Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
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Key Findings 2015

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. The article titles are in bold and each key finding is below the article title.  Use the filters below to isolate key findings for each issue or search for a particular topic across all of this year's issues.

December 2015 – Current Issue

Implementation strategies to enhance management of heavy alcohol consumption in primary health care: a meta-analysis

Implementation strategies for alcohol screening and brief interventions should combine patient-, professional- and organizational-orientated approaches and involve mid-level health professionals as well as physicians. Link to Abstract

The effect of alcohol outlets, sales and trading hours on alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments in Perth, Australia, from 2002 to 2010

Regions of Perth, Australia with greater off-premises alcohol sales and numbers of on-premises alcohol outlets, particularly those with extended trading hours, appear to have higher levels of alcohol-related injuries. Link to Abstract

Lay epidemiology and the interpretation of low-risk drinking guidelines by adults in the United Kingdom

Drinking guidelines based solely epidemiological paradigms lack relevance for UK drinkers, who control their alcohol intake according to their own knowledge and risk perceptions derived from experience. Link to Abstract

Shared additive genetic influences on DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence in subjects of European ancestry

Additive genetic effects on DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria overlap; there appear to be common genetic effects across alcohol dependence symptoms. Link to Abstract

Sex and age differences in the early identification and treatment of alcohol use: a population-based study of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

In the UK, prior to alcoholic cirrhosis diagnosis, men are more likely than women to use health-care services and have their alcohol use recorded but women are more likely to receive alcohol brief interventions. Link to Abstract

Potency trends of delta9 THC and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15

The average tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of the most popular herbal cannabis products in the Netherlands has decreased slightly since 2005. Link to Abstract

Cocaine-specific neuroplasticity in the ventral striatum network is linked to delay discounting and drug relapse

Cocaine dependence-related neuroadaptations in the brain may increase impulsivity and increase the rate of cocaine relapse. Link to Abstract

Natural outcome of cannabis use disorder: a 3-year longitudinal follow-up

A substantial level of remission from cannabis use disorders (CUDs), including non-abstinent remission, suggests that the nature of CUDs may be more unstable than reported previously. Link to Abstract

A cost-effectiveness analysis of opioid substitution therapy upon prison release in reducing mortality among people with a history of opioid dependence

Opioid substitution treatment given on release from prison to people with a history of opioid dependence is cost-effective in reducing mortality in the first 6 months of release. Link to Abstract

Variety of gambling activities from adolescence to age 30 and association with gambling problems: a 15-year longitudinal study of a general population sample

Engaging in several different types of gambling in early adulthood appears to be a risk factor for emergence of problem gambling. Link to Abstract

Damage to the insula leads to decreased nicotine withdrawal during abstinence

Smokers who have a stroke in the insular cortex are more likely to quit smoking and experience fewer and less severe withdrawal symptoms than those with strokes in other parts of the brain. Link to Abstract

Self-help educational booklets for the prevention of smoking relapse following smoking cessation treatment: a randomized controlled trial

In people who stopped smoking with behavioural support, a comprehensive self-help educational programme on handling high-risk situations for return to smoking did not reduce relapse. Link to Abstract

Effect of warning statements in e-cigarette advertisements: an experiment with young adults in the United States

Both ingredient-themed and industry-themed warnings on e-cigarette television ads reduce craving and purchase intent similarly similarly but have inconsistent effects on perceived risks. Link to Abstract

Under pressure: Adolescent substance users show exaggerated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli

Adolescents with alcohol and marijuana substance use disorders may be hypersensitive to aversive internally generated stimuli (in the form of restricted breathing), which may lead to drug-seeking behaviour. Link to Abstract

November 2015

How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

The alcohol industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self-regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity. Link to Abstract

Alcohol Attributable Fraction for Injury Morbidity from the Dose-Response Relationship of Acute Alcohol Consumption: Emergency Department Data from 18 Countries

Alcohol-attributable injuries presenting in emergency departments are higher 1) for males than females, 2) for violence-related injuries compared with other types of injury, and 3) for countries with more detrimental drinking patterns compared with those with less detrimental patterns. Link to Abstract

Internet-based brief intervention for young men with unhealthy alcohol use: a randomized controlled trial in a general population sample

An internet-based brief intervention directed at harmful alcohol use among young men led to a reduction in self-reported alcohol consumption and AUDIT scores compared with a control condition involving assessment only. Link to Abstract

Liberal alcohol legislation: does it amplify the effects among Swiss men of person-related risk factors on heavy alcohol use?

