Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor's Notes

CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT: CALL FOR PAPERS Lisbon Addictions 2015. The first European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies will be held in Lisbon on 23-25 September 2015. Organised by SICAD, the journal Addiction, the EMCDDA and ISAJE, it will provide a unique networking opportunity for researchers, practitioners and policy experts across countries and disciplines to discuss latest findings on the prevention, treatment and control of addiction. A call for abstracts has just been published on www.lisbonaddictions.eu . To stay updated on the latest developments subscribe to the conference newsletter http://eepurl.com/5fZaP

robert west
A message from Robert West, Editor-in-Chief

Ethical Policy

Editorial Independence

The Society for the Study of Addiction respects and supports the independence of the journal’s editors and exerts no authority over them.

Farmington Consensus

ADDICTION is a founding signatory of the Farmington Consensus. The Consensus is a series of ethical publishing guidelines for addiction journals, which 26 journals have adopted to date. The Consensus was developed in 1997 at the inaugural meeting of the group now known as the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE).

International Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE) Draft Ethical Guidelines

Building on the Farmington Consensus, the ISAJE Ethical Working Group has developed detailed guidelines on ethical issues. The resulting document can be found in draft form here. It endeavours to provide guidance to authors, editors and other individuals on ethical and procedural matters that affect the integrity of scientific publishing in the addiction field. We urge readers, writers, reviewers and the entire editorial network of ADDICTION to study the guidelines, to criticise them, to improve them and to use them effectively.

Ethics Editorials

  • “No switching off the camera. How Addiction will respond to infringements of ethical publishing expectation” (Addiction 96, 1391–1392) This editorial explains the journal’s policy on real or apparent breaches of ethical publishing norms by authors.
  • Babor: “Ethics Matter: to authors, editors and those we serve” (Addiction 98, 1–2). Babor’s editorial offers an introduction to the ISAJE guidelines and discusses some background issues.

Editors’ Declarations of Interest

ADDICTION has asked its senior editors to provide brief statements on any interests which might be seen as having a potential bearing on the independence of their editorial judgements. We have done so in the belief that such transparency is owed to our authors and readers, and is fair reciprocity for the requirement on declaration of interests which we put on authors, referees and book reviewers. Senior staff are expected to distance themselves from any editorial decision-making where potential conflict of interest might be deemed to exist. Similar statements from the journal’s assistant editors are held in the editorial office.

Robert West

Robert West has received travel funds and hospitality from, and undertaken research and consultancy for pharmaceutical companies that manufacture or research products aimed at helping smokers to stop. These products include nicotine replacement therapies and Zyban (bupropion). This has led to payments to him personally and to his institution. He undertakes lectures and training in smoking cessation methods which have led to payments to him personally and to his institution. He has received research grants from medical charities and government departments.

Arpana Agrawal

Arpana Agrawal has received financial support from NIDA, NCI, NIAAA, and ABMRF/Foundation for Alcohol Research. She has no financial conflicts of interest to declare.

Steve Allsop

Steve Allsop has no institutional or other associations which he believes contribute to a conflict of interest. He is currently in a University post with funding from the Australian Commonwealth Government; he has served as a senior public servant in Western Australia; he is currently a member of the Board of the WA Alcohol and Drug Authority and a member of the Commission for Occupational Safety and Health, WA. He has received fees and travel expenses from pharmaceutical companies, government and university bodies for facilitation of professional and community meetings. He has received payment and travel expenses for teaching at clinical training events, organised by professional bodies, supported by funds provided by pharmaceutical companies.

Paul Aveyard

Paul Aveyard receives a personal income from work for the UK National Health Service (NHS) and the Universities of Birmingham and Oxford. He has received research funds from the NHS, and various research charities. In addition to this, he has received nicotine replacement products from Novartis and nortriptyline from King Pharmaceuticals for distribution to trial participants. Paul has received personal income for advice to Xenova, a biotechnology company investigating a nicotine vaccine and fees for refereeing for the British Medical Journal.

