Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor's Notes
FIRST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS AND DEPENDENCIES: LISBON, 23-25 SEP 2015. The Portuguese General-Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies (SICAD) the journal Addiction, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE) are providing a conference for European addiction science on illicit drugs, alcohol, tobacco, gambling and other addictive behaviours. It will address major topical issues including new psychoactive substances, alcohol pricing and alternative nicotine delivery systems. A call for abstracts will be published in the autumn.
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A message from Robert West, Editor-in-Chief

Key Findings 2014

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. The article titles are in bold and each key finding is below the article title.  Use the filters below to isolate key findings for each issue or search for a particular topic across all of this year's issues.

December 2014 – Current Issue

Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheap products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase), reducing the beneficial impact of tax policies on high-risk drinkers. Link to Abstract

Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study

Among European adolescents, being able to name a favourite alcohol advertisement is associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking in the following year. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

In Estonia in 2008-09 most autopsies of people aged 25-54 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology but the death records failed to capture the scale and nature of those pathologies. Link to Abstract

Genetic influences on alcohol-related hangover

Genes appear to play a significant role in individual differences in the propensity to experience a hangover and of being resistant to hangover at a given level of alcohol use Link to Abstract

Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland

The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales. Link to Abstract

What happens when people discontinue taking medications? Lessons from COMBINE

A patient's decision to stop taking medications during alcohol treatment appears to happen during a weeks-long process of disengagement from treatment. Patients who discontinue medications early in treatment or without medical consultation are typically those who drink more frequently and more heavily. Link to Abstract

The impact of methadone maintenance therapy on hepatitis C incidence among illicit drug users

Participation in methadone maintenance treatment appears to be highly protective against hepatitis C infection among illicit drug users. Link to Abstract

The relationship between years of cocaine use and brain activation to cocaine and response inhibition cues

Years of cocaine use may be more closely related to cocaine cue and response inhibition brain activation than cocaine dependence diagnosis or amount of recent use. Link to Abstract

Recent cocaine use is a significant risk factor for sudden cardiovascular death in 15-49-year-old subjects: a forensic case-control study*

Recent cocaine use is associated with an increased risk for sudden cardiovascular death in people aged 15-49 years. Link to Abstract

Craving Facebook? Behavioral addiction to online social networking and its association with emotion regulation deficits

The use of online social networking sites is potentially addictive. Compulsive online social networking use seems to be connected to poor emotion regulation skills and heightened susceptibility to addiction more generally. Link to Abstract

Country - and individual - level determinants of probable problematic gambling in adolescence: A multilevel cross-national comparison

Family characteristics and expenditure on public health at a national level may play a key role in prevalence of problem gambling among adolescents in Europe. Link to Abstract

Is smoking cessation associated with worse comorbid substance use outcomes among homeless adults?

In homeless smokers, quitting smoking may be associated with reduced alcohol consumption but not with a substantial change in other drug use. Link to Abstract

Smoking cessation in smokers who smoke menthol and non-menthol cigarettes

In the United States, smoking menthol cigarettes appears to be associated with reduced success at quitting smoking, especially in African American women. Link to Abstract

Genetic variation in personality traits explains genetic overlap between borderline personality features and substance use disorders

Both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors contribute to comorbidity between borderline personality features and substance use disorders. A substantial proportion of this comorbidity can be attributed to genetic variation in normal personality traits. Link to Abstract

November 2014

Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit

Allowing electronic cigarettes to compete with cigarettes in the market-place might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating electronic cigarettes as strictly as cigarettes is not warranted on current evidence. Link to Abstract

Do doctors' smoking habits influence their smoking cessation practices? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Doctors who smoke appear to be less likely than non-smoking or ex-smoking doctors to counsel their patients to quit but more likely to refer them to smoking cessation programmes. Link to Abstract

Early age of alcohol initiation is not the cause of alcohol use disorders in adulthood, but is a major indicator of genetic risk. A population-based twin study

The association between early age of alcohol initiation and alcohol use disorders in later life does not reflect a causal relationship, but rather is due almost entirely to common genetic risk factors. Link to Abstract

Autonomy, special offers and routines: a Q methodological study of industry-driven marketing influences on young people's drinking behaviour

Young people share several perspectives regarding industry-driven alcohol marketing, including imperviousness to marketing, responsiveness to price and affordability and responsiveness to marketing that focuses on youth lifestyles. Link to Abstract

Does stage tailoring matter in brief alcohol interventions for job-seekers? A randomized controlled trial

A stage tailored intervention (an intervention tailored to match people's changing motivations to change) appears to be more effective than a non-stage tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use among people with high levels of drinking and low initial motivation to change. Link to Abstract

Adolescent alcohol use: a reflection of national drinking patterns and policy?

