Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor-in-Chief, Robert West

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. The article titles are in bold and each key finding is below the article title.  Use the filters below to isolate key findings for each issue or search for a particular topic across all of this year's issues.

January 2018

Mecamylamine treatment for alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled trial

Mecamylamine did not reduce alcohol consumption significantly in either treatment-seeking smokers or non-smokers with alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Prediction of alcohol use disorder using personality disorder traits: a twin study

Conduct disorder and self-harming impulsivity are the foremost risk traits for alcohol use disorder among the 80 personality disorder criteria of DSM-IV.

Link to Abstract
Major life events and risk of alcohol use disorders: a prospective cohort study

There is a strong association between serious economic problems in adult life and risk of alcohol use disorders.

Link to Abstract
The stability of baseline-defined categories of alcohol consumption during the adult life-course: a 28-year prospective cohort study

Among UK civil servants, alcohol consumption within baseline drinking categories is generally stable during the life-course, except among heavier baseline drinkers, for whom intakes decline with increasing age.

Link to Abstract
Childhood traumatic experiences and the association with marijuana and cocaine use in adolescence through adulthood

In the US, childhood trauma (individual types and total number experienced) is significantly associated with marijuana and cocaine use throughout life.

Link to Abstract
Risk factors for severe respiratory depression from prescription opioid overdose

The severity of symptoms in people attending US emergency departments because of prescription opioid overdose varied widely with the type of opioid and was worse in substance misusers and older patients.

Link to Abstract
To take or not to take: the association between perceived addiction risk, expected analgesic response and likelihood of trying novel pain relievers in self-identified chronic pain patients

In the US, self-identified chronic pain patients (CPP) at higher risk for opioid misuse are more likely to report willingness to try a novel analgesic despite increasing addiction risk than CPP with low risk of opioid misuse.

Link to Abstract
Association between universal hepatitis B prison vaccination, vaccine uptake and hepatitis B infection among people who inject drugs

In Scotland, uptake of hepatitis B virus vaccination among people in the community who inject drugs has increased since the 1999 introduction of universal prison vaccination.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between gambling expenditure, socio-demographics, health-related correlates and gambling behaviour--a cross-sectional population-based survey in Finland

In Finland, men spend more than women on gambling relative to net income. Those on lower incomes spend proportionately more of their income on gambling than those on higher incomes.

Link to Abstract
Self-changing behaviour in smoking cessation linked to trait and cognitive impulsivity

Among smokers who do not seek treatment to help them stop, those who succeed in stopping appear to have a lower tendency to act on impulse and inhibit thoughts than those who continue to smoke.

Link to Abstract
Adult interest in using a hypothetical modified risk tobacco product: findings from wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2013-14)

Among US adults, interest in using a hypothetical modified risk tobacco product is low overall, and highest among current experimental and established smokers.

Link to Abstract
German EstSmoke: Estimating adult smoking-related costs and consequences of smoking cessation for Germany

Life-time healthcare costs of German smokers appear to be substantially greater than those of German nonsmokers.

Link to Abstract
Effects of comorbid substance use disorders on outcomes in a Housing First intervention for homeless people with mental illness

Housing First programmes in Canada for people who are experiencing homelessness and mental illness are equally effective in people with and without comorbid substance use disorder (SUD).

Link to Abstract
Associations of coffee genetic risk scores with consumption of coffee, tea and other beverages in the UK Biobank

Coffee-related genetic risk scores could be used as instrumental variables indexing combined coffee and tea consumption in Mendelian randomization studies.

Link to Abstract
Effects of high alcohol intake, alcohol-related symptoms and smoking on mortality

The number of symptoms related to high alcohol intake and smoking appears to account for the positive association between alcohol consumption and early death.

Link to Abstract
Scaling-up HCV prevention and treatment interventions in rural United States-- model projections for tackling an increasing epidemic

To decrease hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and prevalence in rural Indiana, USA, by 90% by 2025/30, both HCV treatment and prevention interventions must be increased.

Link to Abstract

February 2018

Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders

Evidence is inconclusive for using nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate to control drinking in patients with alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Using Bayes factors to evaluate evidence for no effect: examples from the SIPS project

Scientists who find non-significant results should calculate a Bayes factor to determine if there is evidence for a null hypothesis over an alternative hypothesis or that more data are needed.

Link to Abstract
New cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to different levels of alcohol consumption

Alcohol consumption in France appears to cause almost 8% of new cancer cases, with light and moderate drinking contributing appreciably to this burden.

