Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor's Notes

In addition to requiring authors to register their clinical trials in a publicly accessible database, Addiction now requires authors to report and justify any discrepancies between the trial protocol and the study itself in the methods section of the submitted paper. A full list of registers can be found via the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP).

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Key Findings 2016

This is a quick summary of the main discovery for each research paper we have published, organized issue by issue. The article titles are in bold and each key finding is below the article title.  Use the filters below to isolate key findings for each issue or search for a particular topic across all of this year's issues.

June 2016 – Current Issue

In the weeds: a baseline view of cannabis use among legalizing states and their neighbours

In the United States, 86% of people who report ever using cannabis for medicinal purposes also use it recreationally. People who use cannabis do not commonly use it with alcohol, irrespective of recreational or medical use. Link to Abstract

Re-starting smoking in the postpartum period after receiving a smoking cessation intervention: a systematic review

Nearly half of women who stop smoking during pregnancy go back to smoking soon after the baby is born. Link to Abstract

Impacts of drinking-age legislation on alcohol-impaired driving crimes among young people in Canada, 2009-13

Release from drinking-age restrictions appears to be associated with increases in alcohol-impaired driving offences among young drivers in Canada. Link to Abstract

Association between a brief alcohol craving measure and drinking in the following week

Craving for alcohol is associated strongly with alcohol use in the following week. Link to Abstract

Therapist and client discussions of drinking and coping: a sequential analysis of therapy dialogues in three evidence-based alcohol use disorder treatments

In motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and 12-Step facilitation therapy for alcohol use disorders, the therapists who explore and connect with clients appear to be more successful at eliciting discussion about change than therapists who engage in teaching behaviour. Link to Abstract

Long-term effects of changes in Swedish alcohol policy: can alcohol policies effective during adolescence impact consumption during adulthood?

Men and women in Sweden who grew up during a period with more restrictive alcohol policies currently drink less alcohol than those who grew up during periods with more liberal policies. Link to Abstract

A micro-temporal geospatial analysis of medical marijuana dispensaries and crime in Long Beach, California

Using law enforcement to reduce the number of medical marijuana dispensaries in California appears to have reduced crime in residential areas near to, but not in, these locations. Link to Abstract

Role of overlapping genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between early adolescent conduct problems and substance use in young adulthood

Conduct disorder symptoms in early adolescence appear moderately to predict substance use in early adulthood. Link to Abstract

Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage

Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility and feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances. Link to Abstract

Associations between smoking and caffeine consumption in two European cohorts

There appears to be a positive association between smoking and caffeine consumption in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Link to Abstract

Protocol proposal for, and evaluation of, consistency in nicotine delivery from the liquid to the aerosol of electronic cigarettes atomizers: regulatory implications

E-cigarettes that use tank-type atomizers appear to deliver nicotine in more consistent quantities than electronic cigarettes that use cartomizers. The protocol for testing e-cigarette nicotine delivery consistency described in this paper could be used effectively for regulatory purposes. Link to Abstract

E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives

Themes that emerge in UK vapers' views about e-cigarettes are a need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping, and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence. Link to Abstract

Polysomnographic measures of sleep in cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence: Implications for age-related loss of slow wave, stage 3 sleep

Cocaine and alcohol dependence appear to be associated with marked disturbances of sleep architecture. Link to Abstract

Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

Iterative categorization (IC) is a simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and able to support a range of common analytical approaches. Link to Abstract

Reverse engineering a 'responsible drinking' campaign to assess strategic intent

The "How to Drink Properly" ad by Drinkwise in Australia may reinforce existing drinking attitudes and behaviours among young drinkers. Link to Abstract

May 2016

Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of alcohol screening with brief interventions for patients in emergency care settings

Brief interventions in emergency care settings appear to have very small effects on alcohol consumption. More intensive interventions show no clear benefit over briefer ones. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of motivational interviewing to reduce illicit drug use in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Motivational interviewing has not been found thus far to reduce adolescent use of illicit drugs. Link to Abstract