High levels of adult drinking and lax national alcohol control policies are associated with high levels of alcohol use among adolescents. Link to Abstract

Efficacy of motivational enhancement therapy on alcohol use disorders in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial

Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) appears to increase alcohol abstinence in patients with chronic hepatitis C, alcohol use disorders and ongoing alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use

Bupropion might reduce methamphetamine use in people who use methamphetamine less than daily, but the evidence remains inconclusive. Link to Abstract

The relationship between US heroin market dynamics and heroin-related overdose, 1992-2008

Decreases in the price of pure heroin in the United States and increases in market concentration of Colombian-source/type heroin are associated with increased hospital admissions for heroin-related overdose. Link to Abstract

Neurofunctional changes in adolescent cannabis users with and without bipolar disorder

Bipolar adolescents with comorbid cannabis use do not exhibit the same over-activation of the regions involved in emotional processing as seen in adolescents with bipolar disorder alone. These individuals may have a unique type of bipolar disorder or cannabis use may alter brain activation uniquely in bipolar disorder patients who use cannabis. Link to Abstract

Longitudinal patterns of problematic computer game use among adolescents and adults--a 2-year panel study

Within a 2-year time-frame, problematic use of computer games appears to be a less stable behaviour than reported previously and not related systematically to negative changes in the gamers' lives. Link to Abstract

The allure of multi-line games in modern slot machines

Multi-line games (in which players can wager on more than one line per spin) appear to be more appealing to gaming machine ('slots') players than single-line games. Multi-line games may be particularly absorbing for people with gambling problems. Link to Abstract

Role of smoking in regional variation in mortality in Poland

Differences in past smoking behaviour may largely explain the regional differences in all-cause mortality existing in 2008-10 in Poland, and its trends since 1991-1993. Link to Abstract

Efficacy of brief motivational interviewing on smoking cessation at tuberculosis clinics in Tshwane, South Africa: a randomized controlled trial

Motivational interviewing by lay counsellors to promote smoking cessation in tuberculosis patients in South Africa approximately doubled sustained smoking abstinence for at least 6 months compared with brief advice alone. Link to Abstract

October 2014

'High' risk? A systematic review of the acute outcomes of mixing alcohol with energy drinks

From surveys it seems that combining 'energy drinks' (containing caffeine) with alcohol increases levels of stimulation and reduces sedation but experimental studies involving relatively low doses have so far not borne this out. Link to Abstract

Association between stricter alcohol advertising regulations and lower hazardous drinking across European countries

Countries with stricter restrictions on alcohol advertising have a lower prevalence of hazardous drinking. Link to Abstract

Alcohol industry sponsorship and hazardous drinking in UK university students who play sport

Alcohol industry sponsorship of sports in the UK seems to be associated with higher levels of hazardous drinking among the university students being sponsored. Link to Abstract

Who under-reports their alcohol consumption in telephone surveys and by how much? An application of the 'yesterday method' in a national Canadian substance use survey

The 'yesterday method' (in which respondents are asked to report alcohol consumption the preceding day) can reduce under-reporting of alcohol consumption in telephone surveys. Using this method in a Canadian survey, younger drinkers and low-risk drinkers underestimated their alcohol consumption more than older drinkers and medium and high-risk drinkers. Link to Abstract

Hazardous birthday drinking among young people: population-based impacts on emergency department and in-patient hospital admissions

There is a significant increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions around the time of people's birthdays. Link to Abstract

Striking subgroup differences in substance-related mortality after release from prison

In Australia, in the first year after release, Indigenous ex-prisoners are more likely to die from alcohol-related causes but less likely to die of drug-related causes than are non-Indigenous ex-prisoners. Link to Abstract

Just say 'know': how do cannabinoid concentrations influence users' estimates of cannabis potency and the amount they roll in joints?