Stronger alcohol legislation protects against heavy alcohol use in young Swiss men, but this protective effect is lost in individuals with high levels of sensation-seeking or having an antisocial personality disorder. Link to Abstract

Impacts of New Zealand's lowered minimum purchase age on context-specific drinking and related risks

The 1999 change in New Zealand's minimum purchase age for alcohol from 20 to 18 years appears to have been associated with increased drinking and associated drinking problems among 16 to 19-year-olds. Link to Abstract

Are overdoses treated by ambulance services an opportunity for additional interventions? A prospective cohort study

Mortality risk among people who inject drugs is significantly greater in time-periods after an overdose attendance than outside these time-periods. Link to Abstract

Project QUIT (Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial): A randomized controlled trial of a primary care based multi component brief intervention to reduce risky drug use

A primary-care based, clinician-delivered brief intervention with follow-up coaching calls may decrease risky psychoactive drug use. Link to Abstract

Cannabis use among Swedish men in adolescence and the risk of adverse life course outcomes: results from a 20 year-follow-up study

Heavy cannabis use among Swedish men in late adolescence appears to be associated with unemployment and being in need of social welfare assistance in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Drug use in Australian nightlife settings: estimation of prevalence and validity of self-report

Self-report findings suggest drug use in Australian nightlife is common, although still very much a minority activity. Drug swabs indicate a higher prevalence of use (20%) than self-report (9%). Link to Abstract

Early second-hand smoke exposure and child and adolescent mental health: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort

Prenatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure (e.g. from smoking by the pregnant smoker's partner) appears to be a risk factor for behavioural problems at age 11. Link to Abstract

Changes in the rate of nicotine metabolism across pregnancy: a longitudinal study

Nicotine metabolism appears to be faster during pregnancy; this faster metabolism is apparent from 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy and appears to fall by 4 weeks after childbirth. Link to Abstract

E-cigarettes and expectancies: why do some users keep smoking?

E-cigarette users with positive expectancies of e-cigs have a greater likelihood of having quit smoking but lower likelihood of intention to quit e-cigs. Link to Abstract

Personality and smoking: individual-participant meta-analysis of nine cohort studies

Adult smokers have higher extraversion, higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness personality scores than non-smokers. Link to Abstract

The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption. The Inter99 Study--a randomized controlled trial

A population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention in Denmark had sustained beneficial effects on smoking abstinence and binge drinking 5 years after its discontinuation. Link to Abstract

October 2015

Red flags on pinkwashed drinks: Contradictions and dangers in marketing alcohol to prevent cancer

Some alcohol corporations use pink ribbons and other breast cancer-related media to help promote a product that contributes to cancer disease and early death. Link to Abstract

An experimental investigation of reactivity to ecological momentary assessment frequency among adults trying to quit smoking

In smokers trying to quit, more frequent ecological momentary assessment self-monitoring (real-time reports in subjects' natural environments) results in lower craving, anxiety, anger, hunger and positive affect. Link to Abstract

Reliability of a retrospective decade-based life-course alcohol consumption questionnaire administered in later life

A retrospective decade-based Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) grid administered in older age provides a relatively reliable measure of alcohol consumption across the life course. Link to Abstract

The effects of liquor licensing restriction on alcohol-related violence in NSW, 2008-13

Legislative reforms introduced in New South Wales, Australia between 2008 and 2012 to restrict trading hours and conditions of licensed alcohol premises may have reduced police-recorded incidences of actual bodily harm and grievous bodily harm by 31.27% and 39.70% respectively. Link to Abstract

The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions delivered by community pharmacists: randomized controlled trial

A brief intervention delivered by community pharmacists in London, UK appears to have had no effect in reducing hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Adolescents from affluent city districts drink more alcohol than others

Adolescents in affluent parts of Oslo reported higher levels of alcohol use and more frequent alcohol intoxication than did those in more disadvantaged areas. Link to Abstract

Changes in daily substance use among people experiencing homelessness and mental illness: 24-month outcomes following randomization to Housing First or usual care

Housing First, an intervention to support recovery for homeless people who have co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, did not reduce daily substance use compared with treatment as usual after 12 or 24 months. Link to Abstract

Impact of opioid substitution therapy for Scotland's prisoners on drug-related deaths soon after prisoner release

Prison-based opioid substitution therapy is unlikely to reduce the very high drug-related death risk in the first 2 weeks after prison release. Link to Abstract