Validity of the alcohol purchase task: a meta-analysis

The Alcohol Purchase Task appears to have good construct validity but limited incremental utility in estimating risk for alcohol problems. Link to Abstract

A microsimulation cost-utility analysis of alcohol screening and brief intervention to reduce heavy alcohol consumption in Canada

In Canada, screening and brief intervention via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) to reduce heavy alcohol consumption appears to be cost-effective at AUDIT thresholds of 8 and lower and AUDIT-C thresholds of 7 and lower. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness of motivational intervention with significant others for patients with alcohol misuse

It appears to be cost-effective to incorporate a patient's partner into a patient's motivational intervention for alcohol misuse. Link to Abstract

Assessing elements of a family approach to reduce adolescent drinking frequency: parent-adolescent relationship, knowledge management and keeping secrets

Adolescent alcohol use appears to increase as parental control decreases and child secrecy increases. Link to Abstract

Trajectories of drinking urges and the initiation of abstinence during cognitive-behavioral alcohol treatment

Drinking urges during out-patient behavioral treatment for alcohol use disorders may be maintained in part by alcohol consumption. Initiating abstinence is associated with reductions in drinking urges immediately and then more gradually over time. Link to Abstract

Malmo Treatment Referral and Intervention Study (MATRIS)--effective referral from syringe exchange to treatment for heroin dependence: a pilot randomized controlled trial

A pilot randomized controlled trial in a syringe exchange programme did not indicate effectiveness of a strength-based case management intervention to improve attendance for treatment over referral alone. Link to Abstract

Medical treatments for opioid use disorder in Iran: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of buprenorphine/naloxone and naltrexone maintenance treatment

Among patients with opioid use disorder in Iran, sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone led to a greater number of opioid-negative urine tests and better treatment retention than oral naltrexone, but did not yield significantly greater initial abstinence duration or proportions with sustained abstinence. Link to Abstract

Effectiveness of Scotland's National Naloxone Programme for reducing opioid-related deaths: a before (2006-10) versus after (2011-13) comparison

Scotland's National Naloxone Programme has been associated with a 36% reduction in opioid-related deaths in the 4 weeks following prison release. Link to Abstract

Association between Trajectories of Buprenorphine Treatment and Emergency Department and In-patient Utilization

Patients who persistently use buprenorphine for 12 months have a lower risk of all-cause hospitalizations/emergency department visits. Link to Abstract

Financial incentives to promote extended smoking abstinence in opioid-maintained patients: a randomized trial

Among opioid-maintained smokers receiving an initial period of daily contingent incentives, contingent reinforcement appears to be more effective at extending smoking abstinence than noncontingent reinforcement over 10 weeks. Link to Abstract

Childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and 3-year persistence of adult alcohol and nicotine dependence in a national sample

The association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol and nicotine dependence may be mediated in part by development of personality disorders. Link to Abstract

When psychopathology matters most: identifying sensitive periods when within-person changes in conduct, affective and anxiety problems are associated with male adolescent substance use

Among adolescent boys, increased conduct disorder problems appear to increase the likelihood of later substance use, and increased alcohol use appears to increase the likelihood of later anxiety problems. Developmental turning points appear to be particularly sensitive periods for developing these patterns. Link to Abstract

April 2016

Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban) and varenicline (Chantix, Champix) appear to be effective and tolerable stop-smoking aids for adults with serious mental illnesses. Link to Abstract

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a potential measure in substance use treatment-outcome studies

Because respiratory sinus arrhythmia appears to measure self-regulatory capacity, it may be a useful measure of underlying mechanisms in substance use disorder treatment studies. Link to Abstract

Temporal changes in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity in Australia

In Australia between 2001 and 2010, alcohol-attributable death and illness increased without a corresponding increase in per capita alcohol consumption. Link to Abstract

