Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor's Notes

CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT: CALL FOR PAPERS Lisbon Addictions 2015. The first European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies will be held in Lisbon on 23-25 September 2015. Organised by SICAD, the journal Addiction, the EMCDDA and ISAJE, it will provide a unique networking opportunity for researchers, practitioners and policy experts across countries and disciplines to discuss latest findings on the prevention, treatment and control of addiction. A call for abstracts has just been published on www.lisbonaddictions.eu . To stay updated on the latest developments subscribe to the conference newsletter http://eepurl.com/5fZaP

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A message from Robert West, Editor-in-Chief
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Key Findings 2015

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. The article titles are in bold and each key finding is below the article title.  Use the filters below to isolate key findings for each issue or search for a particular topic across all of this year's issues.

February 2015 – Current Issue

Familial factors associated with development of alcohol and mental health comorbidity

Maternal smoking and low mother-child warmth may lead to alcohol, mental health and comorbid disorders at age 21. Link to Abstract

Effects of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol problems: evaluating chained mediation through generalized anxiety, depression and drinking motives

Propensity to anxiety appears to lead to alcohol problems in part through drinking to deal with negative emotions. Link to Abstract

Tests of the effects of adolescent early alcohol exposures on adult outcomes

Early alcohol use and intoxication may be partly responsible for adult alcohol- and drug-related problems and antisocial behaviour. Link to Abstract

Relative risk of injury from acute alcohol consumption: modeling the dose-response relationship in emergency department data from 18 countries

Women have a higher risk of injury than men after more than three drinks. Link to Abstract

Interaction effects between the 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype and family conflict on adolescent alcohol use and misuse

Compared with non-carriers, adolescents carrying the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele are more susceptible to the effects of family conflict on alcohol misuse. Link to Abstract

Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 US states: impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density

In the United States, the density of alcohol outlets in a county is positively correlated with alcohol-related suicide, especially among American Indians/Alaska Natives. Link to Abstract

Alcohol in the second half of life: do usual quantity and frequency of drinking to intoxication increase with increased drinking frequency?

Among Norwegian adults in the second half of life, increased drinking frequency appears to be associated with a small reduction in usual quantity, and a small increase in frequency of drinking to intoxication. Link to Abstract

Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs

There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions Link to Abstract

Smoking cessation-related weight gain--beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength and bone health

Weight gain from smoking cessation is caused by an increase in muscle mass and bone density as well as an increase in fat. Link to Abstract

The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands

On current projections, smoking will continue to kill hundreds of thousands of people in Northern Europe each year for the foreseeable future. Link to Abstract

Use of stop-smoking medications in the United States before and after the introduction of varenicline

The introduction of varenicline in the United States coincided with a net increase in attempts to quit smoking and, among these, a net increase in use of stop-smoking medications. Link to Abstract

'Wide-awake drunkenness'? Investigating the association between alcohol intoxication and stimulant use in the night-time economy

Stimulants users are more likely to have prolonged sessions of heavy alcohol consumption and a range of risk-taking behaviours on a night out than those who do not use stimulants. Link to Abstract

January 2015

What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use?

The epidemiological literature in the past 20 years shows that cannabis use increases the risk of accidents and can produce dependence, and that there are consistent associations between regular cannabis use and poor psychosocial outcomes and mental health in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in the treatment of adolescents and young adults with depression and substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Antidepressant medication has a small overall effect in reducing depression in young patients with combined depressive and substance-use disorders, but does not appear to improve substance use outcomes. Link to Abstract

Patterns of change in implementation of state alcohol control policies in the United States, 1999-2011

Implementation of politically palatable but ineffective state alcohol policies increased during 1999-2011 in the United States, while the most effective policies remained underused. Link to Abstract

Alcohol expectancies in childhood: change with the onset of drinking and ability to predict adolescent drunkenness and binge drinking

Higher childhood alcohol expectations of positive effects predict earlier onset of problem drinking. Onset of alcohol use is followed by an increase in the rate of development of positive expectancies. Link to Abstract

HERMITAGE--a randomized controlled trial to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviors among HIV-infected Russian drinkers

The HERMITAGE HIV risk reduction intervention does not appear to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviours in Russian HIV-infected heavy drinkers compared with simply providing standard care and attention. Link to Abstract

Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men

Stimulating effects of alcohol are common in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but alcohol appears to be less rewarding. Link to Abstract

Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10 365 general population men

In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime. Link to Abstract

Ongoing impact of HIV infection on mortality among people who inject drugs despite free antiretroviral therapy

HIV infection continues to have a persistent association with mortality rates among people who inject drugs in settings with free HIV/AIDS care, although causes of death have shifted markedly from infectious and AIDS-related causes to non-AIDS-related causes. Link to Abstract

High-frequency drug purity and price series as tools for explaining drug trends and harms in Victoria, Australia

Decreases in methamphetamine purity-adjusted price along with the bimodality of crystal methamphetamine purity may account for some of the recent increase in methamphetamine-related harm in Victoria, Australia. For a given amount spent, methamphetamine purchase power has increased and the presence of extreme purity variations may challenge individuals' control of consumption. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of rapid HCV testing and simultaneous rapid HCV and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs

On-site rapid hepatitis C virus and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs is cost-effective at a <$100,000/ quality-adjusted life year threshold in the US. Link to Abstract

Telescoping and gender differences in the time course of disordered gambling: evidence from a general population sample

When assessed at the general population level, female gamblers do not appear to show a telescoped disordered gambling trajectory (showing a later age at initiation of gambling but a shorter time from initiation to disorder) compared with male gamblers. Link to Abstract

The Impact of the Tobacco Retail Outlet Environment on Adult Cessation and Differences by Neighborhood Poverty

In the USA, density of tobacco outlets within 500 meters of the home residence appears to be negatively associated with smoking abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes only in poor areas. Link to Abstract

The association between family affluence and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in 33 European countries, Israel and Canada: the role of national wealth

The difference in smoking prevalence between rich and poor people is greater in more affluent countries. Link to Abstract

Plain cigarette packs do not exert Pavlovian to instrumental transfer of control over tobacco-seeking

Plain packaging may reduce smoking rates in current smokers by reducing the extent to which the package acts as an unconscious trigger for smoking urges. Link to Abstract