Can cannabis use be prevented by targeting personality risk in schools? Twenty-four-month outcome of the adventure trial on cannabis use: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Trained school staff can deliver personality-targeted interventions to delay marijuana use onset aong a subset of high-risk teenagers called sensation-seekers. Link to Abstract

Licit and illicit substance use among people who inject drugs and the association with subsequent suicidal attempt

Among people who inject drugs, use of alcohol, sedative-hypnotics and cannabis, but not cocaine, amphetamine or opioids, appears to be associated with an increased likelihood of later attempted suicide. Link to Abstract

Naloxone--does over-antagonism matter? Evidence of iatrogenic harm after emergency treatment of heroin/opioid overdose

Opiate users in urban Scotland repeatedly report harm caused by naloxone over-antagonism, although this is not evident in observational data. Link to Abstract

Are predictors of making a quit attempt the same as predictors of 3-month abstinence from smoking? Findings from a sample of smokers recruited for a study of computer-tailored smoking cessation advice

While high motivation and determination to quit are necessary to prompt an attempt to quit smoking, demographic factors (marital status, reading level, level of social deprivation) and level of nicotine dependence are more important for maintaining abstinence. Link to Abstract

Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up

Progressively reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may not lead smokers to quit Link to Abstract

Intervention study for smoking cessation in Spanish college students: pragmatic randomized controlled trial

A multi-component intervention tailored to college students and managed by a nurse is effective in helping college students quit smoking. Link to Abstract

September 2015

Healthcare interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

Brief advice from a healthcare worker, telephone helplines, automated text messaging, printed self-help materials, cytisine and nortriptyline are globally affordable healthcare interventions to promote and assist smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Specialty substance use disorder services following brief alcohol intervention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

There is no clear evidence currently that brief alcohol interventions increase uptake of treatment for alcohol use disorder. Link to Abstract

Increased behavioral economic demand and craving for alcohol following a laboratory alcohol challenge

When they are intoxicated with alcohol people say that they would pay more for a drink and consume more drinks if they were free. Link to Abstract

Ecological evidence that affect and perceptions of drink effects depend on alcohol expectancies

Frequent drinkers' expectations that drinking will enhance sociability or reduce tension influence their perceptions of pleasure and relief from drinking. Link to Abstract

Changes in mortality due to major alcohol-related diseases in four Nordic countries, France and Germany between 1980 and 2009: a comparative age-period-cohort analysis

Trends in alcohol-attributable mortality in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Norway and Sweden clearly differed between 1980 and 2009. It appears that country-specific events simultaneously affected all age groups and cohorts in the respective countries. Link to Abstract

Design and baseline findings of a large-scale rapid response to an HIV outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme

In Athens, Greece, the ARISTOTLE intervention for identifying HIV-positive people among people who inject drugs (PWID) facilitated rapid identification of a hidden population experiencing an outbreak. Link to Abstract

Arrhythmia associated with buprenorphine and methadone reported to the Food and Drug Administration

In spontaneously reported adverse events, methadone is associated with disproportionately high reporting of cardiac arrhythmias, whereas buprenorphine is not. Link to Abstract

Changes in health outcomes as a function of abstinence and reduction in illicit psychoactive drug use: a prospective study in primary care

Among primary care patients in the US who use illicit psychoactive drugs, abstinence but not reduction in use appears to be associated with decreased adverse drug use consequences. Link to Abstract

Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England

In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by approximately 80% since 1998. The proportion of children living in a home reported to be smoke-free increased from 63% in 1998 to 87.3% in 2012. Link to Abstract

Distress, race/ethnicity, and smoking cessation in treatment-seekers: implications for disparity elimination

Among smokers in Florida, USA, racial/ethnic differences in distress before starting cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation were eliminated at the end of treatment, driven by improvements among African American and Hispanic people. Tackling distress through CBT may be important in eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health & Morbidity Survey

People who don't respond to health surveys in Denmark have an increased risk of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with respondents. Link to Abstract

Screening for substance misuse in the dental care setting: findings from a nationally representative survey of dentists

While more than three-quarters of US dentists report that they ask their patients about substance misuse, two-thirds do not think it is part of their professional role. Link to Abstract

Social Networks and Substance Use among At-Risk Emerging Adults Living in Disadvantaged Urban Areas in the Southern United States: A Cross-Sectional Naturalistic Study

Social networks appear to be important in both promoting and preventing substance use in disadvantaged young adults in the USA. Link to Abstract

August 2015

Are the Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges likely to improve public health?: An evidence synthesis