Relation between age of first drinking and mental health and alcohol and drug disorders in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year cohort study

The associations between age of first drinking and later alcohol/drug disorders appear to be partly accounted for by factors related to characteristics of the individual and family during childhood. Link to Abstract

Population trends in smoking, alcohol use and primary prevention variables among adolescents in Iceland, 1997-2014

Substance use among adolescents in Iceland has declined steadily from 1997 to 2014, while primary prevention factors for substance use (e.g., parental monitoring, participation in organized sports) have increased in strength. Link to Abstract

The burden of disease attributable to cannabis use in Canada in 2012

The cannabis-attributable burden of disease in Canada in 2012 included 55,813 years of life lost due to disability, caused mainly by cannabis use disorders. Link to Abstract

Qualitative evaluation of a novel contingency management-related intervention for patients receiving supervised injectable opioid treatment

A 'qualitative realist' evaluation of an intervention for complex substance use disorders suggests that the programmes need to: have stakeholder input implement consistent eligibility criteria, rules and processes; and be introduced into stable treatment settings where relationships are trusting and patients and staff feel secure. Link to Abstract

Measuring benefits of opioid misuse treatment for economic evaluation: health-related quality of life of opioid-dependent individuals and their spouses as assessed by a sample of the US population

US public opinion holds that injection opioid misuse reduces quality of life more than prescription drug misuse, and methadone therapy reduces quality of life more than buprenorphine therapy. Link to Abstract

Advancing patient-centered care for structurally vulnerable drug-using populations: a qualitative study of the perspectives of people who use drugs ...

Hospital-based harm reduction interventions for people who use drugs can potentially improve hospital care retention, promote patient-centered care and reduce adverse health outcomes among people who use drugs. Link to Abstract

Long-term outcomes after randomization to buprenorphine/naloxone versus methadone in a multi-site trial

There are few differences in long-term outcomes between buprenorphine and methadone treatment for opioid dependence. Treatment with each medication is associated with a strong reduction in illicit opioid use. Link to Abstract

Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan

Approximately half of 8240 respondents in a Japanese internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products and 6.6% had tried them. Of that 6.6%, more than 70% used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, which are unregulated in Japan, and 33% used nicotine e-cigarettes, which are prohibited. Link to Abstract

Integrating smoking cessation into routine care in hospitals--a randomized controlled trial

A pharmacist-led multi-component stop-smoking intervention during hospital stay did not improve abstinence rates at 6 or 12 months compared with routine hospital care. Link to Abstract

Characteristics of users and usage of different types of electronic cigarettes: findings from an online survey

In an online survey of e-cigarette users, newer-generation e-cigarettes were perceived as more satisfactory and more effective for refraining from smoking than older models. Link to Abstract

The effect of potential electronic nicotine delivery system regulations on nicotine product selection

Higher taxes, a proposed US FDA warning label for e-cigarettes, and a more severe warning label may discourage adult smokers from switching from cigarettes to e-cigarettes. Link to Abstract

March 2016

Peer-led interventions to prevent tobacco, alcohol and/or drug use among young people aged 11-21 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Peer interventions may help prevent tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents, but the evidence base is limited. Link to Abstract

The prevalence of compulsive buying: A meta-analysis

Evidence to date suggests that in countries where it has been studied around 1 in 20 adults may suffer from compulsive buying. Link to Abstract

Enforcement uniquely predicts reductions in alcohol-impaired crash fatalities

As enforcement of drunk driving laws increases, alcohol-impaired crash fatalities decrease. Link to Abstract

The contribution of education, social class and economic activity to the income-mortality association in alcohol-related and other mortality in Finland in 1988-2012

The income disparity in mortality among working-age Finns originates increasingly from alcohol-related causes of death. Link to Abstract

Increasing compliance with alcohol service laws in a developing country: intervention trial in the Kingdom of Bhutan