When using their own cannabis in a naturalistic setting, people adjust the amount they roll in joints according to concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not cannabidiol (CBD). Link to Abstract

A prospective study of hepatitis C incidence in Australian prisoners

In Australia, imprisonment appears to be a risk factor for hepatitis C virus transmission. Link to Abstract

On the latent structure of problem gambling: a taxometric analysis

Evidence from problem gambling questionnaires suggests that it may be better viewed as a categorical construct rather than a continuous dimension. Link to Abstract

Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy predicts drug use via externalizing behavior in two community-based samples of adolescents

Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking appears to be associated with a higher probability of experimenting with drugs during adolescence. Link to Abstract

Future orientation and smoking cessation: secondary analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial

'Future orientation' does not seem to be a strong predictor of success at stopping smoking. Link to Abstract

Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

Many smokers in the United States avoid the full impact of state excise tax on the cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. Link to Abstract

Widening educational inequalities in adolescent smoking following national tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003: a time-series analysis

After the introduction of tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003, smoking prevalence rates decreased among all adolescents, but socio-economic inequalities in adolescent smoking increased. Link to Abstract

September 2014

Prize-based contingency management for the treatment of substance abusers: a meta-analysis

Adding prize-based contingency management (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize) to behavioural support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence, but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. Link to Abstract

The declining trend in Swedish youth drinking: collectivity or polarization?

The decrease in youth drinking in Sweden that occurred from 2000-12 occurred at all consumption levels, which is consistent with Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking behaviour. Link to Abstract

The collectivity of changes in alcohol consumption revisited

Drinkers at all levels of consumption appear to move in concert, both up and down the consumption scale, in Finland, Norway and the United States, as predicted by Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking cultures. Link to Abstract

Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance: a Mendelian randomization study

The observation that people who drink alcohol tend to have higher levels of cognitive ability does not appear to be due to any causal association. Link to Abstract

An early evaluation of implementation of brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in the US Veterans Health Administration

Documented brief intervention in the US Veterans Health Administration was not associated with changes in drinking among outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use and repeat alcohol screening. Link to Abstract

The burden of premature opioid-related mortality

Rates of opioid-related deaths are increasing rapidly in Ontario, Canada, and are concentrated among the young. Link to Abstract

Sustained-release methylphenidate in a randomized trial of treatment of methamphetamine use disorder

Methylphenidate may reduce concurrent methamphetamine use when provided as treatment for patients undergoing behavioural support for moderate to severe methamphetamine use disorder. Link to Abstract

Fixation time is a sensitive measure of cocaine cue attentional bias

The amount of time spent fixating on cocaine-related images is a sensitive and stable measure of cocaine cue attentional bias (the tendency to attend more to cocaine-related images than neutral images) in cocaine-using adults. Link to Abstract

Gambling expenditure predicts harm: evidence from a venue-level study

As suggested by the Total Consumption Theory of gambling, aggregate spending by electronic gaming machine users predicts the prevalence of gambling-related harm in gaming venues. Link to Abstract

Reciprocal Associations between Cigarette Consumption and DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence Criteria in Adolescent Smokers

In adolescent smokers, cigarette consumption predicts severity of nicotine dependence as defined by DSM-IV several years later. Link to Abstract

Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study

People attempting to quit smoking without professional help have approximately 60% greater odds of reporting success if they use e-cigarettes than if they use willpower alone or over-the-counter nicotine replacement products. Link to Abstract

Stability of smoking status in the US population: a longitudinal investigation

US smokers showed very little change in their smoking status when followed between 2001 and 2005. Link to Abstract

Varenicline efficacy and safety among methadone maintained smokers: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Varenicline can aid short-term smoking abstinence in methadone-maintained smokers. Link to Abstract

August 2014

Efficacy of the nicotine vaccine 3′-AmNic-rEPA (NicVAX) co-administered with varenicline and counselling for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

The nicotine vaccine NicVAX does not appear to improve the chances of stopping smoking when given in addition to varenicline and behavioural support. Link to Abstract

Treatment with a nicotine vaccine does not lead to changes in brain activity during smoking cue exposure or a working memory task

The nicotine vaccine NicVAX appears to produce no significant effects on brain activity in response to a nicotine challenge. Link to Abstract

Clinical and biological moderators of response to naltrexone in alcohol dependence: a systematic review of the evidence

We don't yet know how to identify alcohol-dependent patients who will respond well to naltrexone, although family history and the genetic mutation OPRM1 Asn40Asp seem to be promising areas of research. Link to Abstract

Sustaining motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis of training studies

On average, three to four feedback/coaching sessions over a 6-month period sustain motivational interviewing skills used for substance use disorder treatment. Link to Abstract

The impact of alcohol on clinical outcomes in established psychosis: a longitudinal study