Link to Abstract
Associations between adolescent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline: a longitudinal co-twin control study

Adolescent cannabis use does not cause a decline in IQ, even when that use reaches dependence.

Link to Abstract
Extended-release naltrexone for methamphetamine dependence among men who have sex with men: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Extended-release naltrexone does not appear to reduce methamphetamine use or sexual risk behaviors among methamphetamine-dependent men who have sex with men.

Link to Abstract
Does paying service providers by results improve recovery outcomes for drug misusers in treatment in England?

Drug addiction recovery services in England commissioned on a payment-by-results basis tend to have lower rates of treatment initiation and completion but higher rates of in-treatment abstinence and non-injecting than other services.

Link to Abstract
Luck, come here! Automatic approach tendencies toward gambling cues in moderate- to high-risk gamblers

In the Netherlands, moderate- to high-risk gamblers appear to have a stronger tendency than non-problem gamblers to show an 'approach' tendency in a laboratory task to gambling-related pictures compared with neutral pictures. This gambling approach bias has been found to predict persistence in gambling behaviour over time.

Link to Abstract
Ecological momentary analysis of the relations among stressful events, affective reactivity, and smoking among smokers with high versus low depressive symptoms during a quit attempt

Depressed smokers experience more exposure to stress, longer-lasting post-stress affective disturbance and greater risk of smoking relapse after stress than non-depressed smokers.

Link to Abstract
Factors moderating the relative effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in clients using smoking cessation services

In English stop-smoking services, the advantage of varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy is lower in pharmacy and GP settings than in specialist clinics.

Link to Abstract
Evaluating the mutual pathways among electronic cigarette use, conventional smoking and nicotine dependence

E-cigarette use among young adults is not significantly associated with later conventional smoking, either directly or through nicotine dependence.

Link to Abstract
Associations of parental alcohol use disorders and parental separation with offspring initiation of alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use and sexual debut in high-risk families

Parental alcohol use disorders and parental separation predict increased risk of early alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use and sexual debut in offspring from high-risk families.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol e-Help: study protocol for web-based self-help program to reduce alcohol use in adults w/drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous or suggestive of dependence in mid-income countries

If the World Health Organization's web-based self-help program, Alcohol e-Health, is found to be effective, its potential public health impact in countries with underdeveloped alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatment systems is considerable.

Link to Abstract
Moving alcohol prevention research forward--Part I: introducing a complex systems paradigm

A proposed complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can transcend limitations of traditional approaches and lead to high-leverage preventive interventions.

Link to Abstract
Moving alcohol prevention research forward--Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling

Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions in alcohol misuse prevention.

Link to Abstract

March 2018

Measuring treatment outcomes in gambling disorders: a systematic review

Measuring recovery from problem gambling needs to go beyond assessing gambling behaviour to encompass other aspects of people's wellbeing and functioning.

Link to Abstract
The short-term impact of the alcohol act on alcohol-related deaths and hospital admissions in Scotland: a natural experiment

The October 2011 implementation of the Alcohol Act in Scotland was not clearly associated with a reduction in alcohol-related deaths or hospital admissions in the 3-year period after implementation.

Link to Abstract
A developmental-based motivational intervention to reduce alcohol and marijuana use among non-treatment-seeking young adults: a randomized controlled trial

A brief, longitudinally delivered, developmentally based motivational intervention for young adults did not produce reductions in binge alcohol, marijuana use or dual use days relative to a control condition.

Link to Abstract
Socio-economic differentials in cannabis use trends in Australia

The decline in cannabis use in Australia from 2001 to 2013 occurred largely among higher socio-economic status groups.

Link to Abstract
Non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with fatal poisoning

Non-prescribed psychoactive drugs are commonly found at postmortem in drug poisoning deaths in Finland, with history of drug abuse being a major contributing factor.

Link to Abstract
Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984-2015 US National Alcohol Surveys

Marijuana use in the US has risen steeply since 2005, but not because of the liberalization of marijuana policies in some states.

Link to Abstract
Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray for opioid overdose reversal: Phase I healthy volunteer study

A concentrated 2mg intranasal naloxone spray delivers naloxone as effectively, over the critical first 15 minutes, as the standard 0.4mg intramuscular (IM) naloxone injection.

Link to Abstract
Moral disapproval and perceived addiction to internet pornography: A longitudinal examination

Perceived addiction to internet pornography seems to be more strongly related to moral concerns around pornography use than to the amount of daily use.