England's Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges do not reflect the most effective evidence-based strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. Link to Abstract

Potential bias due to outcome-related loss to follow-up in cohort studies on incidence of drug injection: systematic review and meta-analysis

In cohort studies on drug injection initiation, study participants with higher risk of starting injection drop out at a higher rate than other participants, which can produce a false impression of decline in the incidence of drug injection in studies that use long follow-up periods. Link to Abstract

Pain as a predictor of heavy drinking and any drinking lapses in the COMBINE study and the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial

Among people treated for alcohol use disorder, being in physical pain appears to predict heavy drinking lapses during or after treatment. Link to Abstract

Transition probabilities for four states of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood: what factors matter when?

There is a high degree of stability over time in the drinking patterns of German adolescents and young adults with those who are abstinent at one time being very likely to be abstinent years later, and those with risky drinking patterns maintaining those patterns over time. Link to Abstract

Cocaine-related stimuli impair inhibitory control in cocaine users following short stimulus onset asynchronies

Cocaine-related stimuli appear to decrease inhibitory control in cocaine users at short (100 and 200 ms) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: the amount of time between the start of one stimulus and the start of another stimulus), but not at longer (300, 400 and 500 ms) SOAs. Link to Abstract

Estimating the number of people with hepatitis C virus who have ever injected drugs and have yet to be diagnosed: an evidence synthesis approach for Scotland

The number of undiagnosed hepatitis C virus-infected cases in Scotland appears to be particularly high among those who are over 35 and have injected drugs more than 1 year ago. Link to Abstract

Predictors of participant engagement and naloxone utilization in a community-based naloxone distribution program

Community naloxone distribution programs are capable of reaching sizeable populations of high-risk individuals and facilitating large numbers of overdose reversals. Link to Abstract

The association between speed of transition from initiation to subsequent use of cannabis and later problematic cannabis use, abuse and dependence

Rapid transition (within one week) from first to second use of cannabis is associated with increased likelihood of subsequent daily cannabis use and abuse/dependence. Link to Abstract

Fatal opioid poisoning: a counterfactual model to estimate the preventive effect of treatment for opioid use disorder in England

It is estimated that treatment services for opioid use prevent about 880 fatalities from overdose per year in England. Link to Abstract

Dose-response relationship between methadone dose and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive persons who use illicit opioids

HIV-positive people in methadone maintenance therapy who receive higher doses of methadone are more likely to stick with their antiretroviral therapy than those receiving lower doses. Link to Abstract

Towards a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling

A modification of Kendler's model for major depression provides a foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling. Link to Abstract

E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditions

E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditions that e-cigarette users typically detect and avoid. Link to Abstract

July 2015

A comparison of the efficacy of brief interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption between European and non-European countries

Brief interventions appear to be effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption by hazardous and harmful drinkers at 6 and 12 month follow-up in both primary health care and emergency department trials. Link to Abstract

Educational inequalities in hospitalisation attributable to alcohol: a population-based longitudinal study of changes over the period 2000 to 2007

Lower educational level is markedly associated with increased risk of alcohol-related hospitalisation among men and women in Finland. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: Results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

The alcohol prevention programme Preventure appears to have little or no effect on overall prevalence of binge drinking in adolescents in the Netherlands but may reduce the development of binge drinking over time. Link to Abstract

Parental transmission of risk for cannabis use disorders to offspring

Parental histories of antisocial personality and illicit substance use disorders are associated with increased risk for cannabis use disorder onset in offspring. Link to Abstract

The impact of paying treatment providers for outcomes: Difference-indifferences analysis of the 'payment by results for drugs recovery' pilot

In the first year of the pilot "Payment by Results for Drugs Recovery" scheme in England, linking payments to outcomes reduced the probability of completing drug misuse treatment and increased the proportion service users declining to continue with treatment. Link to Abstract

Economic crisis and changes in drug use in the Spanish economically active population

During a period of economic recession in Spain, heavy drinking decreased and binge drinking increased. Sporadic cannabis use increased among older unemployed men and women. Heavy use of hypnotics/sedatives increased among employed men while older women increased use irrespective of employment status. Link to Abstract

4-Fluoroamphetamine in the Netherlands: more than a one-night stand

The stimulant 4-fluoroamphetamine is increasingly popular in the Netherlands, which might be due to its subjective effects profile, which lies between amphetamine and MDMA. Link to Abstract

The health consequences of injecting tablet preparations: foreign body pulmonary embolization and pulmonary hypertension among deceased injecting drug users