Thomas F. Babor

Thomas Babor has over the past five years conducted research projects whose funding sources have derived from federal, state or non-profit organizations, and from JBS International, Inc., a sub-contractor to the federal Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. He has received travel expenses and subsistence from the Society for the Study of Addiction, World Health Organization, US National Institutes of Health (NIAAA), and other professional organizations. Dr. Babor receives salary support not covered by grants from a PHS Endowed Chair in Community Medicine and Public Health. PHS (Physicians Health Service) is a for-profit Health Maintenance Organization that donated funding for five endowed chairs to the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. He has received no direct or indirect support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

Virginia Berridge

Virginia Berridge is a HEFCE funded staff member of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. She holds or has held grants from the Wellcome Trust, the Economic and Social Research Council, the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the Alcohol Education and Research Council, the Medical Research Council and NICE, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. These are charities or government funded bodies. She has no other sources of research funding and no conflicts of interest.

Ron Borland

Ron Borland is employed by the charitable organisation Cancer Council Victoria which has a charter to conduct science-driven cancer control. He receives ongoing research support from his employer and less frequently from other organisations through the Cancer Council Australia.

Jonathan Bricker

Jonathan Bricker's research is funded by the US National Institutes of Health. He has no conflicts of interest to declare.

Arthur Brody

Arthur Brody receives research funding from the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development, and the University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program.   In the past (more than 3 years ago), he has twice been a co-investigator on research grants funded by the pharmaceutical industry.  His salary support is from the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, and he has received salary support in the past from the University of California at Los Angeles.

Raul Caetano

For the past 25 years Raul Caetano’s research has been primarily funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIAAA) and also by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. He has received consultant fees and travel support from state offices, professional organizations, universities and other academic institutes in the U.S. He has also been a paid consultant to non-profit agencies working as subcontractors to the U.S. government. Raul Caetano also receives salary support from the University of Texas.

Tim Coleman

Tim Coleman has received payment for occasional consultancy work on behalf of pharmaceutical companies that produce smoking cessation medications (i.e. treating addiction), but he has not done any such work in the last 3 years.

Shane Darke

Shane Darke is employed solely by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, a Research Centre of the University of New South Wales. The Centre, and his position, are funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Shane does no outside consultancy work, has never received funding from alcohol, pharmaceutical or tobacco companies, and holds no stock in any such companies. He is unaware of any potential conflicts of interest in his work on the editorial team of Addiction.

Jack Darkes

Over the last 20 years Jack Darkes has received financial support from a variety of research grants funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) and the U.S. Department of Education. He has been compensated as a scientific reviewer by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) and as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Justice (The United States Sentencing Commission). He has been compensated for writing book chapters and publishing articles in popular magazines and internet websites. As far as he is aware, he has no affiliations, memberships, or financial associations that constitute conflicts of interest with his editorial responsibilities for Addiction.

Frances Del Boca

For the past five years, Frances Del Boca has received financial support from research grants funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). She also receives book and chapter royalties, as well as reviewing stipends, from publishing companies. To the best of her knowledge, she has no professional affiliations, society memberships, or personal stock that create conflicts of interest with her editorial responsibilities for Addiction.

Gabriele Fischer

Gabriele Fischer has been the Director of the Addiction Clinic of the Medical University Vienna since 1994. Over the past years she has been involved in many national and international activities in the addiction field. She has received travel funds and undertaken research and consultancy for pharmaceutical companies (Roche, Lannacher, Aesca, Shering Plough, Mundipharma, Nepp, Astra Zenica, Wyeth), for example in the field of Opioid maintenance therapy, and Hep C treatment in opioid maintained patients. Her clinic is specialized in the treatment of opioid dependent pregnant women. Currently, Gabriele Fischer is principal investigator of an ongoing NIDA funded multicenter clinic trial on the comparison of buprenorphine and methadone maintencane therapy in opioid dependent pregnant women (RO1 DA018417). She has been involved in several EU-grants as PI. In addition she acts as a consultant for WHO, UNO and the European parliament as well as training partner for the UNODC project “International Network of Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Center”. Gabriele Fischer has been the Chair of the CPDD International Committee since 2005.