For people with psychosis, the most detrimental effect of alcohol consumption appears to be its effect on mood. Some of this effect seems to be reversible through drinking reduction. Link to Abstract

The impact of opioid substitution therapy on mortality post-release from prison: retrospective data linkage study

Opioid substitution therapy in prison and post-release could reduce mortality risk in the immediate post-release period. Link to Abstract

The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease 2010 study

Opioid dependence is a substantial contributor to the global disease burden; North America, eastern Europe and southern sub-Saharan Africa are most strongly affected. Link to Abstract

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

Analysis of water in the sewage system can be used to measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than national surveys, and creates estimates where such data do not exist. Link to Abstract

Using cognitive modelling to investigate the psychological processes of the Go/NoGo discrimination task in male abstinent heroin misusers

Male abstinent heroin misusers appear to be more influenced by heroin-related stimuli (pictures of heroin and heroin-related paraphernalia) during decision-making than men with no history of heroin misuse. Link to Abstract

Effects of depressive symptoms on antecedents of lapses during a smoking cessation attempt: an ecological momentary assessment study

Depressive symptoms prior to quitting smoking appear to be associated with negative emotions once the quit attempt has started, which decreases their belief in their ability to quit, increases their urges to smoke, and their probability of lapse back to smoking. Link to Abstract

Youth tobacco use type and associations with substance use disorders

Tobacco use of any kind in adolescence is associated with higher rates of substance use disorders. Link to Abstract

July 2014

Sexual orientation and alcohol problem use among UK adolescents: an indirect link through depressed mood

A higher prevalence of alcohol problem use in adolescents who are gay, lesbian or bisexual is partly explained by increased rates of depression in this group. Link to Abstract

Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low-and Middle-Income Countries?

Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with reduced alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Link to Abstract

Computerized versus in-person brief intervention for drug misuse: a randomized clinical trial

Computerized brief intervention can be an effective alternative to in-person brief intervention for addressing moderate drug use in primary care. Link to Abstract

Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study

Although smokers of strong cannabis alter their smoking behaviour to compensate for the higher strength, they still take in more THC than smokers of lower potency cannabis. Link to Abstract

Catecholamine levels and delay discounting forecast drug use among African American youths

Among young African American men, catecholamine levels (which indicate the degree of life stress) interact positively with delay discounting (the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger postponed rewards) to forecast increases in drug use. Link to Abstract

Unexpected adverse childhood experiences and subsequent drug use disorder: a Swedish population study (1995-2011)

Children under 15 who experience second-hand an extraordinary traumatic event (such as a parent or sibling being assaulted, diagnosed with cancer, or dying) appear to have approximately twice the risk of developing a drug use disorder than those who do not. Link to Abstract

Strategic and non-strategic problem gamblers differ on decision-making under risk and ambiguity

Problem gamblers make poor decisions under conditions of risk and ambiguity. Strategic (e.g. sports betting, poker) and non-strategic (e.g. electronic gaming machines) problem gamblers differed in decision-making and the underlying psychological processes associated with their decisions. Link to Abstract

Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

Smoking, alcohol and cannabis use are influenced by aggregated genetic risk factors shared among these substances. Link to Abstract

Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus

Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use (which has many of the same risk factors as smoking but to a lesser degree). Link to Abstract

Ex-smokers are happier than current smokers among Chinese adults in Hong Kong

Ex-smokers in Hong Kong are happier than current smokers and people who have never smoked. Link to Abstract

Change in physical activity after smoking cessation: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

Smokers who quit have progressively higher levels of physical activity in the years after quitting compared with continuing smokers. Link to Abstract

Randomized controlled trial to assess the short-term effectiveness of tailored web- and text-based facilitation of smoking cessation in primary care (iQuit in Practice)

Tailored self-help messages delivered alongside routine smoking cessation support in primary care may increase long-term abstinence compared with routine cessation support alone. Link to Abstract

Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence

A significant proportion of betel quid users in Asian communities meet the DSM-IV criteria for dependence. Link to Abstract

June 2014

A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol

Large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. Because this kind of alcohol is typically cheaper than licit alcohol, it may contribute to higher rates of heavy drinking. Link to Abstract

Association among different measures of alcohol use across adolescence and emerging adulthood

Among Canadian youth, two indices of alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking and overall quantity) are more strongly correlated with each other into early adulthood than other indices of alcohol use. These two indices also together account for greater variance in alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood than either frequency or quantity alone. Link to Abstract

Heterogeneous population effects of an alcohol excise tax increase on sexually transmitted infections morbidity

Increased alcohol taxes are associated with a reduction in sexually transmitted infections, especially among subpopulations with high disease burden such as non-Hispanic black people. Link to Abstract

Drinking in social groups. Does 'groupdrink' provide safety in numbers when deciding about risk?