Link to Abstract
Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences

Three independent chromosome 19 signals account for ~20% of the variability in the nicotine metabolite ratio in African American smokers; knowledge of these may help to develop genomics-based personalization of tobacco dependence treatment.

Link to Abstract
Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?

In the Netherlands, the peak age of smoking initiation (16 years) has not shifted despite new youth access laws.

Link to Abstract
The effect of a behavioral activation treatment for substance use on post-treatment abstinence: a randomized controlled trial

A behavioral activation group treatment for substance use (LETS ACT) appears to increase the likelihood of abstinence and reduce adverse consequences from substance use up to 12 months post-treatment.

Link to Abstract
Needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing HCV transmission among people who inject drugs: findings from a Cochrane Review and meta-analysis

Opioid substitution therapy reduces risk of hepatitis C acquisition and is strengthened in combination with needle and syringe programmes.

Link to Abstract

April 2018

Predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

A wide range of socio-demographic, relationship, social, smoking-related, pregnancy-related, health and psychological factors have been found to predict smoking cessation in pregnancy.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol-related harm in emergency departments: a prospective, multi-centre study

Almost one in 10 presentations to emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand are alcohol related.

Link to Abstract
Efficacy of a web-based intervention with and without guidance for employees with risky drinking: results of a three-arm randomized controlled trial

A web-based alcohol intervention, administered with or without guidance, significantly reduced drinking and improved mental health and work-related outcomes in the German working population.

Link to Abstract
Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol (CMCA): secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial showing effects of community organizing on alcohol acquisition by youth in the Cherokee nation

A community organizing intervention, Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA), is effective in reducing availability of alcohol to underage youth in the US.

Link to Abstract
Associations between methadone maintenance treatment and crime: a 17-year longitudinal cohort study of Canadian provincial offenders

Canadians with prior convictions and opioid dependence appear to commit fewer crimes when they are receiving methadone treatment compared with no methadone treatment.

Link to Abstract
Impulsivity predicts poorer improvement in quality of life during early treatment for people with methamphetamine dependence

Among Australian methamphetamine-dependent people, elevated impulsivity (acting without sufficient deliberation) predicts lower improvement of social and psychological quality of life in the first 6-9 weeks of treatment.

Link to Abstract
Relationship between high-risk patients receiving prescription opioids and high-volume opioid prescribers

Health care providers in the US who typically do not prescribe large volumes of opioids frequently prescribe opioids to patients at high risk of opioid misuse.

Link to Abstract
Self-reported marijuana use over 25 years and abdominal adiposity: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Neither cumulative nor current marijuana use is associated with liver attenuation or total abdominal, visceral, subcutaneous, or intermuscular fat in mid-life.

Link to Abstract
The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: results of the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs)

The incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated and in future is likely to include higher proportions of women and older adults.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of personal tailored risk information and taster sessions to increase the uptake of the NHS stop smoking services: the Start2quit randomized controlled trial

To increase attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services, a tailored letter and taster session in the services is likely to be more cost-effective than a generic letter in the long term.

Link to Abstract
Cigarette use is increasing among people with illicit substance use disorders in the United States, 2002-14: emerging disparities in vulnerable populations

While cigarette smoking has declined in the U.S. for the past several decades, it has increased since 2002 among people with substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract
Patterns of substance use and mortality risk in a cohort of 'hard-to-reach' polysubstance users

In a Norwegian prospective cohort study, 'hard-to-reach' polysubstance users had a more than 10 times higher mortality risk than the general population.

Link to Abstract
The genetic and environmental architecture of substance use development from early adolescence into young adulthood: a longitudinal twin study of comorbidity of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use

Among Norwegian adolescents, there appear to be strong genetic effects on both substance-specific and comorbid use of alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco; individual differences in alcohol use can be explained partially by family background.

Link to Abstract
Sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking: findings from a US national sample

In the US, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high-intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts.

Link to Abstract
Assessing causal relationships using genetic proxies for exposures: an introduction to Mendelian randomization

As genetic variants associated with addictive behaviours are identified, the potential for Mendelian randomization analyses will grow.

Link to Abstract

May 2018

Diminishing benefit of smoking cessation medications during the first year: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The proportion of smokers who use smoking cessation medications who benefit from doing so decreases during the course of the first year, but a net benefit still remains at 12 months.

Link to Abstract
Motivation to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent attempts at reduction and changes in consumption in increasing and higher-risk drinkers in England: a prospective population survey

Excessive drinkers in England with greater motivation to reduce consumption are more likely to report an attempt to reduce during the next 6 months, but on average this does not appear to translate to reduced consumption.

