a recession and where illicit trade is part of the local culture and economy. It may be possible to reduce illicit tobacco use by building on cultural unease about selling to children.

Link to Abstract