Moderate alcohol consumption appears to produce a tendency towards increased risk taking in deciding to drive while intoxicated, which can be mitigated by monitoring processes within small (4 to 6 person) groups. Link to Abstract

Trends in non-drinking among Australian adolescents

The percentage of Australians aged 14-17 who do not drink alcohol increased from almost 33% in 2001 to over 50% in 2010. Link to Abstract

Heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm in young people: a longitudinal cohort study

Data on Norwegian youths show a link between heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm. Link to Abstract

Patterns of cannabis use and prospective associations with health issues among young males

Swiss men appear to settle into steady patterns of cannabis use by their early 20s. The number of symptoms of cannabis use disorder, rather than the frequency of cannabis use, predicts cannabis-related health issues. Link to Abstract

Increasing public support for supervised injection facilities in Ontario, Canada

Support for implementation of supervised drug injection facilities in Ontario, Canada increased between 2003 and 2009, but at both time-points a majority still held mixed opinions. Link to Abstract

Predictors of change in cocaine use in a street-recruited cohort of young cocaine users

A street-recruited group of cocaine users in Spain showed a significant reduction in cocaine use over a period of 12-24 months. High consumption of alcohol and increasing use of other psychoactive drugs decreased the probability of reducing cocaine use. Link to Abstract

Clinical features of methamphetamine-induced paranoia and preliminary genetic association with DBH-1021C→T in a Thai treatment cohort

Among methamphetamine-dependent individuals, paranoia appears to occur increasingly rapidly in the course of a session of methamphetamine use. Severity of methamphetamine dependence and antisocial personality disorder predicts methamphetamine-induced paranoia. A genetic polymorphism in dopamine β-hydroxylase is associated with methamphetamine-induced paranoia. Link to Abstract

Parental monitoring trajectories and gambling among a longitudinal cohort of urban youth

Low and/or declining parental monitoring of children between the ages of 11 and 14 is associated significantly with problem gambling when those children reach young adulthood. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of tobacco control television advertising in changing tobacco use in England: a population-based cross-sectional study

Government-funded tobacco control television advertising shown in England between 2002 and 2010 was associated with reduced smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. Link to Abstract

The freeze on mass media campaigns in England: a natural experiment of the impact of tobacco control campaigns on quitting behaviour

The suspension of tobacco control mass media campaigns in England in 2012 appeared to markedly reduce calls to the quitline, use of the SmokeFree website and use of booklets but not attendance at Stop Smoking Services. Link to Abstract

Time to first cigarette predicts 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in adolescent regular and intermittent smokers, NHANES 2007-10

Time between waking and the first cigarette of the day is correlated in daily and non-daily adolescent smokers with overall nicotine, and therefore carcinogen, intake. Link to Abstract

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure

The association between smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation does not appear to operate through in-utero exposure to tobacco. Link to Abstract

The association between smoking and depression from adolescence to adulthood

The inter-relationship between depression and smoking in adolescence and early adulthood seems to be due to reciprocal causal associations. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

The Healthy School and Drugs programme (a Dutch school-based prevention programme for early adolescents) had no detectable effect on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use. Link to Abstract

May 2014

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in restaurants and bars

Smoking bans in restaurants and bars in the United States, South America, Europe, and Australia have on average not had a detectable adverse economic impact on the hospitality industry. Link to Abstract

Testing a social ecological model of alcohol use: the California 50-city study

Having more bars in a given area is associated with heavier drinking outside the home. Link to Abstract

Facing temptation in the bar: counteracting the effects of self-control failure on young adults' ad libitum alcohol intake

When mental reserves needed for self-control are reduced, men tend to drink more while women tend to drink less. Raising self-awareness may counteract this effect in men. Link to Abstract

Disseminating alcohol screening and brief intervention at trauma centers: a policy-relevant cluster randomized effectiveness trial

Training trauma center providers to screen for alcohol problems and deliver brief advice may have a modest beneficial effect on alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Motivational intervention to enhance post-detoxification 12-Step group affiliation: a randomized controlled trial

A motivational intervention in an inpatient substance use disorder detox ward may increase engagement in 12-Step groups and reduce substance use. Link to Abstract