Cases of foreign body pulmonary embolization (resulting from injecting crushed tablets meant for oral use, such as benzodiazepines and pharmaceutical opioids) in Sydney, Australia increased markedly from 1997 to 2013. Link to Abstract

Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland

In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. Link to Abstract

Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up

Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among US young adults: survival analysis using annual national cohorts from 1976 to 2005

Among high school seniors in the United States, taking up occasional and experimental smoking increased from 1976 to 2005. Smoking uptake remained most likely to occur at age 19/20, but prevalence of uptake at older ages increased. Link to Abstract

Abstinence and relapse amongst smokers who use varenicline in a quit attempt - a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials

Varenicline does a better job than placebo at getting smokers to quit after they have failed to stop smoking on their target quit date. Relapse rates from end of treatment to 52 weeks are similar in varenicline and placebo treated smokers. Link to Abstract

A randomized controlled trial of treatments for co-occurring substance use disorders and PTSD

Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy may improve drug-related outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sufferers with substance use disorder more than drug focused counseling but probably not by reducing PTSD symptoms to a greater extent. Link to Abstract

June 2015

Global Statistics on Addiction Behaviours: 2014 Status Report

A major new global report on addictive behaviour shows that the harm to society from legal drugs far outweighs the harm from illicit drugs: 240 million people have an alcohol use disorder and more than 1 billion people smoke tobacco. Link to Abstract

The efficacy of acamprosate and naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence, Europe versus the rest of the world: a meta-analysis

Both acamprosate and naltrexone appear to reduce the risk of alcohol-dependent individuals returning to drinking. Link to Abstract

The harmful dysfunction model of alcohol use disorder: revised criteria to improve the validity of diagnosis and prevalence estimates

Diagnostic validity improves when using 'harmful dysfunction' diagnostic criteria compared with standard DSM criteria, partly by reducing misdiagnosis of teenage transient drinkers. Link to Abstract

Heterogeneous dose-response and college student drinking: examining problem risks related to low drinking levels

Among US college students, all drinkers exhibit greater risks for physiological problems related to alcohol use (hangover, nausea, memory loss, etc.) when drinking greater amounts of alcohol, but heavier drinkers exhibit fewer problems for each additional drink consumed than light and moderate drinkers. Link to Abstract

The impact of extended closing times of alcohol outlets on alcohol-related injuries in the nightlife areas of Amsterdam: a controlled before-and-after evaluation

A 1-hour extension of alcohol outlet closing times in some of Amsterdam's nightlife areas was associated with 34% more alcohol-related injuries. Link to Abstract

Is there a link between per capita alcohol consumption and youth drinking? A time-series analysis for Sweden in 1972-2012

Adult and youth drinking in Sweden were synchronized closely during the two last decades of the 20th century, but youth drinking developed an independent trajectory shortly before 2000. Link to Abstract

Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention among injecting drug users: who should we cure first?

When more than half of all exchanged syringes in a population of injecting drug users (IDU) are contaminated by hepatitis C virus, it is most efficient to treat low-risk IDU first. Below this threshold, it is most efficient to treat high-risk IDU first. Link to Abstract

Long-term mortality, remission, criminality and psychiatric comorbidity of heroin dependence: 11-year findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

In an 11-year follow-up of patients undergoing treatment for heroin dependence in Australia, 10.2% had died and almost half were still in treatment. The proportion still using heroin had fallen to a quarter, with major depression being a significant predictor of continued use. Link to Abstract

Mortality among individuals accessing pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence in California, 2006-10

In people with opiate dependence, detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment both independently reduce the immediate risk of death. Link to Abstract

Opioid treatment at release from jail using extended-release naltrexone: a pilot proof-of-concept randomized effectiveness trial

Extended-release naltrexone is associated with significantly lower rates of opioid relapse among men in the United States following release from jail when compared with a no medication treatment-as-usual condition. Link to Abstract

Examining the association between substance use disorder treatment and smoking cessation

Being recently in receipt of substance use disorder treatment is associated with reduced chances of stopping smoking. Link to Abstract

An exploratory short-term double-blind randomized trial of varenicline versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation in women

Varenicline appears to be better at helping women stop smoking than does nicotine patch. Link to Abstract

Craving and Substance Use among Patients with Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis or Heroin Addiction: A Comparison of Substance-specific and Person-specific Cues

Person-specific cues for substance abuse (e.g. places associated with use) appear to be powerful triggers for craving and relapse and to persist for longer than more general cues relating to taking drugs. Link to Abstract

