Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
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A message from Robert West, Editor-in-Chief

Key Findings 2016

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. The article titles are in bold and each key finding is below the article title.  Use the filters below to isolate key findings for each issue or search for a particular topic across all of this year's issues.

March 2016 – Current Issue

Peer-led interventions to prevent tobacco, alcohol and/or drug use among young people aged 11-21 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Peer interventions may help prevent tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents, but the evidence base is limited. Link to Abstract

The prevalence of compulsive buying: A meta-analysis

Evidence to date suggests that in countries where it has been studied around 1 in 20 adults may suffer from compulsive buying. Link to Abstract

Enforcement uniquely predicts reductions in alcohol-impaired crash fatalities

As enforcement of drunk driving laws increases, alcohol-impaired crash fatalities decrease. Link to Abstract

The contribution of education, social class and economic activity to the income-mortality association in alcohol-related and other mortality in Finland in 1988-2012

The income disparity in mortality among working-age Finns originates increasingly from alcohol-related causes of death. Link to Abstract

Increasing compliance with alcohol service laws in a developing country: intervention trial in the Kingdom of Bhutan

A programme to improve compliance with legal restrictions on serving alcohol in Bhutan had a modest effect, reducing illegal purchases from 80% to 66%. Link to Abstract

Potential cost-effectiveness of supervised injection facilities in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada

It is likely to be cost-effective to establish at least three supervised injection facilities in Toronto, Canada and two in Ottawa, Canada. Link to Abstract

Being the victim of violence during a date predicts next-day cannabis use among female college students

Among female college students in the United States, being the victim of violence during a date appears to increase the risk for cannabis use the following day. Link to Abstract

Clinical risk factors for death after release from prison in Washington State: a nested case-control study

Injection drug use and substance use disorders are important risk factors for death following release from prison. Link to Abstract

Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users

Self-reported addiction to video gaming and internet use correlates better with problems associated with these activities than reports of heavy use of these products over time. Link to Abstract

Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs

Higher tobacco outlet density may increase life-time smoking among youths. Link to Abstract

Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes

E-cigarettes can deliver levels of nicotine that are comparable to or higher than typical tobacco cigarettes, with similar systemic retention, suggesting addictive potential. Link to Abstract

Predictors of 10-year smoking abstinence in smokers abstinent for 1 year after treatment

Having a psychological disorder at the time of stopping smoking is a risk factor for relapse to smoking, even after more than 1 year of abstinence. Link to Abstract

February 2016

Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin: a 40-year history of Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service

The history of Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service in 1973, reflects changing perceptions of appropriate addiction treatment and appropriate funding relationships between statutory authorities and service providers. Link to Abstract

Does parental drinking influence children's drinking? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies

More parental drinking is associated with more drinking in offspring, but a causal connection has not yet been established. Link to Abstract

An international systematic review of smoking prevalence in addiction treatment

Smoking prevalence is higher among people enrolled in addiction treatment compared with the general population. Within that group, smoking rates are higher in people being treated for opiate dependence compared with people being treated for alcohol use disorder. Link to Abstract

Validation of an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

The computer self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test appears to be a valid way to identify substance use in primary care patients. Link to Abstract

Drinking and mortality: long-term follow-up of drinking-discordant twin pairs

Twin data from Finland show that monthly alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced blackouts are important factors leading to increased deaths in heavy drinkers. Link to Abstract

The importance of age groups in estimates of alcohol-attributable mortality: impact on trends in Switzerland between 1997 and 2011

Trends in alcohol-attributable mortality differ according to the upper age limit used for the estimates. Link to Abstract

Does promoting parents' negative attitudes to underage drinking reduce adolescents' drinking? The mediating process and moderators of the effects of the Örebro Prevention Programme

Increasing parents' restrictive attitudes to youth drinking appears to reduce heavy underage drinking regardless of gender, immigrant status, parents' and peers' alcohol use and parent-youth relationship quality. Link to Abstract

Declining and rebounding unhealthy alcohol consumption during the first year of HIV care in rural Uganda, using phosphatidylethanol to augment self-report

Unhealthy alcohol use among Ugandan adults entering HIV care declines prior to the start of anti-retroviral therapy but rebounds with time. The alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol increases detection of unhealthy alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of and motives for pharmacological neuroenhancement in Switzerland--results from a national internet panel

Taking prescription or recreational drugs for pharmacological neuroenhancement is rare among Swiss employees and students (4.0%), with mood enhancement (3.1%) more prevalent than cognitive enhancement (1.4%). Link to Abstract