Use of Silk Road, the online drug marketplace, in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States

Drug buyers in the UK, USA, and Australia use the Silk Road for the same reasons that many people prefer online commerce (range, quality, convenience, ratings). The appeal of the Silk Road is affected by country-specific deterrents and market characteristics. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a brief cannabis universal prevention program among adolescents in primary care

Among adolescents in urban primary care in the United States, a computer-delivered brief intervention appeared to prevent and reduce cannabis use. Link to Abstract

Does methamphetamine use increase violent behaviour? Evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

There is a dose-related increase in violent behaviour during periods of methamphetamine use that cannot be explained by presence of psychotic symptoms. Link to Abstract

Differences between early-onset pathological gambling and later-onset pathological gambling: data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

Individuals with early-onset pathological gambling (PG) are likely to be male, never married, have lower income, belong to younger cohorts, and have a lower prevalence of mood disorders but higher prevalence of cluster B personality disorders than individuals with later-onset PG. Link to Abstract

Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence in African Americans and European Americans

Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence but not general substance dependence in African Americans and European Americans. Link to Abstract

Levels of saliva cotinine in electronic cigarette users

At least some experienced users of electronic cigarettes appear to be able to gain as much nicotine from their products as smokers typically get from cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of proactive quitline counselling for smoking parents recruited through primary schools: results of a randomized controlled trial

Intensive telephone counseling tailored to smoking parents of primary school children can help them quit smoking and promote parenting practices that protect their children from adverse effects of smoking. Link to Abstract

The risk for persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence: the role of childhood maltreatment

A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence. Link to Abstract

April 2014

Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

Banning multi-buy promotions for alcohol in Scotland did not reduce alcohol purchasing in the short term. Link to Abstract

Mortality from diseases, conditions and injuries where alcohol is a necessary cause in the Americas, 2007-09

Almost 80,000 deaths could be directly attributed to alcohol across the Americas between 2007 and 2009. Most of the deaths were in men and were from liver disease. Link to Abstract

Harms to 'others' from alcohol consumption in the minimum unit pricing policy debate: a qualitative content analysis of UK newspapers (2005-12)

The United Kingdom's news focus on youth binge drinkers may be masking the wider issue of alcohol overconsumption across the broader population. Link to Abstract

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to alcohol pictures predicts subsequent transition to heavy drinking in college students

United States college students who show a greater neural response to pictures of alcohol subsequently show larger increases in drinking and alcohol-related problems. Link to Abstract

Treatment retention, drug use and social functioning outcomes in those receiving 3 months versus 1 month of supervised opioid maintenance treatment

Supervising patients' consumption of opioid maintenance medications (buprenorphine, methadone, etc.) for longer periods doesn't appear to improve patients' opioid use or retention in treatment programs. Link to Abstract

The association of childhood physical abuse with the onset and extent of drug use among regular injecting drug users

Severe childhood physical abuse is associated with an earlier initiation into drug use. Any level of abuse is associated with more extensive polydrug use. Link to Abstract

Maintenance treatment for opioid dependence with slow-release oral morphine: a randomized cross-over, non-inferiority study versus methadone

Slow-release oral morphine appears to be at least as effective as methadone in treating people with opioid use disorder. Link to Abstract

Reasons behind Greek problem drug users' decisions to quit using drugs and engage in treatment of their own volition: Sense of self and the Greek 'filotimo'

Primarily in relation to 'filotimo' (a Greek concept that regulates behaviour towards one's family), the desire to restore one's spoiled identity plays a pivotal role in Greek problem drug users' decisions to stop drug use and seek treatment. Link to Abstract

Environmental factors selectively impact co-occurrence of problem/pathological gambling with specific drug-use disorders in male twins

Environmental factors appear to play a greater role in the co-occurrence of problem gambling and smoking and cannabis use than the co-occurrence of problem gambling and stimulant use. Link to Abstract

Children's resistance to parents' smoking in the home and car: a qualitative study

Some children and young people in the United Kingdom, irrespective of socio-economic status, may actively oppose parents' smoking in the home and car, although their influence may be limited by their position in the family and social norms. Link to Abstract

Personal tobacco pack display before and after the introduction of plain packaging with larger pictorial health warnings in Australia: an observational study of outdoor cafe strips

Following Australia's 2012 policy of plain packaging and larger pictorial health warnings on cigarette and tobacco packs, smoking in outdoor areas of caf├ęs, restaurants, and bars declined, and fewer people made their packs clearly visible on tables. Link to Abstract