Gerhard Gmel

Over the past five years, Gerhard Gmel has received grants from various governmental and quasi-governmental sources, the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Swiss Foundation for Alcohol Research, and the World Health Organization. He is currently employed at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems, a NGO that receives donations from the Swiss general population. He has received fees from his institute, WHO, and the Swiss government for attending international meetings. He has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

Wayne Hall (editorial advisor)

In the past five years Wayne Hall has not received fees or funding of any kind from alcohol, pharmaceutical or tobacco companies. His research funding has been from the following public funding sources: the Australia Research Council, the Australian Alcohol Education and Research Fund, the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, and the National Prescribing Service (a government-funded service that advises prescribers on evidence fro clinical prescribing).

Matthew Hickman

Matt Hickman holds a full time post at the Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol. Matt has never received any funding from alcohol, pharmaceutical or tobacco companies and is unaware of any potential conflict of interest with his role on the editorial team of Addiction.

David Hodgins

David Hodgins has over the past five years conducted research funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Alberta Gaming Research Institute, the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre, Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation, and the New Zealand Ministry of Health. He has received personal fees and travel expenses for workshops, lectures, and consultation from various universities, health care and government organizations, and the US National Institutes of Health. He receives full salary support from the University of Calgary, with funding provided by the Alberta Gaming Research Institute, which is funded by the Alberta Provincial Government and Search Canada, funded by Alberta Health Services. He has no institutional affiliations or society memberships that he believes could be construed as creating a conflict of interest as a member of the editorial staff of Addiction.

Keith Humphreys

Keith Humphreys receives salary support as a civil servant in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and as a Professor at Stanford University, a private non-profit educational institution.  He has received grants from government sources and from non-profit foundations, but has never received grants, honoraria or consulting fees from manufacturers of medications for addicted patients, the tobacco industry or the alcohol industry.  He has accepted travel costs and speaking fees from professional societies and reviewing fees from academic publishers. He has no institutional affiliations or society memberships which he believes could reasonably be construed as potentially constituting conflict of interest. He is open to further enquiry from any reader of the journal who might wish to question him.

Martin Y. Iguchi

Martin Y. Iguchi has conducted research over the past 20+ years with funding from a variety of US Government sources (National Institutes of Health (NIDA, NIMH); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (CSAT; CSAP; CMHS); Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (NIDA); Health Resources and Services Administration; New Jersey State Department of Health; City of Newark, New Jersey), and non-profit organizations (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Ford Foundation; Russell-Sage Foundation; Foundation of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey). He has also been a paid consultant to non-profit agencies working as subcontractors to the US government. Over the past five years, he received personal fees, travel expenses and subsistence from numerous US local, state, and federal government agencies, non-profit organizations, universities and other academic organizations. Dr Iguchi receives salary support not covered by grants from his tenured faculty position at the University of California Los Angeles, School of Public Health. He received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol, and tobacco companies and holds fewer than 50 shares of Apple Computer stock.

Lynn Kozlowski

Lynn Kozlowski’s statement refers to the past five years. He has conducted research projects whose funding derived from the Pennsylvania State University, federal agencies (NCI and the CDC) as well as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He has received personal fees and travel expenses from US National Institutes of Health (NCI), the University of Minnesota, the University of Kentucky and Pinney Associates (which consults with the pharmaceutical industry) for advisory consultations and lectures. He has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock. He has testified in court cases against the cigarette industry.

Harry Lando

Harry Lando has received travel funds and has consulted with pharmaceutical companies that manufacture products intended to help smokers to quit. These products include nicotine replacement, Zyban (bupropion), and Chantix (Varenicline). As of May 2006 he no longer accepts compensation or consulting from the pharmaceutical industry. His research is primarily funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Additional funding sources have included the Department of Defense, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and ClearWay Minnesota (established as a result of the state of Minnesota settlement with the tobacco industry). He currently chairs the Global Network Committee of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco and is a past president of that organization.