May 2015

Effects of Experimental Negative Affect Manipulations on Ad Lib Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

A review of experimental studies confirms that feeling bad increases intensity of smoking. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of alcohol use disorders in mainland China: a systematic review

Current and lifetime prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence in China measure 2.2% and 3.7%, respectively, approaching those of the Netherlands, USA, and other Western countries. Link to Abstract

Personality, negative affect coping, and drinking alone: a structural equation modeling approach to examine correlates of adolescent solitary drinking

Ability to resist drinking when feeling bad could be what is driving the link between poorer mental health, impulsiveness and tendency to drink alone in adolescents. Link to Abstract

Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

Adolescents who show worsening inattention symptoms as they grow older and delinquency tend to have increased levels of substance use in early adulthood. Link to Abstract

Hepatitis C seroconversion in methadone maintenance treatment programs in Wuhan, China

Methadone maintenance treatment patients in Wuhan, China show a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus at admission (72.1%) and a high rate of seroconversion during treatment (46.3%). Seroconversion is associated with continuing injection drug use. Link to Abstract

US federal cocaine essential ('precursor') chemical regulation impacts on US cocaine availability: an intervention time-series analysis with temporal replication

In the United States, controls of chemicals critical to cocaine manufacture from 1989 to 2006 seemed to be highly effective in reducing cocaine availability. Link to Abstract

Prolonged hypogonadism in males following withdrawal from anabolic-androgenic steroids: an under-recognized problem

Male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid misusers tend to experience prolonged low testosterone levels when they stop using the drugs leading to substantial effects on sexual functioning. Link to Abstract

Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing for reducing injection risk behaviours among persons who inject drugs

A brief motivational interviewing intervention was more effective than a brief educational intervention in reducing some high risk drug injecting behaviours in the 6 months following the intervention. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a statewide representative sample

Using the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD), symptoms related to "giving up other activities," "tolerance" and "withdrawal" seem to be most relevant for diagnosing IGD in German students aged 13-18 years. Link to Abstract

Efficacy of a smoking prevention programme in Catalan secondary schools: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Spain

A school-based educational intervention for secondary school students in Catalonia, Spain was not found to lead to a noticeable reduction of smoking, confirming yet again the limitations of this kind of approach. Link to Abstract

The comparative efficacy of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal

Second-generation e-cigarettes (those involving refillable cartridges and looking less like cigarettes) seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first-generation e-cigarettes. Link to Abstract

Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers

Among vapor store customers in the US who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer generation devices, and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavoured e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation. Link to Abstract

April 2015

Alcohol consumption in adolescent homicide victims in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a substantial proportion of adolescent homicides in Johannesburg, South Africa, especially among male and older adolescent victims and in victims killed with sharp instruments over the weekends and during the evenings. Link to Abstract

Factors associated with over-serving at drinking establishments

In urban settings in Norway, over-serving of alcohol in drinking establishments appears to occur frequently and increases in the presence of poor lighting, loud music and high intoxication level among patrons. Link to Abstract

Drinking experience uncovers genetic influences on alcohol expectancies across adolescence

In young people, environmental factors explain beliefs about the social and behavioural consequences of alcohol use before they experience drinking for the first time whereas genetic factors explain an increasing proportion of the variance in these beliefs after drinking onset. Link to Abstract

The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening--an event-level analysis

Among young adults in Switzerland, individual alcohol consumption appears to increase with the number of friends in the drinking group. Link to Abstract

A longitudinal study of the association of adolescent polydrug use, alcohol use and high school non-completion

Unsurprisingly, Australian adolescents who use multiple psychoactive drugs or who mainly use alcohol us are less likely to complete school than adolescents who do not use drugs. Link to Abstract

Benzodiazepine use among mothers of small children: a register-based cohort study

In Finland, benzodiazepine use among mothers is reduced during pregnancy and the child's first year, and then increases as the child grows older. Mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric disorders are at particularly high risk of benzodiazepine use. Link to Abstract

A longitudinal comparison of retention in buprenorphine and methadone treatment for opioid dependence in New South Wales, Australia

Although retention rates for buprenorphine treatment have improved in New South Wales, Australia, individuals starting methadone treatment still show higher retention rates. Link to Abstract

Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study

In England, both cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence are associated strongly with subsequent adverse educational outcomes, including low standardised test scores and leaving school with no qualifications. Link to Abstract

First- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes: predictors of choice and effects on urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms

First- and second-generation electronic cigarettes appear to be similarly effective in reducing urges to smoke during abstinence, but second-generation devices appear to be more satisfying to users. Link to Abstract

Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: a single-arm intervention study assessing cessation and gaming

In the UK, pregnant smokers enrolled in an incentive scheme to quit smoking appeared to achieve prolonged cessation rates comparable to those reported in US trials. Link to Abstract

Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students

Adolescents in the UK who notice tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognise a higher number of tobacco brands appear to have an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking. (People who are susceptible to smoking intend to try smoking and are likely to smoke if offered a cigarette.) Link to Abstract

Adolescents' exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos

Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. Link to Abstract

March 2015

DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among young Swiss men

Previous studies suggest the new DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) will increase the apparent prevalence of AUD. However, in a high-risk sample of young Swiss males, prevalence of AUD as diagnosed by DSM-5 was slightly lower than prevalence of DSM-IV diagnosis of dependence plus abuse. Link to Abstract

The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

When examining the association between alcohol taxes and binge drinking, use of more specific tax measures, incorporating both volume-based taxes and value-based taxes, shows stronger associations than generic measures. Link to Abstract

Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality within siblings

The association between educational status and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality is only driven by familial factors to a small degree. Link to Abstract

Genomic influences on alcohol problems in a population-based sample of young adults

Genetic influences on alcohol problems involve genes underpinning both nervous system functioning and physiological functions outside the nervous system. Link to Abstract

Driving under the influence as a turning point? A register-based study on financial and social consequences among first-time male offenders

Among men in Finland, the first drunk-driving conviction constitutes a significant life event that appears to increase the likelihood of financial problems and divorce. Link to Abstract

Drug use, health and social outcomes of hard-to-treat heroin addicts receiving supervised injectable opiate treatment: secondary outcomes from the Randomized Injectable Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT)

In a randomised controlled trial, supervised injectable heroin treatment and supervised injectable methadone treatment showed no benefit over optimized oral methadone in terms of wider drug use, crime, and physical and mental health within a 6-month period, despite achieving a greater reduction in street heroin use. Link to Abstract

Subtyping based on readiness and confidence: the identification of help-seeking profiles for gamblers accessing web-based counselling

Problem gamblers in Australia who seek web-based counselling comprise four distinct subgroups based on self-reported levels of readiness to change, confidence to resist the urge to gamble, and importance of change. Link to Abstract

Smoking and mortality in a prospective cohort study of elderly Chinese in Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the risk of death from smoking appears to be the same for Chinese women as it is for men. Half of all deaths in Chinese smokers aged 65 years and older and a quarter of all deaths in Chinese smokers aged 85 years and older are caused by smoking-attributable diseases. Link to Abstract

Associations between use of pharmacological aids in a smoking cessation attempt and subsequent quitting activity: a population study

Smokers who have tried to quit in the past year are more likely to try to quit again within 6 months regardless of whether they used a pharmacological aid, and they are more likely to re-try aids they had used previously. Link to Abstract

Gender differences in the relationship between affect and adolescent smoking uptake

Low positive affect (low experience of positive feelings or emotions) for females, and high negative affect (high experience of negative feelings or emotions) for both males and females increases the risk of adolescents taking up smoking. Link to Abstract

Examining the role of common genetic variants on alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and illicit drug dependence

At least 20% of the variance in the generalized vulnerability to substance dependence is attributable to common genetic variations. Link to Abstract

February 2015

Familial factors associated with development of alcohol and mental health comorbidity

Maternal smoking and low mother-child warmth may lead to alcohol, mental health and comorbid disorders at age 21. Link to Abstract

Effects of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol problems: evaluating chained mediation through generalized anxiety, depression and drinking motives

Propensity to anxiety appears to lead to alcohol problems in part through drinking to deal with negative emotions. Link to Abstract

Tests of the effects of adolescent early alcohol exposures on adult outcomes

Early alcohol use and intoxication may be partly responsible for adult alcohol- and drug-related problems and antisocial behaviour. Link to Abstract

Relative risk of injury from acute alcohol consumption: modeling the dose-response relationship in emergency department data from 18 countries

Women have a higher risk of injury than men after more than three drinks. Link to Abstract

Interaction effects between the 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype and family conflict on adolescent alcohol use and misuse

Compared with non-carriers, adolescents carrying the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele are more susceptible to the effects of family conflict on alcohol misuse. Link to Abstract

Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 US states: impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density

In the United States, the density of alcohol outlets in a county is positively correlated with alcohol-related suicide, especially among American Indians/Alaska Natives. Link to Abstract

Alcohol in the second half of life: do usual quantity and frequency of drinking to intoxication increase with increased drinking frequency?