Impact of treatment for opioid dependence on fatal drug-related poisoning: a national cohort study in England

Patients who receive only psychological support for opioid dependence in England appear to be at greater risk of fatal opioid poisoning than those who receive pharmacotherapy. Link to Abstract

Treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs attending opioid substitution treatment and community health clinics: the ETHOS Study

People with a history of injecting drug use and chronic hepatitis C virus attending opioid substitution treatment and community health clinics adhere to, and respond to, interferon-based therapy similarly to other populations. Link to Abstract

The relationship between player losses and gambling-related harm: evidence from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in four countries

Contrary to previous reports, increased gambling losses appear to increase gambling-related harms according to a linear or r-shaped function, not a j-shaped function. Link to Abstract

Enhancing Quit & Win contests to improve cessation among college smokers: a randomized clinical trial

Multiple Quit & Win contests appear to increase smoking abstinence rates in college students more than single contests. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinical smoking cessation interventions in Thailand

In middle-income countries such as Thailand, nortriptyline and varenicline appear to provide cost-effective clinical options to help smokers quit. Link to Abstract

Behavioral associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence among US young adults

A new waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence scale created by adapting traditional tobacco dependence measures appears to be a valid tool for measuring dependence. Link to Abstract

Are financial incentives cost-effective to support smoking cessation during pregnancy?

Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy are highly cost-effective. Link to Abstract

January 2016

How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest; it primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives. Link to Abstract

The drug situation in Europe: an overview of data available on illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances from European monitoring in 2015

Opioid drugs continue to burden the European drug treatment system, although both new heroin entrants and injecting show declines. The European early warning system now monitors more than 450 new psychoactive substances. Link to Abstract

Health information on alcoholic beverage containers: has the alcohol industry's pledge in England to improve labelling been met?

The UK Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol labelling pledge has not been fully met. Labelling information frequently falls short of best practice, with font and logos smaller than would be accepted on other products with adverse health effects. Link to Abstract

Relating off-premises alcohol outlet density to intentional and unintentional injuries

Greater off-premises outlet density is related to greater incidence of traumatic injury. Chain outlets appear to be most strongly associated with traumatic injury rates. Link to Abstract

The association between alcohol outlet density and alcohol use among urban and regional Australian adolescents

Higher densities of alcohol outlets in an adolescent's immediate neighbourhood are related to increased likelihood of alcohol consumption. The density of licensed clubs is associated more strongly with drinking for urban than for regional adolescents. Link to Abstract

Risk of mortality on and off methadone substitution treatment in primary care: a national cohort study

Among primary care patients undergoing methadone treatment, risk of all-cause mortality increases following treatment cessation, and is highest in the initial 4-week period. Link to Abstract

Understanding Americans' views on opioid pain reliever abuse

Americans view the problem of opioid pain reliever abuse as serious, and support nearly all policies recommended by experts to curb the epidemic. Link to Abstract

Innovative community-based educational face-to-face intervention to reduce HIV, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne infectious risks in difficult-to-reach people who inject drugs: ANRS-AERLI study

An inexpensive and easily implemented educational intervention on risks associated with drug injection reduces significantly unsafe HIV-HCV transmission practices and injection-related complications. Link to Abstract

Enhancing the effectiveness of smoking treatment research: conceptual bases and progress

A new, synthesized research approach identifies promising components for every phase of smoking treatment. Many intervention components interact with one another. Link to Abstract

Comparative effectiveness of motivation phase intervention components for use with smokers unwilling to quit: a factorial screening experiment

Motivation-phase nicotine gum and behavioral reduction counseling are promising intervention components for smokers who are initially unwilling to quit. Link to Abstract

Identifying effective intervention components for smoking cessation: a factorial screening experiment

Preparation counseling and the combination of intensive cessation in-person counseling with preparation nicotine gum or patch are promising intervention components for smoking. Link to Abstract

Comparative effectiveness of intervention components for producing long-term abstinence from smoking: a factorial screening experiment

Twenty-six weeks of nicotine patch/gum (versus 8 weeks) and maintenance counseling provided by phone are promising intervention components for the cessation and maintenance phases of smoking treatment. Link to Abstract

Predictors of comorbid polysubstance use and mental health disorders in young adults--a latent class analysis

Mental health disorders are more likely in young adults with polysubstance use disorders than those with alcohol/cannabis use disorders. Link to Abstract