A programme to improve compliance with legal restrictions on serving alcohol in Bhutan had a modest effect, reducing illegal purchases from 80% to 66%. Link to Abstract

Potential cost-effectiveness of supervised injection facilities in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada

It is likely to be cost-effective to establish at least three supervised injection facilities in Toronto, Canada and two in Ottawa, Canada. Link to Abstract

Being the victim of violence during a date predicts next-day cannabis use among female college students

Among female college students in the United States, being the victim of violence during a date appears to increase the risk for cannabis use the following day. Link to Abstract

Clinical risk factors for death after release from prison in Washington State: a nested case-control study

Injection drug use and substance use disorders are important risk factors for death following release from prison. Link to Abstract

Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users

Self-reported addiction to video gaming and internet use correlates better with problems associated with these activities than reports of heavy use of these products over time. Link to Abstract

Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs

Higher tobacco outlet density may increase life-time smoking among youths. Link to Abstract

Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes

E-cigarettes can deliver levels of nicotine that are comparable to or higher than typical tobacco cigarettes, with similar systemic retention, suggesting addictive potential. Link to Abstract

Predictors of 10-year smoking abstinence in smokers abstinent for 1 year after treatment

Having a psychological disorder at the time of stopping smoking is a risk factor for relapse to smoking, even after more than 1 year of abstinence. Link to Abstract

February 2016

Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin: a 40-year history of Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service

The history of Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service in 1973, reflects changing perceptions of appropriate addiction treatment and appropriate funding relationships between statutory authorities and service providers. Link to Abstract

Does parental drinking influence children's drinking? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies

More parental drinking is associated with more drinking in offspring, but a causal connection has not yet been established. Link to Abstract

An international systematic review of smoking prevalence in addiction treatment

Smoking prevalence is higher among people enrolled in addiction treatment compared with the general population. Within that group, smoking rates are higher in people being treated for opiate dependence compared with people being treated for alcohol use disorder. Link to Abstract

Validation of an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

The computer self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test appears to be a valid way to identify substance use in primary care patients. Link to Abstract

Drinking and mortality: long-term follow-up of drinking-discordant twin pairs

Twin data from Finland show that monthly alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced blackouts are important factors leading to increased deaths in heavy drinkers. Link to Abstract

The importance of age groups in estimates of alcohol-attributable mortality: impact on trends in Switzerland between 1997 and 2011

Trends in alcohol-attributable mortality differ according to the upper age limit used for the estimates. Link to Abstract

Does promoting parents' negative attitudes to underage drinking reduce adolescents' drinking? The mediating process and moderators of the effects of the Örebro Prevention Programme

Increasing parents' restrictive attitudes to youth drinking appears to reduce heavy underage drinking regardless of gender, immigrant status, parents' and peers' alcohol use and parent-youth relationship quality. Link to Abstract

Declining and rebounding unhealthy alcohol consumption during the first year of HIV care in rural Uganda, using phosphatidylethanol to augment self-report

Unhealthy alcohol use among Ugandan adults entering HIV care declines prior to the start of anti-retroviral therapy but rebounds with time. The alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol increases detection of unhealthy alcohol use. Link to Abstract

Prevalence of and motives for pharmacological neuroenhancement in Switzerland--results from a national internet panel

Taking prescription or recreational drugs for pharmacological neuroenhancement is rare among Swiss employees and students (4.0%), with mood enhancement (3.1%) more prevalent than cognitive enhancement (1.4%). Link to Abstract

Impact of treatment for opioid dependence on fatal drug-related poisoning: a national cohort study in England

Patients who receive only psychological support for opioid dependence in England appear to be at greater risk of fatal opioid poisoning than those who receive pharmacotherapy. Link to Abstract

Treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs attending opioid substitution treatment and community health clinics: the ETHOS Study

People with a history of injecting drug use and chronic hepatitis C virus attending opioid substitution treatment and community health clinics adhere to, and respond to, interferon-based therapy similarly to other populations. Link to Abstract