Initial reactions to tobacco and cannabis smoking: a twin study

Initial subjective reactions to tobacco are associated with later nicotine dependence and cannabis use/dependence while initial subjective reactions to cannabis are only associated with cannabis use/dependence. The associations are partly genetic, suggesting common biological underpinnings. Link to Abstract

Alcohol and tobacco use among maltreated and non-maltreated adolescents in a birth cohort

Children who are maltreated are more likely to smoke as young adolescents. Children who are neglected are more likely to drink and smoke as young adolescents. Link to Abstract

March 2014

Intimate partner violence victimization and alcohol consumption in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Among intimate partners, male-to-female violence is linked to drinking away from home and female-to-male violence is linked to drinking at home. Link to Abstract

Treatment of comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression with cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis

Combining cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing may be beneficial in treating people with alcohol problems and depression. Link to Abstract

Effects of the local alcohol environment on adolescents' drinking behaviors and beliefs

The local environment in terms of bar density and enforcement practices can influence amount of heavy drinking in adolescents. Link to Abstract

Adolescent predictors and environmental correlates of young adult alcohol use problems

More than two in five young Australian adults suffer from alcohol problems. Link to Abstract

Ethyl glucuronide in hair and fingernails as a long-term alcohol biomarker

Ethyl glucuronide, especially in fingernails, may be useful for assessing amount of alcohol use. Link to Abstract

The sales and marketing practices of English-language internet alcohol vendors

Current Internet alcohol vendor practices do not prevent sales to minors. Link to Abstract

Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial

Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with ADHD and substance dependence. Link to Abstract

'Not just Methadone Tracy': transformations in service-user identity following the introduction of hepatitis C treatment into Australian opiate substitution settings

Trial introduction of hepatitis C care and treatment in Australian opiate substitution therapy clinics may have encouraged alternative, 'non-addict' identities to rival the stigma of 'the drug user'. Link to Abstract

Striatum and insula dysfunction during reinforcement learning differentiates abstinent and relapsed methamphetamine-dependent individuals

People suffering from methamphetamine dependence appear to have dysfunctional brain reward pathways. Link to Abstract

Challenges of surveying wastewater drug loads of small populations and generalizable aspects on optimizing monitoring design

Obtaining annual estimates of population drug use by waste water analysis requires large numbers of samples (more than 50) to be taken with careful selection of sites. Link to Abstract

Reduced fetal growth in methadone-maintained pregnancies is not fully explained by smoking or socio-economic deprivation

Opiate use in pregnancy may retard fetal growth. Link to Abstract

Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications

Toxin concentrations in the vapour from major electronic cigarette brands on sale in the United Kingdom are very low. Link to Abstract

'Real-world' effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study

Smokers in England who try to quit are three times more likely to succeed if they see a trained advisor than if they try by themselves but there appears to be no benefit from using nicotine replacement products such as gum or patches when bought from a shop with no professional support. Link to Abstract

February 2014

Trend analysis and modelling of gender-specific age, period and birth cohort effects on alcohol abstention and consumption level for drinkers in Great Britain: General Lifestyle Survey 1984-2009

Rising alcohol consumption among women and progression of higher-consuming birth cohorts through the life course are key drivers of increased per capita alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom. Link to Abstract

Balance--a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of an online intensive self-help alcohol intervention

Balance (an automated online alcohol intervention), added to a brief online screening intervention, may aid reduction in alcohol consumption compared with the screening intervention plus an educational booklet. Link to Abstract

Family transitions and changes in drinking from adolescence through mid-life

From late adolescence to mid-life, women and men in Britain are most at risk for higher levels of alcohol consumption and problem drinking when they are not involved in family roles such as intimate cohabitation, marriage and parenthood. Link to Abstract

Altered cingulate and insular cortex activation during risk-taking in methamphetamine dependence: losses lose impact

Methamphetamine-dependent individuals show disrupted risk-related processing in the brain, which may lead to risk-taking despite experiencing negative consequences. Link to Abstract

Training family members to manage heroin overdose and administer naloxone: randomized trial of effects on knowledge and attitudes

Take-home naloxone training for family members of heroin users increases opioid overdose-related knowledge and competence. Link to Abstract

Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of the IASP study

Treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at a very high risk for additional externalizing disorders such as borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Link to Abstract

Do societal wealth, family affluence and gender account for trends in adolescent cannabis use? A 30 country cross-national study