Link to Abstract
Estimating the drink driving attributable fraction of road traffic deaths in Mexico

An estimated 19.5% of car occupant deaths in Mexico in 2010-13 may have been caused by alcohol.

Link to Abstract
Trends in alcohol-related mortality in East and West Germany, 1980-2014: age, period and cohort variations

Between 1980 and 2014, alcohol-related mortality declined in both East and West Germany but started earlier in West Germany. This difference can partly be explained by different drinking patterns before and changes in the health care system after the reunification.

Link to Abstract
Lifetime marijuana use and subclinical atherosclerosis: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

Marijuana use appears to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, but only among those who have ever used tobacco.

Link to Abstract
Risk of amphetamine use disorder and mortality among incident users of prescribed stimulant medications in the Veterans Administration

Among adult incident stimulant medication users in the VA health-care system (2001 to 2012), comorbid substance use disorders were common and were risk factors for development of an amphetamine use disorder (AUD).

Link to Abstract
Direct-acting antiviral treatment of chronic HCV-infected patients on opioid substitution therapy: Still a concern in clinical practice?

In Germany, direct-acting antiviral treatment can achieve equally high sustained virological response rates among former or current drug users and patients with no history of drug use.

Link to Abstract
Brief telephone interventions for problem gambling: a randomized controlled trial

In treatment of problem gambling in New Zealand, brief telephone interventions are associated with reductions in days spent gambling and dollars lost that are similar to more intensive interventions.

Link to Abstract
E-cigarette price sensitivity among middle- and high-school students: evidence from monitoring the future

Higher disposable e-cigarette prices appear to be associated with reduced e-cigarette use among adolescents in the US.

Link to Abstract
Validation of a contextualized assessment of smoking behaviour in students

Social context plays an important role in smoking-related decision-making and simulated social contexts have potential for the study of context-related decision-making in addiction.

Link to Abstract
Improving quit rates of web-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: full-scale randomized trial of WebQuit.org versus Smokefree.gov

The smoking cessation websites WebQuit.org and Smokefree.gov have similar 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 12 months.

Link to Abstract
The associations between psychotic experiences and substance use and substance use disorders: findings from the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys

Associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and substance use/substance use disorders (SU/SUDs) are often bidirectional, but not all types of SU/SUDs are associated with PEs.

Link to Abstract
Incidence and risk factors for mortality after release from prison in Australia: a prospective cohort study

People released from prison in Queensland, Australia are at increased risk of death, due particularly to drug-related causes. Those at greatest risk have poor physical and mental health and a history of risky substance use.

Link to Abstract
Excess overdose mortality immediately following transfer of patients and their care as well as after cessation of opioid substitution therapy

In the UK, opioid-dependent people transferred to an alternative treatment provider for continuation of their OST experience high overdose mortality rates, especially within the first month.

Link to Abstract

June 2018

Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Synthesis of the current evidence does not support the hypothesis that US medical marijuana laws (MMLs) up to 2014 have led to increases in adolescent marijuana use prevalence.

Link to Abstract
Immediate effects on adult drinkers of exposure to alcohol harm reduction advertisements with and without drinking guideline messages: experimental study

Television advertisements on the harms of drinking increase intentions to reduce drinking among both low- and high-risk drinkers.

Link to Abstract
Adolescents' alcohol use and strength of policy relating to youth access, trading hours and driving under the influence: findings from Australia

Population-directed policies designed to reduce alcohol availability and promotion may reduce adolescents' alcohol use.

Link to Abstract
Differences in mortality in a cohort of cocaine use disorder patients with concurrent alcohol or opiates disorder

Mortality risk and excess mortality are significantly greater among those with cocaine and opiates use disorder than among people with only cocaine use disorder or cocaine and alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Increased non-fatal overdose risk associated with involuntary drug treatment in a longitudinal study with people who inject drugs

In Mexico, recent involuntary drug treatment is a risk factor for non-fatal drug overdose among people who inject drugs.

Link to Abstract
Improving recruitment to pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use: findings from a qualitative focus group study

Recruitment of participants for clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use could be improved if researchers became better at explaining clinical trials to potential participants. A checklist of issues to consider when designing trials is proposed.

Link to Abstract
A reciprocal effects analysis of cannabis use and perceptions of risk

Longitudinal associations between cannabis use and perception of risks from cannabis use are reciprocal, with a stronger association between cannabis use and lower subsequent risk perception.