Among Norwegian adults in the second half of life, increased drinking frequency appears to be associated with a small reduction in usual quantity, and a small increase in frequency of drinking to intoxication. Link to Abstract

Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs

There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions Link to Abstract

Smoking cessation-related weight gain--beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength and bone health

Weight gain from smoking cessation is caused by an increase in muscle mass and bone density as well as an increase in fat. Link to Abstract

The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands

On current projections, smoking will continue to kill hundreds of thousands of people in Northern Europe each year for the foreseeable future. Link to Abstract

Use of stop-smoking medications in the United States before and after the introduction of varenicline

The introduction of varenicline in the United States coincided with a net increase in attempts to quit smoking and, among these, a net increase in use of stop-smoking medications. Link to Abstract

'Wide-awake drunkenness'? Investigating the association between alcohol intoxication and stimulant use in the night-time economy

Stimulants users are more likely to have prolonged sessions of heavy alcohol consumption and a range of risk-taking behaviours on a night out than those who do not use stimulants. Link to Abstract

January 2015

What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use?

The epidemiological literature in the past 20 years shows that cannabis use increases the risk of accidents and can produce dependence, and that there are consistent associations between regular cannabis use and poor psychosocial outcomes and mental health in adulthood. Link to Abstract

Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in the treatment of adolescents and young adults with depression and substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Antidepressant medication has a small overall effect in reducing depression in young patients with combined depressive and substance-use disorders, but does not appear to improve substance use outcomes. Link to Abstract

Patterns of change in implementation of state alcohol control policies in the United States, 1999-2011

Implementation of politically palatable but ineffective state alcohol policies increased during 1999-2011 in the United States, while the most effective policies remained underused. Link to Abstract

Alcohol expectancies in childhood: change with the onset of drinking and ability to predict adolescent drunkenness and binge drinking

Higher childhood alcohol expectations of positive effects predict earlier onset of problem drinking. Onset of alcohol use is followed by an increase in the rate of development of positive expectancies. Link to Abstract

HERMITAGE--a randomized controlled trial to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviors among HIV-infected Russian drinkers

The HERMITAGE HIV risk reduction intervention does not appear to reduce sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk behaviours in Russian HIV-infected heavy drinkers compared with simply providing standard care and attention. Link to Abstract

Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men

Stimulating effects of alcohol are common in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but alcohol appears to be less rewarding. Link to Abstract

Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10 365 general population men

In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime. Link to Abstract

Ongoing impact of HIV infection on mortality among people who inject drugs despite free antiretroviral therapy

HIV infection continues to have a persistent association with mortality rates among people who inject drugs in settings with free HIV/AIDS care, although causes of death have shifted markedly from infectious and AIDS-related causes to non-AIDS-related causes. Link to Abstract

High-frequency drug purity and price series as tools for explaining drug trends and harms in Victoria, Australia

Decreases in methamphetamine purity-adjusted price along with the bimodality of crystal methamphetamine purity may account for some of the recent increase in methamphetamine-related harm in Victoria, Australia. For a given amount spent, methamphetamine purchase power has increased and the presence of extreme purity variations may challenge individuals' control of consumption. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of rapid HCV testing and simultaneous rapid HCV and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs

On-site rapid hepatitis C virus and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs is cost-effective at a <$100,000/ quality-adjusted life year threshold in the US. Link to Abstract

Telescoping and gender differences in the time course of disordered gambling: evidence from a general population sample

When assessed at the general population level, female gamblers do not appear to show a telescoped disordered gambling trajectory (showing a later age at initiation of gambling but a shorter time from initiation to disorder) compared with male gamblers. Link to Abstract

The Impact of the Tobacco Retail Outlet Environment on Adult Cessation and Differences by Neighborhood Poverty

In the USA, density of tobacco outlets within 500 meters of the home residence appears to be negatively associated with smoking abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes only in poor areas. Link to Abstract

The association between family affluence and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in 33 European countries, Israel and Canada: the role of national wealth

The difference in smoking prevalence between rich and poor people is greater in more affluent countries. Link to Abstract

Plain cigarette packs do not exert Pavlovian to instrumental transfer of control over tobacco-seeking

Plain packaging may reduce smoking rates in current smokers by reducing the extent to which the package acts as an unconscious trigger for smoking urges. Link to Abstract