Among 30 European and North American countries, developing countries and less affluent youth have assumed the former (heavier) cannabis use pattern of richer countries and more affluent youth. Link to Abstract

Towards a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use disorders

A modification of Kendler's risk factor model for major depression provides a foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders. Link to Abstract

Prevalence and associations of quetiapine fumarate misuse among an Australian national city sample of people who regularly inject drugs

Quetiapine misuse appears to be common in people who inject drugs in urban Australia. Link to Abstract

Legal substance use and the development of a DSM-IV cannabis use disorder during adolescence: the TRAILS study

Early-onset and continued tobacco use appear to predict the development of a cannabis use disorder in adolescence, whereas early onset and continued alcohol use do not. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of Extended Cessation Treatment for Older Smokers

It appears to be cost-effective to add extended cognitive behaviour therapy to standard smoking cessation treatment for older smokers. Link to Abstract

Genetic and environmental influences on the ages of drinking and gambling initiation: evidence for distinct aetiologies and sex differences

Among Australian twins, age at first drink and age at first gambling experience are influenced by distinct unique environmental factors, and the genetic and environmental underpinnings of both phenotypes differ in men and women. Link to Abstract

January 2014

Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

Legalizing Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages in some US states during the period 1990 to 2007 was associated with a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Retention of participants in medication-assisted programs in low- and middle-income countries: an international systematic review

Medication-assisted treatment programs for opiate use in low- and middle-income countries achieve an average 50% retention rate after 12 months, with little difference between those using buprenorphine or methadone. Link to Abstract

A systematic review of studies assessing the association between adherence to smoking cessation medication and treatment success

There is modest evidence that lack of adherence to nicotine replacement therapy regimens undermines treatment effectiveness in clinical studies. Link to Abstract

Acute alcohol-related dysfunction as a predictor of employment status in a longitudinal study of working-age men in Izhevsk, Russia

Alcohol-related dysfunction rather than total alcohol consumption appears to underlie the effects of non-beverage alcohol use on loss of employment in Russia. Link to Abstract

Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with all-cause and liver-related mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems

Hepatitis C virus infection is associated independently with all-cause and liver-related mortality in HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems, even when accounting for alcohol and other drug use. Link to Abstract

Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: Results from the ROAD study

Of all routinely used indirect markers for chronic alcohol consumption, percentage of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) is the major predictor of repeat drunk driving. Link to Abstract

Treatment retention among patients randomized to buprenorphine/naloxone compared to methadone in a multi-site trial

Treatment with methadone appears to be associated with better retention in treatment for opioid dependence than buprenorphine, as does higher doses of both medications. Treatment with buprenorphine is associated with lower continued use of illicit opioids. Link to Abstract

Causes of death in a cohort treated for opioid dependence between 1985 and 2005

In a cohort of opioid-dependent people in New South Wales from 1985 to 2005, almost 9 in 10 deaths were avoidable. Link to Abstract

Non-medical use of prescription opioids during the transition to adulthood: a multi-cohort national longitudinal study

Approximately one-third of a sample of 18-year-olds in the United States reporting non-medical use of prescription opioids appears to continue use beyond age 18 and have elevated odds of other substance use behaviors at ages 23/24. Link to Abstract

The relationship between cannabis outcome expectancies and cannabis refusal self-efficacy in a treatment population

A person's belief that he or she can abstain from cannabis use underlies at least part of the association between perceived consequences of cannabis use and actual cannabis use. Link to Abstract

A closer look at the evidence for sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on gambling in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health: from disordered to ordered gambling

Family environment appears to play a role in whether young adults in general start to gamble for both men and women. Link to Abstract

Pharmacotherapy effects on smoking cessation vary with nicotine metabolism gene (CYP2A6)

Nicotine replacement therapy may be more effective among individuals with faster CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. Link to Abstract

Impact of the 2009 Taiwan Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act on Smoking Cessation

The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in 2009 in Taiwan, which combined smoke-free legislation with a tobacco tax increase, graphic health warning labels and a total ban on tobacco advertisements, was associated with increases in quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate. Link to Abstract

Did hardening occur among smokers in England from 2000 to 2010?

The proportion of smokers in England with both low motivation to quit and high dependence appears to have increased between 2000 and 2010, suggesting that 'hardening' may be occurring in this smoker population. Link to Abstract

Tobacco Use Disorder and the Risk of Suicide Mortality

Tobacco use disorder is associated with a modest increased risk of suicide. Link to Abstract