John Macleod

John Macleod has no conflicts of interest to declare. He is employed by Bristol University as Professor in Clinical Epidemiology and Primary Care.

Pia Mäkelä

Pia Mäkelä receives a personal income from a national research institute, which also finances most of her research. She has also received project funding from the NIAAA, a national science foundation, and governmental funding sources. She has received a grant for data collection from the Finnish Institute for Alcohol Research, which itself received funds from the Finnish alcohol monopoly ALKO. She has received travel expenses and subsistence from the above mentioned funding sources and from the WHO. She has received fees for journalism and for presentations from the alcohol monopoly ALKO, and from various governmental and third sector agencies.

John Marsden

Research grants: Over the past five years, John Marsden held research grants from the Medical Research Council (feasibilitystudy of pharmacotherapy for cocaine use disorder), English Department of Health (evaluation of English prison drug treatment), the European Commission (review of the research outputs in the addictions), the European MonitoringCentre on Drugs and Drug Addiction (survey of synthetic cathinone use), National Treatment Agency on Substance Misuse (trial of social network therapy in opioid substitution treatment, OST), and Reckitt Benkiser Pharmaceuticals (RBP, pharmacogentic study of OST). John is also the lead investigator for two new clinical studies in England which will begin in 2012: the Naltrexone Enhanced Addiction Treatment trial (NEAT; funded by the National Institutes of Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme), and the Addiction Recovery Clinic (ARC; an adaptive maintenance therapy study for opioid use disorder funded through an untied educational grant from RBP to the UK charity Action on Addiction). Income: John has a paid position as Senior Academic Advisor for the English National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse. He has received fees relating to legal reports, presenting scientific productions on UK television and radio, preparing for an RBP meeting on newpharmacotherapy developments in the EU, and planning and contributing to a scientific meeting on opioid substitution treatment in Indonesia (the ROADMAPS conference organized by Real Science Communications). Reimbursement of costs to attend scientific meetings: Dr Marsden has also received reimbursement for travel and subsistence costs to attend scientific and other professional meetings from the Society for the Study of Addiction, and the Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide.

Barbara McCrady

Barbara McCrady has over the past five years conducted research and program evaluation projects funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIAAA and NIDA), the State of New Jersey, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. She has received contractual funds and royalties for the publication of books, monographs, and chapters. She also has received funds from book publishers for advice on future publishing projects. She has received personal fees and travel expenses for workshops, lectures, and consultation from various universities, health care organizations, the American Society of Addiction Medicine, and the National Institutes of Health. She currently receives an honorarium as a member of the Board of Directors of the Pacific Institute on Research and Evaluation, and formerly as a member of the Research Advisory Board of the Hazelden Foundation. She serves without remuneration as a member of the International Advisory Board of SMART Recovery. She receives full salary support from Rutgers University, the state university of New Jersey. She has no institutional affiliations or society memberships that she believes could be construed as creating a conflict of interest with her responsibilities as a member of the editorial staff of Addiction.

Andy McEwen

Andy McEwen receives a personal income from Cancer Research UK via University College London. He has received travel funding, honorariums and consultancy payments from manufacturers of smoking cessation products (Pfizer Ltd, Novartis and GSK Consumer Healthcare Ltd). He also receives payment for providing training to smoking cessation specialists and receives royalties from books on smoking cessation.

Ann McNeill

Ann McNeill is employed by the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London and her research has been funded by government and charitable sources. She is a trustee of the Society for the Study of Addiction and the community interest company Tobacco Free Futures. She is unaware of any potential conflict of interest with her role on the Addiction editorial team.

Peter Miller

Peter Miller has no affiliations which he believes constitute a conflict of interest. In the past five years he has been funded by charitable foundations, government departments and a pharmaceutical company via an intermediary charity. Travel expenses have been paid by charities, the Society for the Study of Addiction and university sources. He holds no stocks in any related companies.