Link to Abstract
Screening for problem gambling within mental health services: a comparison of the classification accuracy of brief instruments

The five-item Brief Problem Gambling Screen (BPGS) will be useful for mental health services wanting to screen for any level of gambling problem.

Link to Abstract
The effects of prescribing varenicline on two-year health outcomes: an observational cohort study using electronic medical records

Varenicline prescription in UK primary care does not appear to increase likelihood of death, myocardial infarction or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease over the following 2 years compared with NRT, but may cause more weight gain and reduce primary care attendance possibly through increased smoking cessation rates.

Link to Abstract
Education is the strongest socio-economic predictor of smoking in pregnancy

In Finland, socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy are attributable primarily to differences in the mother's educational level (low versus high) and orientation (vocational versus general).

Link to Abstract
Measuring spatial and temporal trends of nicotine and alcohol consumption in Australia using wastewater-based epidemiology

Wastewater-based epidemiology can be used to evaluate the geographic, temporal and weekly profiles of nicotine and alcohol consumption in different communities nationally.

Link to Abstract
Diminished alternative reinforcement as a mechanism linking conduct problems and substance use in adolescence: a longitudinal examination

Diminished alternative reinforcement may be a modifiable mechanism linking early adolescent conduct problems and subsequent marijuana use.

Link to Abstract

July 2018 – Current Issue

Extended-release injectable naltrexone for opioid use disorder: a systematic review

Many people who intend to start extended-release naltrexone do not do so, and most who do start discontinue treatment prematurely.

Link to Abstract
The future of the international drug control system and national drug prohibitions

International drug treaties will need reform as more countries legalise cannabis.

Link to Abstract
Unrecorded alcohol use: a global modelling study based on nominal group assessments and survey data

A new method for modelling country-level proportion of unrecorded alcohol use shows that lower-income countries have a higher proportion of unrecorded alcohol than higher-income countries.

Link to Abstract
Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms

An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle shops increases rates of alcohol-related harm.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol, pattern of drinking and all-cause mortality in Russia, Belarus and Hungary: a retrospective indirect cohort study based on mortality of relatives

Drinking frequency is associated positively with mortality among men and women in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The mortality risk is higher among frequent drinkers who exhibit binge and hazardous drinking patterns.

Link to Abstract
Cost-effectiveness of hydromorphone for severe opioid use disorder: findings from the SALOME randomized clinical trial

Injectable hydromorphone appears to provide similar outcomes to injectable diacetylmorphine and might provide greater benefit than methadone alone as well as being cost‐saving.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between methamphetamine use and heterosexual behaviour: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

Methamphetamine use is associated with an increase in being sexually active, having multiple and casual sex partners, and having condomless sex with casual partners, but is not associated with a change in condom use per se.

Link to Abstract
Neonatal outcomes after fetal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: national registry studies from the Czech Republic and Norway

Two national cohorts of women (Czech Republic and Norway) receiving opioid maintenance treatment during pregnancy showed small but not statistically significant differences in neonatal outcomes in favour of buprenorphine compared with methadone.

Link to Abstract
Do predictors of smoking relapse change as a function of duration of abstinence? Findings from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia

Among adult smokers in the US, Canada, UK and Australia, factors associated with smoking relapse differ between the early and later stages of quit attempts, suggesting relapse determinants change as a function of abstinence duration.

Link to Abstract
Estimating the health-care costs of children born to pregnant smokers in England: cohort study using primary and secondary health-care data

In England, maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with increased child health-care costs over the first 5 years of life, driven primarily by greater hospital in-patient care.

Link to Abstract
'Are the Times A-changin'? Trends in adolescent substance use in Europe

From 1999 to 2015 European adolescents showed strong decreasing trends in cigarette use and moderate decreases in alcohol use. Cannabis use increased in southern Europe and the Balkans.

Link to Abstract
Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis: a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study

Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses (which can test for causal effects in observational data) have found little evidence for causal relationships between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use.

Link to Abstract
Corrected US opioid-involved drug poisoning deaths and mortality rates, 1999-2015

Death certificate reports understate the prevalence of and changes over time in opioid and heroin/synthetic opioid-involved drug mortality in the United States.

Link to Abstract
'Addressed to you not as a smoker... but as a doctor': doctor-targeted cigarette advertisements in JAMA

Analysis of doctor-targeted tobacco ads in US medical journals from 1936 to 1953 suggest that tobacco companies targeted physicians as a potential sales force to assuage the public's fear of health risks and to recruit them as allies against negative publicity.

Link to Abstract