The relationship between player losses and gambling-related harm: evidence from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in four countries

Contrary to previous reports, increased gambling losses appear to increase gambling-related harms according to a linear or r-shaped function, not a j-shaped function. Link to Abstract

Enhancing Quit & Win contests to improve cessation among college smokers: a randomized clinical trial

Multiple Quit & Win contests appear to increase smoking abstinence rates in college students more than single contests. Link to Abstract

Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinical smoking cessation interventions in Thailand

In middle-income countries such as Thailand, nortriptyline and varenicline appear to provide cost-effective clinical options to help smokers quit. Link to Abstract

Behavioral associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence among US young adults

A new waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence scale created by adapting traditional tobacco dependence measures appears to be a valid tool for measuring dependence. Link to Abstract

Are financial incentives cost-effective to support smoking cessation during pregnancy?

Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy are highly cost-effective. Link to Abstract

January 2016

How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest; it primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives. Link to Abstract

The drug situation in Europe: an overview of data available on illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances from European monitoring in 2015

Opioid drugs continue to burden the European drug treatment system, although both new heroin entrants and injecting show declines. The European early warning system now monitors more than 450 new psychoactive substances. Link to Abstract

Health information on alcoholic beverage containers: has the alcohol industry's pledge in England to improve labelling been met?

The UK Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol labelling pledge has not been fully met. Labelling information frequently falls short of best practice, with font and logos smaller than would be accepted on other products with adverse health effects. Link to Abstract

Relating off-premises alcohol outlet density to intentional and unintentional injuries

Greater off-premises outlet density is related to greater incidence of traumatic injury. Chain outlets appear to be most strongly associated with traumatic injury rates. Link to Abstract

The association between alcohol outlet density and alcohol use among urban and regional Australian adolescents

Higher densities of alcohol outlets in an adolescent's immediate neighbourhood are related to increased likelihood of alcohol consumption. The density of licensed clubs is associated more strongly with drinking for urban than for regional adolescents. Link to Abstract

Risk of mortality on and off methadone substitution treatment in primary care: a national cohort study

Among primary care patients undergoing methadone treatment, risk of all-cause mortality increases following treatment cessation, and is highest in the initial 4-week period. Link to Abstract

Understanding Americans' views on opioid pain reliever abuse

Americans view the problem of opioid pain reliever abuse as serious, and support nearly all policies recommended by experts to curb the epidemic. Link to Abstract

Innovative community-based educational face-to-face intervention to reduce HIV, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne infectious risks in difficult-to-reach people who inject drugs: ANRS-AERLI study

An inexpensive and easily implemented educational intervention on risks associated with drug injection reduces significantly unsafe HIV-HCV transmission practices and injection-related complications. Link to Abstract

Enhancing the effectiveness of smoking treatment research: conceptual bases and progress

A new, synthesized research approach identifies promising components for every phase of smoking treatment. Many intervention components interact with one another. Link to Abstract

Comparative effectiveness of motivation phase intervention components for use with smokers unwilling to quit: a factorial screening experiment

Motivation-phase nicotine gum and behavioral reduction counseling are promising intervention components for smokers who are initially unwilling to quit. Link to Abstract

Identifying effective intervention components for smoking cessation: a factorial screening experiment

Preparation counseling and the combination of intensive cessation in-person counseling with preparation nicotine gum or patch are promising intervention components for smoking. Link to Abstract

Comparative effectiveness of intervention components for producing long-term abstinence from smoking: a factorial screening experiment

Twenty-six weeks of nicotine patch/gum (versus 8 weeks) and maintenance counseling provided by phone are promising intervention components for the cessation and maintenance phases of smoking treatment. Link to Abstract

Predictors of comorbid polysubstance use and mental health disorders in young adults--a latent class analysis

Mental health disorders are more likely in young adults with polysubstance use disorders than those with alcohol/cannabis use disorders. Link to Abstract