Michael John Morgan

From 1991–2005 he has held University posts funded by the UK government and has received personal grants from UK Research Councils. He is the convenor of the MSc in Substance Misuse at the University of Sussex and external examiner for the MSc in Drug Use and Addiction at Liverpool John Moores University. He has received no fees from industry sources.

Marcus Munafo

Marcus Munafò receives personal income from the University of Bristol. He has received research funding from the National Health Service and various research councils and charities, which have included the Alcohol Education and Research Council and the European Research Advisory Board. In addition, he has received nicotine replacement products from GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer for distribution to study participants. He has received consulting fees from the European Commission, the National Audit Office, the American Institutes for Research and G-Nostics Ltd, and honoraria for invited lectures from GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis and Sepracor. He currently is listed as a co-inventor on a patent for the use of carbon-dioxide enriched air in the treatment of addiction.

Joanne Neale

Joanne Neale is employed by Oxford Brookes University. Over the last thirteen years, she has directed or worked on studies funded by Government Departments, Research Councils and Charitable Trusts. She has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

Maxine Stitzer

Maxine Stitzer has over the past five years conducted research projects whose funding sources have derived solely from federal agencies (NIDA, NCI). She has received personal fees and travel expenses from US National Institutes of Health (NIDA), Veterans Administration, University of Wisconsin, and Cincinnati University for grant review, advisory consultation and lectures. She has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical, alcohol and tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

Tim Stockwell

Tim Stockwell has never received personal fees or research funding of any kind from alcohol or tobacco companies. In the early 1980s while at the Addiction Research Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London his research was briefly funded by a pharmaceutical company but he has received no funds from that source since. Over eight years ago he received travel expenses from the alcohol industry funded International Center on Alcohol Policy to attend meetings with a view to persuading them to introduce standard drink labeling and to share data on advertising expenditures. He has since decided not to attend such meetings. His research funding in the past five years has been from the following funding sources: the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, the US National Institutes of Health, the BC Ministry of Health, Health Canada, WHO and the Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia endowment fund. He has received stipends for editing journals, legal consulting, reviews for research funding bodies and consulting for agencies such as the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, WHO and the Swedish Institute for Public Health. He does not believe any of his society memberships, funding sources, investments or consultancies create any conflicts of interest in the conduct of his research, publishing or editing activities.

Jodie Trafton

Dr. Trafton is an employee of the United States federal government, paid to conduct evaluation of the addiction treatment programs of the Veterans Health Administration.  

Michael Ussher

Michael Ussher has no affiliations which he believes constitute a conflict of interest. Michael is employed by St George’s, University of London. His research has been funded by charitable foundat, ions and by the government. He has been paid for consultan, cy b, , y , the UK Ministry of defence. He has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical or tobacco companies.

Robert Voas

Bob Voas Is a member of the staff of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, a non-profit corporation based in Calverton, Maryland. Funding for his research has come from NIAAA grants and from contracts with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). He has received no support from private comp, anies and has no other income related to his research activities. During the period from 1982 to 1995 he served two terms on the National Board of Directors of Mothers Against Drunk Driving. He served on the staff of NHTSA from 1969 to 1982. Over the last 40 years he has received travel expenses for presentations at technical meetings from universities and professional societies and from the NIAAA for grant reviews.

Kenneth Ward

Kenneth Ward is employed by the School of Public Health, University of Memphis. His work has been funded by several U.S. NIH Institutes including Fogarty International Center, NHLBI, NIAMS, and NIDA, as well as American Legacy Foundation, American Heart Association, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and The Urban Child Institute. He has received no support from industry sources such as pharmaceutical or tobacco companies and holds no personal stock.

Reinout Wiers

Reinout Wiers holds a full time post in the Department of Psychology, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Over the past years he received grants from many governmental and quasi-governmental sources, including the Dutch national science foundation (NWO), Dutch Medical Research (ZON-MW). He has never received any funding from alcohol, pharmaceutical or tobacco companies and is unaware of any potential conflict of interest with his role on the editorial team of Addiction.